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Cow Feeding Evaluation
Prepared By:
Dr. Irshad A.
PhD Scholar
Department of MSC and Tech
VCRI-Namakkal
Course : LPM-801
Ad...
Introduction
→Managing high yielding cows to meet their energy intake
requirements for peak milk production is a major cha...
Feeding Evaluation
Feeds supplied
to the cow
Cow
requirements
Diet
evaluation
Feed Nutrients
Growing conditions, such as excessive rainfall or drought, can
affect the nutrient content of feeds, especi...
Sampling of Feed
Take representative samples of the feed to be analyzed.
Take random samples of hay from at least 20 bales...
Sampling of Feed
• Mix the samples from one type of feed and take a subsample
from the mixture for analysis.
• Seal the sa...
Feed Analysis Measures
Dry matter (DM)
Crude protein (CP)—the total of both true protein and non-
protein nitrogen.
Insolu...
Feed Analysis Measures (Cont…)
Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)—relatively insoluble material
found in the cell wall of plant...
Feed Analysis Measures (Cont…)
Net energy (NE)—It is the energy left after determining the
energy lost through the feces, ...
Utilization of dietary energy by animals
Cow requirements
Maintenance
Production
Requirement
Methods for Feed Analysis
Chemical Analysis
Digestibility Trials
Estimation of Energy Contents
Evaluation of Protein Quali...
Chemical Analysis
1. Proximate Analysis
A. Water/Moisture
B. Crude Protein
C. Ether Extract
D. Crude Fibre
E. Nitrogen Fre...
The Van Soest method
Digestibility Trials
1. Conventional Type
A. Direct method
B. Indicator Method
2. In Vivo Technique
A. Nylon/Dacron Bag Te...
Conventional Type of Digestive Trials
Animal Feed Excreta Feed Digested
A. Direct Method
Done in Metabolic Crates
They are...
Cow Feeding Evaluation
Cow Feeding Evaluation
Cow Feeding Evaluation
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Cow Feeding Evaluation

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Cow Feeding Evaluation

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Cow Feeding Evaluation

  1. 1. Cow Feeding Evaluation Prepared By: Dr. Irshad A. PhD Scholar Department of MSC and Tech VCRI-Namakkal Course : LPM-801 Advances in Cattle and Buffalo Production and Management
  2. 2. Introduction →Managing high yielding cows to meet their energy intake requirements for peak milk production is a major challenge facing dairy farmers. →Underfeeding dairy cows leads to excessive negative energy balance and subsequent fertility problems →40 and 60 percent of the total cost of producing milk is from feed cost →Effective feeding is important to maintain fertility, production and profitability.
  3. 3. Feeding Evaluation Feeds supplied to the cow Cow requirements Diet evaluation
  4. 4. Feed Nutrients Growing conditions, such as excessive rainfall or drought, can affect the nutrient content of feeds, especially forages. Other facts such as musty odor, unusual amounts of foreign material or pests present in the feed, and a high level of leaf shattering on forages etc… can affect quality Excessive amounts of some substances like Nitrates can be harmful to animals. • The most important tests to be done on feed grains are moisture, protein, and energy content. • Test forages for moisture, protein, acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber.
  5. 5. Sampling of Feed Take representative samples of the feed to be analyzed. Take random samples of hay from at least 20 bales. Insert the sampling tube into the center of the bale. About 15 samples from silage and 5 from grain will usually give enough to be representative of the entire lot. Samples of silage or total mixed rations should be taken from the silage feeder or feed mixer as it is being fed. Avoid the top of the feed because it is drier than the entire batch.
  6. 6. Sampling of Feed • Mix the samples from one type of feed and take a subsample from the mixture for analysis. • Seal the samples in polyethylene freezer bags; store dry samples in a cool area. • Freeze samples that contain more than 15 percent moisture. Send the samples to a testing laboratory as soon as possible.
  7. 7. Feed Analysis Measures Dry matter (DM) Crude protein (CP)—the total of both true protein and non- protein nitrogen. Insoluble crude protein (ICP)—the amount of indigestible crude protein in the feed resulting from overheating. Adjusted crude protein (ACP)—calculated value, adjusted for insoluble crude protein. **If the ICP/CP ratio exceeds 0.1, use this value instead of crude protein when balancing a ration.
  8. 8. Feed Analysis Measures (Cont…) Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)—relatively insoluble material found in the cell wall of plants, which may be used to predict feed intake. **A low NDF is desirable. Acid detergent fiber (ADF)—measures the least digestible part of the feed; includes cellulose, lignin, silica, insoluble crude protein, and ash. **A low ADF is desirable. Digestible dry matter (DDM)—percent of forage that is digestible.
  9. 9. Feed Analysis Measures (Cont…) Net energy (NE)—It is the energy left after determining the energy lost through the feces, urine, gas, and heat generated by metabolism. **an indicator of the true value of a feed. Total digestible nutrients (TDN)—the total of the digestible parts of crude fiber, protein, fat, and nitrogen-free extract. Dry matter intake (DMI)—estimated maximum consumption of forage dry matter by the animal. **It is shown as a percentage of body weight. Relative feed value (RFV)—an evaluation of the quality of hay and haylage by combining into one number digestibility and feed intake.
  10. 10. Utilization of dietary energy by animals
  11. 11. Cow requirements Maintenance Production Requirement
  12. 12. Methods for Feed Analysis Chemical Analysis Digestibility Trials Estimation of Energy Contents Evaluation of Protein Quality
  13. 13. Chemical Analysis 1. Proximate Analysis A. Water/Moisture B. Crude Protein C. Ether Extract D. Crude Fibre E. Nitrogen Free Extract F. Ash/Mineral Matter 2. The Van Soest method of analysis A. Cell Wall B. Cell Contents
  14. 14. The Van Soest method
  15. 15. Digestibility Trials 1. Conventional Type A. Direct method B. Indicator Method 2. In Vivo Technique A. Nylon/Dacron Bag Technique B. In Vivo Artificial Rumen (Vivar) Technique A digestion trial involves an experiment by which the amount of nutrients actually digested and absorbed from a measured amount of feed consumed by an animal determined.
  16. 16. Conventional Type of Digestive Trials Animal Feed Excreta Feed Digested A. Direct Method Done in Metabolic Crates They are actually a specially designed stall or box large enough for the experimental animal to house in controlled condition during experimental period. Digestibility Coefficient = Kg of Nutrient eaten – Kg of Faeces X100 Kg of Nutrient eaten

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