Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, Nigeira

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IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM)
e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 17, Issue 12 .Ver. II (Dec. 2015), PP 81-88
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DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 81 | Page
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions
In Lagos State, Nigeira
1
Onwuka, Ebele (Ph.d), 2
Ehirheme, Pauline Egberanmwen,
3
Oyewole, Solomon Oyelami
1
Department of Business Administration Faculty of Management Sciences Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka,
Anambra State-Nigeria
2
Department of Office Technology and Management (OTM) School of Management and Business Studies
Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos State-Nigeria
3
Department of Business Education School of Vocational and Technical Education Emmanuel Alayande College
of Education Oyo, Oyo State - Nigeria
Abstract: This study examined positive management behaviours that lead to more motivated, committed and
harmonious teams in managing conflict at work. To achieve the objectives of this study, 3 research questions
were raised while 3 hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The sample for the study was drawn
through systematic random sampling technique which was used to select the 12 organizations with target
population of 3631 and sample size of 416. Descriptive survey research design was used as instrument. A 5-
point Likert-type scale was adopted. The hypotheses were tested with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).This was
an indication which showed that the selected organizations handled their Accessibility and Follow-up on
Conflict after Resolutions differently therein might lay the unending conflicts in organization that leads to the
ceaseless unions protests and strike actions in organizations in Nigeria since our areas of study is in Lagos
metropolitan city with its beehive activities of organizations. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS)
computer analysis software was used for all data analysis in this study.
Key words: E-learning, ICTs, integration, interactive, students-centred learning
I. Background of the Study
Armstrong (2012) asserts that an organization is an entity that exists to achieve a purpose through the
collective efforts of the people who work in or for it. Hence, an organization can be described as systems which,
as affected by their environment, have a structure that has both formal and informal elements for getting work
done. As defined by Harrisson and Shiron (1999:263) echoed in Armstrong (2012), organizational climate refers
to “members” perceptions of organizational features such as decision-making, leadership and norms about
work”. Ivancevieh, Konopaske and Matteson (2008:528) describe organizational climate as “A set of properties
of the work environment, perceived directly or indirectly by the employees, that is assumed to be a major force
in influencing employee behaviour.” A number of social processes take place in organizations that affect how
they function. These are: interaction and networking, communication, group behaviour, leadership, power,
politics and conflict.
Conflict which is perpetual to life, with varying views of it being held, is the main focus of this study. Conflict
definitions are opposition, incompatibility and some form of interaction. These factors set the conditions that
determine the beginning point of the conflict process. Conflict, can be viewed, as a process that begins when one
party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something which the
first party holds dear. This illustrates the point in which any ongoing activity transforms into an interaction that
turns into an interparty conflict. This involves a wide range of conflicts which people experience in
organizations, that is; incompatibility of goals and differences over interpretations of facts. This definition is
flexible enough to cover the full range of conflict levels from overt and violent act to subtle forms of
disagreement.
Armstrong (2012) emphasized conflict is inevitable in organizations because they function by means of
adjustment and compromises among competitive elements in their structure and membership. Conflict also rises
when there is change, because it may be seen as a threat to be challenged or resisted, or when there is
frustration. Conflict is always deplorable. It can be a result of progress and change just as it can be used
constructively. Organizations are living systems consisting of interacting unit performing a task in a mutually
dependent manner within a structure of scarce resources. It seems common place to suggest that conflict would
be present in such a setting. The parties in an organization may have conflict about the distribution of resources,
or they have a more fundamental conflict about the very structure of their organization and basic nature of their
interaction. Once the parties are in a situation of goal incompatibility, their conflict develops in a dynamic
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions …
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 82 | Page
fashion thereby initiating valuable and much-needed constructive changes or leading to escalating strategies and
destructive consequences.
As there is nothing pre-determined about its course or development, it seems erroneous to view conflict
from negative perspective only as destructive or dysfunctional. It is true that conflict may be uncomfortable, it
may even be a source of problems, but this is absolutely necessary if change is to occur, if organizations are to
survive and adapt. Organizational change and innovation does not just happen, it requires a stimulant. That
stimulant is conflict. Administrators must accept the need to influence the developmental dynamics of a conflict
so that the parties‟ attitudes and actions will lead to better coordination and a more appropriate interdependence.
Administrators must accept and indeed occasionally encourage conflict, because change and other desirable
consequences are products of conflict. The challenge administrator‟s face is to utilize such conflict management
techniques that would ensure that as a conflict passes from a latent to a manifest phase, it proceeds towards its
potential and realizes its constructive values.
Managing conflict at work is becoming an increasing challenge for employers. According to a work survey
report at the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) in (2007), an average organization
devotes more than 350 days in management time a year in managing disciplinary and grievance cases. The
survey also found that employers face average annual cost associated with employment tribunal claim and
hearings of £20,000. These findings show the very significant costs that organizations face if disputes escalate to
the point where the formal disciplinary or grievance process has to be used. In fact, it is not just management
time wasted and financial costs that employers must take account of the personal cost of individuals under
stress, employee absence, dysfunctional teams and damage to morale and productivity among others. If conflict
is not manage effectively, in several cases there will be high turnover of employees. In Nigeria there have been
cases of incessant strike action emanating from unresolved crises resulting in conflict which have led to
unending loss in industrial harmony between labour and management relations in Nigeria.
II. Statement of the problem
Today, more than ever before, the interface between work, interpersonal, intrapersonal and intergroup
interactions at work place cannot ignore conflict. The complexity of conflict increases as organizations become
more open and diverse in nature and environment in which they operate. Conflict which is inevitable and even
desirable is part of human consciousness in all phases of life. Managing conflict at work is becoming an
increasing challenge for employers. Besides the management time wasted and financial costs, the employers
must take account of, the personal cost of individuals under stress, employee absence, dysfunctional teams and
damage to morale and productivity among others. If conflict is not managed effectively in several cases,
employees will simply vote with their feet and leave the organization to other organizations that are competitors
of such organizations. Often times ,line managers can be both the solution to, as well as the cause of workplace
conflict as management style is also the number-one cause of stress at work according to CIPD (2007). There is
no doubt that managing conflict permeates every facets of the administrative role. This necessitates the need that
identifies the positive management behaviours that manage and militate against conflict at work which this
study sought to find out.
Purpose of the Study
This study investigated the area of behaviour in managing conflict in some selected organizations in Lagos state.
Specifically, the study sought to find out:
1. Managing conflict at work place with people focus.
2. Managing conflict at work with accessibility.
3. Procedure of follow-up on conflict after resolutions in organizations.
Research Questions
The following research questions guided this study:
1. What are the focuses of people in conflict management in organization?
2. How can one be accessible in managing conflict in organizations?
3. What are the procedures of follow-up on conflict after resolution in organizations?
Hypotheses
H1 People focus is not significantly different in managing conflict at work place.
H2 Accessibility in managing conflict at work place is not significantly different.
H3 Follow-up on conflict after resolution is not significantly different in organizations.
III. Significance of the Study
Conflict is not always deplorable as it can be a result of progress and change which can be used
constructively as a stimulant for innovation because conflict-free organization has never existed and will never
exist. Organizational conflict is beneficial to management and organizations, the employees, and other
stakeholders of the organization if they utilize the conflict to improve their structure, role and relationships.
Furthermore, the application of the team focus with participative approach in addition to monitoring team
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions …
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 83 | Page
relationships and competency skills will significantly add value to managing conflict process in the organization
through intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup mutual understanding that would exist between
management and employees. Besides, personal style through role modeling, integrity, people focus, accessibility
and follow-up on conflict after resolution will promote positive management behaviors that lead to more
motivated, committed and harmonious teams at work in the organization.
IV. Review of Related Literature
Concept
Ezimma (2009) defines management as the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling
both the human and material resources efficiently towards achieving individual, group and organizational goals.
Weihrich and Koontz (2005:4) in Ezimma (2009) define management as a process of designing and maintaining
an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplishes selected aim.
Onwuchekwa (2002) defines management as a process of achieving the objectives of organization by organizing
the activities of organizational members.
Conflict is the process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by
another party (Wall and Callister 2006). Conflict to Rahim (2002) is defined as the interactive process
manifested in incompatibility disagreement, or dissonance within or between solid entities. Onwuchekwa (2002)
said organizational conflict is a disagreement between two or more organization members and groups arising
from the fact that they must share scarce resources or work activities and or from the fact that they have
different status, goals, value, or perception. Stoner in Onwuchekwa (2002) says that conflict exists when
organizational members or subunits in disagreement attempt to have their own cause or point of view prevail
over that of others. Ezimma (2009) deduces that conflict is a process that continues either overtly or covertly
and if not resolved on time, will usually cause a lot of discomfort to either or both parties.
Theoretical Underpinning
The justification of this study is substantiated by theory of revolution by Charles Darwin and classical
organization by Elton mayo. Darwin (1809 to 1882), a naturalist, formulated the theory of evolution which
indicated that biological species survive and grow by confronting environmental challenges. He indicated that
all nature is at war, one organism with another, or with external nature. Seeing the contented face of nature this
may at first be well doubted but reflection will inevitably prove it is true. This called for a re-examination of the
classical views of the role of social conflicts in human development. Darwin and his followers recognized the
role environment conflict play in human growth, which led to the development of the doctrine of the survival of
the fittest.
Darwin believed that the growth of human beings is a function of their response to conflict with the
environment, if conflict were altogether absent as appears to the ideals in much classical philosophy, the
progress of human beings would be retarded. Therefore, to Darwin, conflict is necessary and essential in the
society, but it must be minimal. Also in an organization the element of conflict is necessary for the growth and
the development because various changes would occur in the process of solving conflict in organization. Mayo
studies of 1933 led to the – human relation movement, emphasized the need for corporation for enhancing
organizational effectiveness. To him, conflict was an evil and should be minimized or if possible, eliminated
from organizations altogether.
Mayo and his colleagues assume that ordinary employees were largely governed by logic of sentiment which
was of a different order from manager‟s rational appraisal of the situation in terms of costs and efficiency.
Conflict with management was thus an aberration that threatened the effectiveness of organizations. Mayo
denotes that conflict in an organization must be minimal; therefore, as good as conflict is, if organization is to
grow there is a need to solve conflicts in the organization. Resolving it with stake holders in the organization
would result to smooth running and improvement in the production.
Empirical Studies
Empirically this study was supported by the work of Ojo (2006) and Adeyemi (2011). Ojo (2006)
carried out a study on conflict management; the useful instrument for the growth of the organization in Asa local
government Kwara state. The researchers sought to investigate the impact of conflict management in
organizations. The study was guided by three research questions. The research design adopted was survey
research design. The population for the study consisted of all the employers in Asa Local Government Area of
Kwara State. Random sampling technique was used to sample 800 respondents. Questionnaire was the
instrument used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using mean and standard deviation and the
study found out that management must as much as possible settle the conflict in the organization. Also, the
management must try to find out some areas that may likely cause conflict and amend such areas. It was
concluded that conflict management in organization increased productivity. It was recommended that for
smooth running and peaceful atmosphere, conflict must be quickly resolved in the organization. This study is
related to the present study because both studies dealt with solving conflict in the organization.
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions …
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 84 | Page
Adeyemi (2011) carried out a study on investigation in to the impact of conflict settlement on organizational
growth in Owo Local Government, Ondo State; specifically, to investigate on how conflict is negatively and
positively affects the organization if not quickly settled. The study was guided by two research questions.
Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The populations for the study are all employees in Owo
Local Government of Ondo State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 310 employees in Owo
Local Government area of Ondo state. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. Mean and standard
deviation were used as well to analyze the data collected at cut off point (3.00), regression analysis and the
Pearson correlation coefficient. The findings of the study showed that if the conflict in organization is quickly
settled at the right time negative outcome in the organization would be prevented and the positive outcome
would be increased. It was recommended that conflict must be resolved as early as possible and manager must
find means of preventing the conflict in the organization. Both studies are related in area of conflict settlement
in the organization.
V. Methodology
Descriptive survey research design was used as instrument with simple random style to select the 12
organizations located in Lagos. The questionnaire titled: organizational conflicts management in organizations
in Lagos state (OCMOLS) consisted of two sections. Section A: biographic background which was not analyzed
in this study due to majority of respondents not ticking the section as requested. section B: is based on the
structured 50 specific competencies behavioural indicator necessary to managing conflict needed by managers
to manage conflict at work adopted from CPID (2007). A competence framework for line managers with little
moderations was administered and 15 assistants in the listed organizations with the numbers of questionnaires
retrieved: Manufacturing, - Bagco Super Bag 27, and Guiness Nigeria Plc 8, Telecommunications, - Huawei 15,
and Glo 42. Oil and Gas - Total E and P Nigeria Limited 18, Service Delivery, - Triple Gee and Company Plc.
12, Banking/Finance, - First Bank, Yaba Branch Sabo Yaba, Lagos 34, Union Bank Nigeria Plc. Yaba Model
Branch, Sabo Yaba, Lagos 8, Ministries, - And Bureau Governor‟s Office, Alausa, Ikeja - Lagos 31 and
Ministry of Works 54, and Parastatals, Eko Distribution Company EKODC 15 and National Lottery Trust Fund
20. These organizations are under Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC), Trade Union Congress (TUC), National
Union of Petroleum and National Gas Workers (NUPENG) and Petroleum and Natural Gas Senior Staff
Association of Nigeria (PENGSAN) Lagos State Chapter.
A 5-point Likert-type scale was used for the staff‟s responses to each item of the questionnaire. (Strongly Agree
(SA = 5), Agree (A = 4), Undecided (U = 3), Disagree (D = 2) and Strongly Disagree (SD = 1) were adopted.
The hypotheses were tested with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Acceptance and rejection of null hypothesis
depended on 0.05 alpha and the degree of freedom in relation to the F-value. The Statistical Package for Social
Science (SPSS) computer analysis software was used for all data analysis in this study.
Population of the Study
The total population of the target organization stands at 3631. It comprises of manufacturing staff, a shift batch
of 500 and a Unit of 200. Telecommunication – 150 and 500 staff. Oil and Gas - 300 staff. Service Delivery
staff 110, Banking - 35 and 24 staff in each branch. Ministry staff - 310 and 940. Parastatals - 352 and 200. The
sample of 357 plus 35 and 24 = 416 staff respondents that is 10% and the entire two banks branch staff were
used due to their population size.
Presentation of Results and Discussions
Table 1: ANOVA competencies behavioural indicators necessary to managing conflict needed by manager to
mange conflict at work.
ANOVA
Sum of
square
Df Mean
Square
F Sig.
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions …
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A. Challenging the
Status Quo
B. People focus
C. Accessibility
D. Follow-up on
conflict after
resolution.
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
between Groups
Within Groups
Total
Between Groups
Within Groups
Total
1372.703
1419.888
67.815
922.417
990.232
258.833
707.016
965.849
83.718
518.253
601.971
137
142
5
136
141
5
113
118
5
130
135
10.020
13.563
6.782
51.767
6.257
16.744
3.987
2.000
8.274
4.200
.000
.001
Based on the factors in A to B in Table 1 above F-values and P-values show, testing at an alpha level (0.05), the
p-values are more than the alpha level. So, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference
in dependent variables is retained. This is an indication that in the various selected organizations under this
study, their conflict management was handled in the same way.
While, factors in C shows F-value (8.30) and p-value (.000), D shows F-value (4.20) and p-value (.001)
respectively. Testing at an alpha level (0.05), the p-value is less than the alpha level. So, the null hypothesis
which states that there is no significant difference among responses of manufacturing, telecommunication, oil
and gas, service delivery, banking and finance, ministries and parastatals in their accessibility and follow-up on
conflict after resolutions respectively is rejected. Consequently, there is a significant difference among
responses of manufacturing, telecommunication, oil and gas, service delivery, banking, ministries and
parastatals in their accessibility and follow-up on conflict after resolution. This is an indication which shows that
the selected organizations handle their accessibility and follow-up on conflict after resolutions differently.
Herein may lie the unending conflicts in organizations that lead to the ceaseless unions protest and strike actions
in organizations in Nigeria since our area of study is in Lagos metropolitan city with its beehive activities of
organizations.
Note: The following steps should be taken in the order listed below in each of the table:
Table 2: Challenging the status quo in organizational conflict management.
Descriptive Statistics
Behavioural Statement N Mean Rating
You should openly challenge unacceptable behavior
You should seek out prejudiced attitudes.
You should critically examine policies and procedures to make sure they are fair
to everyone.
Valid N (listwise)
150
151
151
145
3.95
3.89
4.17
2
3
1
 You should critically examine policies and procedures to make sure they are fair to everyone.
 You should challenge unacceptable behaviour.
 You should seek out prejudiced attitudes.
Table 3: Managing conflict at work place with people focus.
Descriptive Statistics
Behavioural Statements N Mean Rating
You should give people personal responsibility
You should actively seek out the views of others
You should be committed to team development
You should instill confidence in others.
151
152
150
154
4.26
4.34
4.47
4.40
5
4
1
2
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You should encourage open feedback and debate
Valid N (listwise)
150
144
4.37 3
 You should be committed to team development.
 You should install confidence in others.
 You should actively seek out the views of others.
 You should give people personal responsibility
Table 4: Managing conflict at work with accessibility
Descriptive Statistics
Behavioural statements N Mean Rating
You should be actively promoting an „open door‟ approach
You should champion a culture of respect and dignity
You should be „available‟ to listen to the views of others.
You should be prepared to talk to customers and clients about the need for
respect and dignity at work.
You should put building a culture of dignity and respect on your main agenda
valid N (listwise)
122
152
151
151
151
121
4.40
4.48
4.50
4.17
4.28
3
2
1
5
4
 You should be „available‟ to listen to the views of others.
 You should champion a culture of respect and dignity.
 You should be actively promoting an „open door‟ approach.
 You should put building a culture of dignity and respect on your main agenda.
 You should be prepared to talk to customers and clients about the need for respect and dignity at work.
Table 5: Procedure of follow-up on conflict after resolutions in organizations.
Descriptive Statistics
 You should gather ideas of how to address issues with the team to ensure that their views are taken into
account before making changes that affect their work or working environment.
 You should speak to each party individually to identify the crux of the problem and hear the different
individual perspectives on what is happening and the grievances that they bear.
 It is important you use „temperature checks‟ through regular communication to ensure that old
disagreements are not brewing again.
VI. Conclusion
Pace (1983) re-echoes in Fleetwood (1987)… affirms that the conflict-free company has never existed
and never will exist. Therefore, antagonisms, tensions, aggressions, stereotypes, negative attitudes,
disagreements based on behavioural expectation, and the frustrations of perceived conflicting needs, among
others will always be present wherever man live and work together. These then, are sources or bases upon which
organizations conflict brew and thrive. This situation is counterproductive. When such dispute has escalated to
the point where the disciplinary procedure is been initiated or a formal grievance reported, opinions are often
hardened and confrontational stance on both sides have developed to the extent that are very hard to change. To
avert this, it is essential that managers have the skills, knowledge and confidence to identify and manage
workplace disagreements, behavioural expectations and harassment promptly. Although, often times, managers
can be both the solution to, as well as the cause of organizational disputes through their actions or inactions. It is
necessary therefore, that organizations develop clear policies and procedures underpinned by appropriate
training for managers and employees, outline organizational values and rights as well as responsibilities of
individual in a corporate environment.
Recommendations
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions …
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 87 | Page
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made for competency in organizational
conflict management:
1. It is essential that managers have the skills, knowledge and confidence to identify and manage
workplace disagreement, harassment, behavioural expectations and prompt application of the
competency conflict managing skill in the descriptive statistical tables 2 to tables 3 in the order to
rating list.
2. Table 4 and table 5 which indicated significant difference in the handling of conflict in the selected
organizations should be looked into and emphasized for maximum compliance to enhance manager‟s
competency in managing conflict in workplace.
3. It is necessary that organizations develop clear policies and procedures underpinned by appropriate
training for managers and employees, outline organizational values and rights as well as responsibilities
of individuals in a corporate environment.
4. Organizations should be fair in their dealings with their employee and not to capitalize on economic
meltdown in the way and manner they handle the affairs of their employees because as can be seen in
the Section A of the instrument for this study, majority shy away from completing the session. Most
probably, their organization can clamp down on them with their biographic data which points to the
fact of presence of bullying, harassment and job insecurity among employees and in some cases other
even avoid completing such instrument for fear of losing their job when their organization discover
they divulge such relevant information.
Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions …
DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 88 | Page
REFERENCES
[1] Adeyemi, O. D. (2011). Impact of conflict settlement on organizational growth international. Journal of Conflict Management 20
(3) 206-230.
[2] Armstrong, M. (2012). Armstrong‟s handbook of human resources management practice (12th Ed). UK: Ashford Colour Press.
[3] Chartered institute of Personnel and Development, (2007). Managing conflict at work. London, CIPD.
[4] Emery, F. E. (1959). Characteristics of socio-technical systems, London, Tavistock Publications.
[5] Ezimma, (2009). Organizational behaviour and Management theory. Anambra. Rev Charles and Patrick limited.
[6] Fleetwood, K. L. (1987). The conflict management styles and strategies of educational managers: A thesis submitted to the faculty of
the University of Delaware in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Communication.
[7] Harrison, M. & Shiron, A. (1999). Organizational diagnosis and assessment, thousand Oaks, CA Sage.
[8] Ivancevich, J. M., Konopaske, R. & Matteson, M. T. (2008). Organizational behavior and management (8th
Ed). New York,
McGraw-Hill/Irwin.
[9] Ojo, Z. A. (2006). Conflict management the useful instrument for the growth of the organization North American journal of
Psychology 8 (2), 356, 362.
[10] Onwuchewka, C. I. (2002). Organizational behaviour. Enugu. Zik Chuks Nigeria.
[11] Rahim, M. A. (2002). Towards the theory of managing organizational conflict. The international journal of conflict management.
13,204 – 215.
[12] Stoner, J.A.F. (1972). Management. Eaglewood Cliffs. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
[13] Wall O. O. Callister, M. D. (2006). Perception of inequity satisfaction and conflict in task oriented groups London. Cox and wyman
Ltd.
[14] Weihrich, H. & Koontz H. (2005). Management (11th
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Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, Nigeira

  • 1. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 17, Issue 12 .Ver. II (Dec. 2015), PP 81-88 www.iosrjournals.org DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 81 | Page Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions In Lagos State, Nigeira 1 Onwuka, Ebele (Ph.d), 2 Ehirheme, Pauline Egberanmwen, 3 Oyewole, Solomon Oyelami 1 Department of Business Administration Faculty of Management Sciences Nnamdi Azikwe University, Awka, Anambra State-Nigeria 2 Department of Office Technology and Management (OTM) School of Management and Business Studies Yaba College of Technology, Yaba, Lagos State-Nigeria 3 Department of Business Education School of Vocational and Technical Education Emmanuel Alayande College of Education Oyo, Oyo State - Nigeria Abstract: This study examined positive management behaviours that lead to more motivated, committed and harmonious teams in managing conflict at work. To achieve the objectives of this study, 3 research questions were raised while 3 hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The sample for the study was drawn through systematic random sampling technique which was used to select the 12 organizations with target population of 3631 and sample size of 416. Descriptive survey research design was used as instrument. A 5- point Likert-type scale was adopted. The hypotheses were tested with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).This was an indication which showed that the selected organizations handled their Accessibility and Follow-up on Conflict after Resolutions differently therein might lay the unending conflicts in organization that leads to the ceaseless unions protests and strike actions in organizations in Nigeria since our areas of study is in Lagos metropolitan city with its beehive activities of organizations. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer analysis software was used for all data analysis in this study. Key words: E-learning, ICTs, integration, interactive, students-centred learning I. Background of the Study Armstrong (2012) asserts that an organization is an entity that exists to achieve a purpose through the collective efforts of the people who work in or for it. Hence, an organization can be described as systems which, as affected by their environment, have a structure that has both formal and informal elements for getting work done. As defined by Harrisson and Shiron (1999:263) echoed in Armstrong (2012), organizational climate refers to “members” perceptions of organizational features such as decision-making, leadership and norms about work”. Ivancevieh, Konopaske and Matteson (2008:528) describe organizational climate as “A set of properties of the work environment, perceived directly or indirectly by the employees, that is assumed to be a major force in influencing employee behaviour.” A number of social processes take place in organizations that affect how they function. These are: interaction and networking, communication, group behaviour, leadership, power, politics and conflict. Conflict which is perpetual to life, with varying views of it being held, is the main focus of this study. Conflict definitions are opposition, incompatibility and some form of interaction. These factors set the conditions that determine the beginning point of the conflict process. Conflict, can be viewed, as a process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something which the first party holds dear. This illustrates the point in which any ongoing activity transforms into an interaction that turns into an interparty conflict. This involves a wide range of conflicts which people experience in organizations, that is; incompatibility of goals and differences over interpretations of facts. This definition is flexible enough to cover the full range of conflict levels from overt and violent act to subtle forms of disagreement. Armstrong (2012) emphasized conflict is inevitable in organizations because they function by means of adjustment and compromises among competitive elements in their structure and membership. Conflict also rises when there is change, because it may be seen as a threat to be challenged or resisted, or when there is frustration. Conflict is always deplorable. It can be a result of progress and change just as it can be used constructively. Organizations are living systems consisting of interacting unit performing a task in a mutually dependent manner within a structure of scarce resources. It seems common place to suggest that conflict would be present in such a setting. The parties in an organization may have conflict about the distribution of resources, or they have a more fundamental conflict about the very structure of their organization and basic nature of their interaction. Once the parties are in a situation of goal incompatibility, their conflict develops in a dynamic
  • 2. Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions … DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 82 | Page fashion thereby initiating valuable and much-needed constructive changes or leading to escalating strategies and destructive consequences. As there is nothing pre-determined about its course or development, it seems erroneous to view conflict from negative perspective only as destructive or dysfunctional. It is true that conflict may be uncomfortable, it may even be a source of problems, but this is absolutely necessary if change is to occur, if organizations are to survive and adapt. Organizational change and innovation does not just happen, it requires a stimulant. That stimulant is conflict. Administrators must accept the need to influence the developmental dynamics of a conflict so that the parties‟ attitudes and actions will lead to better coordination and a more appropriate interdependence. Administrators must accept and indeed occasionally encourage conflict, because change and other desirable consequences are products of conflict. The challenge administrator‟s face is to utilize such conflict management techniques that would ensure that as a conflict passes from a latent to a manifest phase, it proceeds towards its potential and realizes its constructive values. Managing conflict at work is becoming an increasing challenge for employers. According to a work survey report at the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) in (2007), an average organization devotes more than 350 days in management time a year in managing disciplinary and grievance cases. The survey also found that employers face average annual cost associated with employment tribunal claim and hearings of £20,000. These findings show the very significant costs that organizations face if disputes escalate to the point where the formal disciplinary or grievance process has to be used. In fact, it is not just management time wasted and financial costs that employers must take account of the personal cost of individuals under stress, employee absence, dysfunctional teams and damage to morale and productivity among others. If conflict is not manage effectively, in several cases there will be high turnover of employees. In Nigeria there have been cases of incessant strike action emanating from unresolved crises resulting in conflict which have led to unending loss in industrial harmony between labour and management relations in Nigeria. II. Statement of the problem Today, more than ever before, the interface between work, interpersonal, intrapersonal and intergroup interactions at work place cannot ignore conflict. The complexity of conflict increases as organizations become more open and diverse in nature and environment in which they operate. Conflict which is inevitable and even desirable is part of human consciousness in all phases of life. Managing conflict at work is becoming an increasing challenge for employers. Besides the management time wasted and financial costs, the employers must take account of, the personal cost of individuals under stress, employee absence, dysfunctional teams and damage to morale and productivity among others. If conflict is not managed effectively in several cases, employees will simply vote with their feet and leave the organization to other organizations that are competitors of such organizations. Often times ,line managers can be both the solution to, as well as the cause of workplace conflict as management style is also the number-one cause of stress at work according to CIPD (2007). There is no doubt that managing conflict permeates every facets of the administrative role. This necessitates the need that identifies the positive management behaviours that manage and militate against conflict at work which this study sought to find out. Purpose of the Study This study investigated the area of behaviour in managing conflict in some selected organizations in Lagos state. Specifically, the study sought to find out: 1. Managing conflict at work place with people focus. 2. Managing conflict at work with accessibility. 3. Procedure of follow-up on conflict after resolutions in organizations. Research Questions The following research questions guided this study: 1. What are the focuses of people in conflict management in organization? 2. How can one be accessible in managing conflict in organizations? 3. What are the procedures of follow-up on conflict after resolution in organizations? Hypotheses H1 People focus is not significantly different in managing conflict at work place. H2 Accessibility in managing conflict at work place is not significantly different. H3 Follow-up on conflict after resolution is not significantly different in organizations. III. Significance of the Study Conflict is not always deplorable as it can be a result of progress and change which can be used constructively as a stimulant for innovation because conflict-free organization has never existed and will never exist. Organizational conflict is beneficial to management and organizations, the employees, and other stakeholders of the organization if they utilize the conflict to improve their structure, role and relationships. Furthermore, the application of the team focus with participative approach in addition to monitoring team
  • 3. Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions … DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 83 | Page relationships and competency skills will significantly add value to managing conflict process in the organization through intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup mutual understanding that would exist between management and employees. Besides, personal style through role modeling, integrity, people focus, accessibility and follow-up on conflict after resolution will promote positive management behaviors that lead to more motivated, committed and harmonious teams at work in the organization. IV. Review of Related Literature Concept Ezimma (2009) defines management as the process of planning, organizing, directing and controlling both the human and material resources efficiently towards achieving individual, group and organizational goals. Weihrich and Koontz (2005:4) in Ezimma (2009) define management as a process of designing and maintaining an environment in which individuals, working together in groups, efficiently accomplishes selected aim. Onwuchekwa (2002) defines management as a process of achieving the objectives of organization by organizing the activities of organizational members. Conflict is the process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party (Wall and Callister 2006). Conflict to Rahim (2002) is defined as the interactive process manifested in incompatibility disagreement, or dissonance within or between solid entities. Onwuchekwa (2002) said organizational conflict is a disagreement between two or more organization members and groups arising from the fact that they must share scarce resources or work activities and or from the fact that they have different status, goals, value, or perception. Stoner in Onwuchekwa (2002) says that conflict exists when organizational members or subunits in disagreement attempt to have their own cause or point of view prevail over that of others. Ezimma (2009) deduces that conflict is a process that continues either overtly or covertly and if not resolved on time, will usually cause a lot of discomfort to either or both parties. Theoretical Underpinning The justification of this study is substantiated by theory of revolution by Charles Darwin and classical organization by Elton mayo. Darwin (1809 to 1882), a naturalist, formulated the theory of evolution which indicated that biological species survive and grow by confronting environmental challenges. He indicated that all nature is at war, one organism with another, or with external nature. Seeing the contented face of nature this may at first be well doubted but reflection will inevitably prove it is true. This called for a re-examination of the classical views of the role of social conflicts in human development. Darwin and his followers recognized the role environment conflict play in human growth, which led to the development of the doctrine of the survival of the fittest. Darwin believed that the growth of human beings is a function of their response to conflict with the environment, if conflict were altogether absent as appears to the ideals in much classical philosophy, the progress of human beings would be retarded. Therefore, to Darwin, conflict is necessary and essential in the society, but it must be minimal. Also in an organization the element of conflict is necessary for the growth and the development because various changes would occur in the process of solving conflict in organization. Mayo studies of 1933 led to the – human relation movement, emphasized the need for corporation for enhancing organizational effectiveness. To him, conflict was an evil and should be minimized or if possible, eliminated from organizations altogether. Mayo and his colleagues assume that ordinary employees were largely governed by logic of sentiment which was of a different order from manager‟s rational appraisal of the situation in terms of costs and efficiency. Conflict with management was thus an aberration that threatened the effectiveness of organizations. Mayo denotes that conflict in an organization must be minimal; therefore, as good as conflict is, if organization is to grow there is a need to solve conflicts in the organization. Resolving it with stake holders in the organization would result to smooth running and improvement in the production. Empirical Studies Empirically this study was supported by the work of Ojo (2006) and Adeyemi (2011). Ojo (2006) carried out a study on conflict management; the useful instrument for the growth of the organization in Asa local government Kwara state. The researchers sought to investigate the impact of conflict management in organizations. The study was guided by three research questions. The research design adopted was survey research design. The population for the study consisted of all the employers in Asa Local Government Area of Kwara State. Random sampling technique was used to sample 800 respondents. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. Data collected was analyzed using mean and standard deviation and the study found out that management must as much as possible settle the conflict in the organization. Also, the management must try to find out some areas that may likely cause conflict and amend such areas. It was concluded that conflict management in organization increased productivity. It was recommended that for smooth running and peaceful atmosphere, conflict must be quickly resolved in the organization. This study is related to the present study because both studies dealt with solving conflict in the organization.
  • 4. Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions … DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 84 | Page Adeyemi (2011) carried out a study on investigation in to the impact of conflict settlement on organizational growth in Owo Local Government, Ondo State; specifically, to investigate on how conflict is negatively and positively affects the organization if not quickly settled. The study was guided by two research questions. Descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The populations for the study are all employees in Owo Local Government of Ondo State. Purposive sampling technique was used to select 310 employees in Owo Local Government area of Ondo state. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data. Mean and standard deviation were used as well to analyze the data collected at cut off point (3.00), regression analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficient. The findings of the study showed that if the conflict in organization is quickly settled at the right time negative outcome in the organization would be prevented and the positive outcome would be increased. It was recommended that conflict must be resolved as early as possible and manager must find means of preventing the conflict in the organization. Both studies are related in area of conflict settlement in the organization. V. Methodology Descriptive survey research design was used as instrument with simple random style to select the 12 organizations located in Lagos. The questionnaire titled: organizational conflicts management in organizations in Lagos state (OCMOLS) consisted of two sections. Section A: biographic background which was not analyzed in this study due to majority of respondents not ticking the section as requested. section B: is based on the structured 50 specific competencies behavioural indicator necessary to managing conflict needed by managers to manage conflict at work adopted from CPID (2007). A competence framework for line managers with little moderations was administered and 15 assistants in the listed organizations with the numbers of questionnaires retrieved: Manufacturing, - Bagco Super Bag 27, and Guiness Nigeria Plc 8, Telecommunications, - Huawei 15, and Glo 42. Oil and Gas - Total E and P Nigeria Limited 18, Service Delivery, - Triple Gee and Company Plc. 12, Banking/Finance, - First Bank, Yaba Branch Sabo Yaba, Lagos 34, Union Bank Nigeria Plc. Yaba Model Branch, Sabo Yaba, Lagos 8, Ministries, - And Bureau Governor‟s Office, Alausa, Ikeja - Lagos 31 and Ministry of Works 54, and Parastatals, Eko Distribution Company EKODC 15 and National Lottery Trust Fund 20. These organizations are under Nigeria Labour Congress (NLC), Trade Union Congress (TUC), National Union of Petroleum and National Gas Workers (NUPENG) and Petroleum and Natural Gas Senior Staff Association of Nigeria (PENGSAN) Lagos State Chapter. A 5-point Likert-type scale was used for the staff‟s responses to each item of the questionnaire. (Strongly Agree (SA = 5), Agree (A = 4), Undecided (U = 3), Disagree (D = 2) and Strongly Disagree (SD = 1) were adopted. The hypotheses were tested with Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Acceptance and rejection of null hypothesis depended on 0.05 alpha and the degree of freedom in relation to the F-value. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer analysis software was used for all data analysis in this study. Population of the Study The total population of the target organization stands at 3631. It comprises of manufacturing staff, a shift batch of 500 and a Unit of 200. Telecommunication – 150 and 500 staff. Oil and Gas - 300 staff. Service Delivery staff 110, Banking - 35 and 24 staff in each branch. Ministry staff - 310 and 940. Parastatals - 352 and 200. The sample of 357 plus 35 and 24 = 416 staff respondents that is 10% and the entire two banks branch staff were used due to their population size. Presentation of Results and Discussions Table 1: ANOVA competencies behavioural indicators necessary to managing conflict needed by manager to mange conflict at work. ANOVA Sum of square Df Mean Square F Sig.
  • 5. Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions … DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 85 | Page A. Challenging the Status Quo B. People focus C. Accessibility D. Follow-up on conflict after resolution. Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total between Groups Within Groups Total Between Groups Within Groups Total 1372.703 1419.888 67.815 922.417 990.232 258.833 707.016 965.849 83.718 518.253 601.971 137 142 5 136 141 5 113 118 5 130 135 10.020 13.563 6.782 51.767 6.257 16.744 3.987 2.000 8.274 4.200 .000 .001 Based on the factors in A to B in Table 1 above F-values and P-values show, testing at an alpha level (0.05), the p-values are more than the alpha level. So, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference in dependent variables is retained. This is an indication that in the various selected organizations under this study, their conflict management was handled in the same way. While, factors in C shows F-value (8.30) and p-value (.000), D shows F-value (4.20) and p-value (.001) respectively. Testing at an alpha level (0.05), the p-value is less than the alpha level. So, the null hypothesis which states that there is no significant difference among responses of manufacturing, telecommunication, oil and gas, service delivery, banking and finance, ministries and parastatals in their accessibility and follow-up on conflict after resolutions respectively is rejected. Consequently, there is a significant difference among responses of manufacturing, telecommunication, oil and gas, service delivery, banking, ministries and parastatals in their accessibility and follow-up on conflict after resolution. This is an indication which shows that the selected organizations handle their accessibility and follow-up on conflict after resolutions differently. Herein may lie the unending conflicts in organizations that lead to the ceaseless unions protest and strike actions in organizations in Nigeria since our area of study is in Lagos metropolitan city with its beehive activities of organizations. Note: The following steps should be taken in the order listed below in each of the table: Table 2: Challenging the status quo in organizational conflict management. Descriptive Statistics Behavioural Statement N Mean Rating You should openly challenge unacceptable behavior You should seek out prejudiced attitudes. You should critically examine policies and procedures to make sure they are fair to everyone. Valid N (listwise) 150 151 151 145 3.95 3.89 4.17 2 3 1  You should critically examine policies and procedures to make sure they are fair to everyone.  You should challenge unacceptable behaviour.  You should seek out prejudiced attitudes. Table 3: Managing conflict at work place with people focus. Descriptive Statistics Behavioural Statements N Mean Rating You should give people personal responsibility You should actively seek out the views of others You should be committed to team development You should instill confidence in others. 151 152 150 154 4.26 4.34 4.47 4.40 5 4 1 2
  • 6. Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions … DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 86 | Page You should encourage open feedback and debate Valid N (listwise) 150 144 4.37 3  You should be committed to team development.  You should install confidence in others.  You should actively seek out the views of others.  You should give people personal responsibility Table 4: Managing conflict at work with accessibility Descriptive Statistics Behavioural statements N Mean Rating You should be actively promoting an „open door‟ approach You should champion a culture of respect and dignity You should be „available‟ to listen to the views of others. You should be prepared to talk to customers and clients about the need for respect and dignity at work. You should put building a culture of dignity and respect on your main agenda valid N (listwise) 122 152 151 151 151 121 4.40 4.48 4.50 4.17 4.28 3 2 1 5 4  You should be „available‟ to listen to the views of others.  You should champion a culture of respect and dignity.  You should be actively promoting an „open door‟ approach.  You should put building a culture of dignity and respect on your main agenda.  You should be prepared to talk to customers and clients about the need for respect and dignity at work. Table 5: Procedure of follow-up on conflict after resolutions in organizations. Descriptive Statistics  You should gather ideas of how to address issues with the team to ensure that their views are taken into account before making changes that affect their work or working environment.  You should speak to each party individually to identify the crux of the problem and hear the different individual perspectives on what is happening and the grievances that they bear.  It is important you use „temperature checks‟ through regular communication to ensure that old disagreements are not brewing again. VI. Conclusion Pace (1983) re-echoes in Fleetwood (1987)… affirms that the conflict-free company has never existed and never will exist. Therefore, antagonisms, tensions, aggressions, stereotypes, negative attitudes, disagreements based on behavioural expectation, and the frustrations of perceived conflicting needs, among others will always be present wherever man live and work together. These then, are sources or bases upon which organizations conflict brew and thrive. This situation is counterproductive. When such dispute has escalated to the point where the disciplinary procedure is been initiated or a formal grievance reported, opinions are often hardened and confrontational stance on both sides have developed to the extent that are very hard to change. To avert this, it is essential that managers have the skills, knowledge and confidence to identify and manage workplace disagreements, behavioural expectations and harassment promptly. Although, often times, managers can be both the solution to, as well as the cause of organizational disputes through their actions or inactions. It is necessary therefore, that organizations develop clear policies and procedures underpinned by appropriate training for managers and employees, outline organizational values and rights as well as responsibilities of individual in a corporate environment. Recommendations
  • 7. Organizational Conflicts Management In Selected Organizaions … DOI: 10.9790/487X-171228188 www.iosrjournals.org 87 | Page Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made for competency in organizational conflict management: 1. It is essential that managers have the skills, knowledge and confidence to identify and manage workplace disagreement, harassment, behavioural expectations and prompt application of the competency conflict managing skill in the descriptive statistical tables 2 to tables 3 in the order to rating list. 2. Table 4 and table 5 which indicated significant difference in the handling of conflict in the selected organizations should be looked into and emphasized for maximum compliance to enhance manager‟s competency in managing conflict in workplace. 3. It is necessary that organizations develop clear policies and procedures underpinned by appropriate training for managers and employees, outline organizational values and rights as well as responsibilities of individuals in a corporate environment. 4. Organizations should be fair in their dealings with their employee and not to capitalize on economic meltdown in the way and manner they handle the affairs of their employees because as can be seen in the Section A of the instrument for this study, majority shy away from completing the session. Most probably, their organization can clamp down on them with their biographic data which points to the fact of presence of bullying, harassment and job insecurity among employees and in some cases other even avoid completing such instrument for fear of losing their job when their organization discover they divulge such relevant information.
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