1. Physical Science Page 1
NAT SCI REVIEWER
Lesson 1.1 Science and its History
Science is an established data gathered to uncover
general truths resulting from a study.
It comes from the Latin word:
“Sciere” (which means to know) and
“Scientia” (which means knowledge)
Pure Science is concerned with the gathering
information solely for the sake of obtaining new
Applied Science it is also called Technology, Is a
practical application of scientific theory and law that
can be used in everyday situation.
TWO MAiN DiViSiON OF SCiENCE:
Biology Study of life
Botany Study of Plants
Zoology Study of Animals
Physical Science is the science that deals with
nature, behavior and relationship between matter
and energy in non-living things.
BRANCHES OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Physics deals with the changes in
matter and energy, their interaction
which do not involve any change in their
Chemistry deals with the study of
changes in matter including structure,
composition and properties.
Geology is the study of Earth structure
Astronomy is the study of heavenly
bodies and the universe.
Meteorology deals with the study of
atmosphere, climate and weather.
Mineralogy deals with the study of
Geography study of regional
distribution of raw materials on the earth
IMPORTANCE OF SCIENCE
It gives us an idea of the nature of life
and the things around us
It explains the different phenomena
and eventually leads to discover of
It becomes a source of intellectual
Through an understanding of
scientific process, problem-solving
and critical thinking ability of the
individual is develop.
Science liberates the mind and
supplants superstitious beliefs and
LiMITATiONS OF SCiENCE
o Science cannot answer all types of
o Science cannot answer questions
o Science is dependent on the required
time in solving the problem.
o Science cannot answer questions of
o Science has lack of absolute certainty
in the answer.
Lesson 1.2 Scientific Inquiry
Hypothesis is an intelligent or scientific guess
based on observation.
Theory is defined as an explanation of a
phenomena or a principle based on proven
hypothesis, subjected to multiple verifications
conducted by researchers and scientists.
Scientific Law is a precise and concise set of
actions, universally accepted to be true.
In science, the term Model refers to the illustrative
similitude of the steps or procedure to be taken in the
conduction of an experiment.
Scientific Method is a coherent and systematic
procedure of investigation. It is a reasoning process
which is used in the research for the relationships
among things and processes.
1. Stating the problem
2. Gathering of data
3. Formulating a hypothesis
5. Recording and analyzing data
6. Drawing of conclusion and formulation of theory
7. Repeating the work
Theory is generalization that is accepted as true
because it is supported by facts.
Lesson 2.1 Forces and Newton’s Laws of Motion
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Force is simply defined as “a push or pull”. It is due
to interaction between objects and force exists
because of these interactions.
Force is a vector quantity.
The Four Basic Forces of Nature:
1. Strong Nuclear Force is the binding force
Characteristics of strong nuclear force:
Charge Independence the nuclear
force between two protons is the
same as between a neutron and a
Saturation the force needed to
tear a neutron from a nucleus is
approximately the same regardless of
the number of nucleons in the
Short Range the force decreases
rapidly with increasing distance.
2. Electromagnetic Force It is a force between
particles with electric charges.
The phenomenon has two different
Electrostatic Force is the force of
two electrically charged particles
exerted is force on one another.
This force between two charges is
directly proportional to the product of
the magnitude of the charges and
inversely proportional to the square
of the distance separating the
charges. 𝑭𝑬 =
. This law is
known as Coulomb’s law.
Magnetic Force the force due to
the motion of the charges.
3. Weak nuclear force it is the force responsible for
beta decay and other decay processes involving
4. Gravitational Force is an attractive force exerted
on a body by a highly massive object towards itself.
, 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 ∶ 𝐺 = 6.667𝑥10
𝑁 ∙ 𝑚2
This formula represents the Universal Law of
Gravitation and G is the universal gravitation
Weight is a force due to gravity.
𝑾 = 𝒎 ∙ 𝒈𝒆𝒂𝒓𝒕𝒉 Where g (earth) = gravitational
acceleration on earth = 9.8 m / sec2
= 32 ft / sec2
Types of Forces:
1. Applied Force (Fapp) a force that is applied to an
object by another object.
2. Frictional Force (f) the force exerted by the
surface when an object moves across or tries to move
across the surface.
There are two main type of friction force:
Kinetic Friction is a force between
surfaces of two bodies moving
relative to one another.
Static Friction is the force between
surfaces of two non-moving bodies
relative to one another.
Pointers to be remembered about coefficient
The smoother the surface, the lesser
the value of 𝝁.
The 𝝁𝒌 is smaller than 𝝁𝒔.
Frictional forces are directly
proportional to the normal force.
3. Normal Force (N) a force exerted by a stable
object upon an object in contact with.
4. Tensile Force (T) contact force exerted by a
string, rope or wire.
5. Spring Force (Fs) a force exerted by a stretched
or compressed string to an object attached to it.
6. Air Resistance (f air) the force exerted upon
object traveling through air.
7. Buoyant Force the upward force exerted by a
fluid on a submerged or floating object.
Isaac Newton is an English scientist who
contributed outstanding work in many areas of
Newton’s Law of Motion:
1. Law of Inertia = an object at rest tends to stay at
rest and an object in motion will continue to move
with the same speed and in the same direction unless
acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Inertia is the natural tendency of an object
to resist changes in their state of motion.
2. Law of Acceleration = an object will accelerate if
there is net force acting to it.
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Momentum (p) is the product of the mass
and the velocity of a body.
𝑝 = 𝑚 ∙ 𝑣
Impulse is the change in momentum.
3. Law of Interaction = for every action there is an
equal and opposite reaction.
Lesson 2.2 Work, Power, and Energy
Work is the product of the applied force (F) in the
direction of motion and the displacement (d) through
which the force acts. 𝑾 = 𝑭 ∙ 𝒅
Power is the time rate of doing work or expanding
𝑭 ∙ 𝒅
Energy is the ability to do work, that is, it can cause
motion or changes.
Energy is a Scalar quantity – it does not have
direction. Like work, the standard metric unit of
measurement for energy is the Joule.
Forms of Energy:
1. Mechanical Energy – of a body or system is due to
its motion, its position, or its internal structure.
Two kinds of mechanical energy:
Potential Energy is the stored energy of
the body due to its position or its internal
There are three kinds of potential energy:
Elastic potential energy – is the
energy stored in a stretched or
Internal / Chemical potential energy
– is the atomic and molecular energy
of matter as a result of their bonds
and interactions with each other.
Gravitational potential energy – is
the stored energy an object ha
because of its separation from the
radius earth or relative to a particular
Kinetic Energy is the energy stored due to
the mass and velocity of a body (waves,
electrons, atoms, molecules, substances, and
objects) in motion
Motion Energy – is due to the movement
of substances and objects from one place to
There are different forms of motion
energy: vibrational (caused by vibrational force),
rotational (caused by rotational motion) and
The amount of translational kinetic
energy which an object has depends upon two
variables: mass (m) and the speed (v) 𝑲 =
Conservation of Mechanical Energy
states that the sum of the kinetic energy and
potential energy in a system is constant, if no
resistance to do work.
2. Nuclear Energy – is the energy stored in the
nucleus of an atom. This energy can be released when
the nuclei are combined (fusion) or split apart
3. Electrical Energy – is the energy due to the
movement of the electrical charges.
4. Radiant Energy – is due to electromagnetic waves
traveling as transverse wave. It includes light, x-rays,
gamma rays and radio waves.
5. Thermal energy or heat – is the energy due to the
vibration and movement of the atoms and molecules
within the particles.
Sources of Energy:
1. Renewable energy source – are sources that can be
replaced in a short period of time.
Types of renewable sources:
Biomass – is energy from plants and animals.
It is rich in carbon and hydrogen that can be
used within the natural carbon cycle.
Solar Energy – is the power from the sun,
thus it is free and inexhaustible. Solar energy
can be converted to heat energy (for heating
water in the pool, homes, or buildings) and
electricity (using photovoltaic cells or through
solar power plants).
Hydroelectric power – uses the force of
moving water to produce electricity.
Geothermal Energy – is the heat energy
produced from the earth’s core used for
heating buildings and to generate electricity.
Wind Power – advanced aerodynamics
research has developed wind turbines that
can produce electricity at a lower cost than
power from polluting coal plants. Cluster of
wind machines are called wind farms.
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2. Nonrenewable energy source – are limited and
cannot be replenished in a short period of time.
Types of non-renewable source:
Coal Energy – is one of the largest sources
fuel for electricity but the largest source of
Coal – is a black brownish – black
sedimentary rock, combustible and compost
mostly of carbons and hydrocarbons.
Natural Gas – is a source of energy from
fossils (organic materials) of plants and
Propane – is derived from processing
natural gas, which is commonly used
in the kitchen as fuel.
Petroleum (crude oil) – is primarily used for
transportation fuels, also for power
production, heat and as feedstock for
chemicals. Crude oil is a smelly yellow-to-
black liquid and is usually found in
underground areas called reservoirs.
Uranium – is the most widely used fuel by
nuclear power plants for nuclear power plants
for nuclear fission.
Lesson 2.3 Simple Machines
Simple Machine – the simple components/tools used
in complex machines.
Effort – is the force applied to the machine
Resistance – is the force (friction and/or gravity)
overcome by the machine.
When a machine takes a small input force and
increases the magnitude of the output force, the
machine produces Mechanical Advantage (MA).
Hydraulic jack is a common tool designed to
make mechanical advantage.
Guys’ yung sa page 35 diko na nilagay .
nalilito kc ako. Kayo nlang bahala e-review yun huh’
Pati yung mga formula dun . thx .
Mechanical Simple Machines:
Lever – it is the simplest machine. It is a simple log
that can multiply force and shift objects heavier than
the person holding the log.
Moment/torque – is the turning effect
produced when an effort is applied to the lever to
rotate about a point (fulcrum). Its formula is
Torque = lever arm x effort
Levers are divided into three classes:
First-class Lever – the fulcrum is located
between the effort and the load.
Second-class Lever – the fulcrum is at one end
of the lever and the load is at the other end,
the effort is applied at the other.
Third-class Lever – the fulcrum is at one end
of the lever and the load is at the other end,
the effort is applied somewhere in between.
Wheel and Axle – it is consists of a wheel rigidly
attached to an axle or shaft that turns the wheel.
Gears – are toothed wheel and axle. Gear
train is a series of intermeshing gears moving in
Gear Ratio (IMA) can be computed by
𝒏𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒆𝒆𝒕𝒉 (𝒇𝒐𝒍𝒍𝒐𝒘𝒆𝒓)
𝒏𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓 𝒐𝒇 𝒕𝒆𝒆𝒕𝒉 (𝒅𝒓𝒊𝒗𝒆𝒓)
Rack and pinion – is another example of
wheel and axle. If the pinion is rotating in a fixed
position, the rack moves in linear motion.
Pulley – it is a wheel pivoted so that it can rotate
freely about an axis through its center.
Fixed pulley – is a first-class pulley with equal
Movable pulley – is a second-class lever that
offers a gain in force.
Block – is a pulley or group of pulleys in a
frame with a hook used for attaching. Tackle and fall
are the ropes or support. The individual wheels in the
block are sheaves.
Inclined Plane – are slanted surfaces that help you
Wedge – is consists of two inclined planes set base to
Screw – it is a spiral inclined plane wrapped around a
Lesson 2.4 Heat: Chaotic Form of Energy
Temperature is the hot and cold of a body based
on our sense of touch.
Thermometer is a device that measures
temperature with some observable property, which
varies, with temperature.
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Thermal Energy is the amount of energy measured
with a thermometer which represents the collectively
kinetic energy of the molecules moving within the
Types of Thermometer
Galilean thermometer – is the first recorded
instrument for measuring temperature. A
change in temperature of the bulb gave rise
to a change in temperature in the water level
in the stem.
Mercury thermometer – the length of
mercury column varies with temperature.
Bimetallic Strip – two different thin strips of
metal riveted together and spiraled, the outer
end anchored to the thermometer case and
the inner end attached to the pointer.
Resistance thermometer – the electric
resistance of a conductor changes with
Optical pyrometer – measures very high
Celsius Scale – is commonly used in
laboratory. It has 100 equal divisions called
degrees. The melting point of water was
C under standard pressure while
water boils at standard pressure was taken to
Fahrenheit scale – was name after Gabriel
Daniel Fahrenheit. The melting point of ice
was approximately 32o
F while the boiling
point of water is 212o
Rankine scale – is the absolute zero version of
the Fahrenheit scale.
When two substances with different
temperatures are placed in thermal contact,
energy flows from the hotter substance to the
colder substance until they reach common
temperature or equilibrium. This energy is known
as heat energy.
Internal energy of the substance is the sum of all
the energies inside a substance, molecular kinetic
energy and potential energy due to molecular
forces between particles in the substance.
Sources of Heat
1. Sun – most important source of heat.
2. Earth – it contains heat in it.
3. Chemical Reactions – Oxidation and
combustion are chemical reactions that produce
4. Nuclear Energy – Can produce great amount of
5. Friction – is usually unwanted source of heat
because it may damage things.
6. Electricity – people use electricity to generate
heat that can be used to operate appliances and
Heat may cause:
1. Changes in temperature
2. Changes in size – heat is directly proportional
to the motion of the particles.
3. Changes in state
Latent Heat is the heat required to change a
substance from one state to another.
Latent Heat of vaporization – is the energy
used to change liquid to vapor.
Latent Heat of condensation – is energy
released when water vapor condenses to form
Latent Heat of fusion – describes both
changing from solid to liquid and from liquid to
Latent Heat of sublimation – describes both
changing from solid to gas and gas to solid.
Transfer to Heat – is normally from a high
temperature object to a lower temperature
Thermal Conduction – is the flow of heat from a
hot part of a body to a cooler part, without
transfer of matter.
Thermal conductors – substances that transfer
heat energy easily.
Thermal insulators – substances that resist heat
The ability of the substance to conduct heat is
measured by thermal conductivity of the
Convection of Heat – is the transfer of heat from
one place to another by motion of the heated
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Radiation of heat – is the transfer of heat energy
in the form of waves in the infrared region of the
Thermal Radiation – is a type electromagnetic
Radiation – is a form of energy transport
consisting of electromagnetic waves traveling at
the speed of light.
Thermodynamics – is a branch of science that is
concerned with the nature of heat and its
conversion to other forms of energy.
Four Classes of Thermodynamic System
1. Isolated System – matter and energy may not cross
2. Adiabatic System – heat and matter may not cross
3. Closed System – matter may not cross the
boundary; as time goes by, it tends to be in
the state of thermodynamic equilibrium.
4. Open System – matter, heat and energy may cross
1. Isobaric Process – occurs at constant pressure
2. Isothermal Process – occurs at constant
3. Isochoric Process – occurs at constant volume
4. Isentropic Process – occurs at constant entropy
5. Adiabatic Process – occurs without loss or gain of
LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS
1. Zero Law of Thermodynamics – if system A and B
are in thermal equilibrium, and system B and
C are in thermal equilibrium, then A and C are
also thermal equilibrium.
2. First Law of Thermodynamics – the increase of
energy added to the system by heating, Q,
minus the amount lost in the form of work
done by the system in its surrounding, W.
3. Second Law of Thermodynamics – this law is about
the entropy, of the system. Entropy, S, is a
measure of disorder or randomness of a
system. This law is stated as follows:
The total entropy of any isolated
thermodynamics system tends to
increase over time, approaching a
A system operating in contact with a
thermal reservoir cannot produce
positive work in its surrounding – LORD
A system operating in a cycle cannot
produce a positive heat flow from a
colder body to a hotter body –
The entropy of a closed system never
decreases – MAXWELL’s DEMON
4. Third Law of Thermodynamics – the entropy of a
system at zero absolute temperature is a well-defined
- It can also state as all processes cease as
temperature approaches absolute zero.
Lesson 3.1 ATOMS: THE UNIT PARTICLES OF MATTER
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
* All matter consists of tiny particles called
* Atoms cannot be created, destroyed,
subdivided or converted from one type to another.
* Atoms of a particular element all have the
* Atoms of different elements have different
* Atoms combine in a simple whole number
ratio to form a combination of atoms called
* A chemical change involves the joining,
separation or rearrangement of atoms.
The first subatomic particle was discovered by
Joseph Thompson, the electron. The first model of
the internal structure of the atom of the atom called
the plum-pudding model. An atom is a solid sphere of
positively charge matter (like the pudding) with
negatively charge electrons scattered throughout (like
the raisins of the pudding).
Ernest Rutherford proposed that the
positively charged particles are not distributed
throughout the atom but are concentrated in the tiny
area in the center called nucleus. This is based on his
work on thin gold foil experiment.
The positively charged particle is called
proton by Eugene Goldstein.
According to Rutherford:
The atom consists of a small heavy core
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The mass of the atom is concentrated in
The nucleus is surrounded by an electron
The atom as a whole is electrically
James Chadwick discovered uncharged
particles called neutron.
Bohr’s Atomic Model
According to Neil’s Bohr:
The atom consists of stable stationary
orbits where the electrons can revolve.
The electrons are moving particles
traveling in circular orbits at increasing
distance from the nucleus.
WAVE NATURE OF AN ELECTRON
De Broglie hypothesis – an electron has dual
properties, that of a particle and a wave. De Broglie
reasoned that if light waves can behave like a stream
of particles (photon), then perhaps particle such as
electron can possess wave properties.
Lester Germer and Clinton Davission discovered that
electron could be diffracted.
Diffraction – is the bending of waves around
Erwin Schrodinger devised a mathematical model of
an atom using the wave properties of electrons and
the mathematical methods known as Wave
mechanics. The model is called Schrodinger equation.
FOUR QUANTUM NUMBERS
1. Principal Quantum number – this tells us how far
the electron from the nucleus.
2. Azimuthal Quantum number – this number refers
to the shape of the orbital (region in space where the
electrons are probably found).
3. Magnetic Quantum number – this number tells us
the orientation of a particular orbital.
4. Magnetic Spin Quantum number – tells us two
possible orientations of electrons in an atom.
LESSON 3.2 ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS AND COMPLEX
Element – is the simplest of matter that contains one
kind of atom.
Molecules – atoms are usually bound together, this is
the simplest unit of compound.
Two types of Compound:
1. Ionic compound
When a metal and a non-metal combine in a
chemical reaction, the resulting bond is ionic bond
and the resulting compound is an ionic compound.
2. Covalent Compounds
When two non-metals combine in a chemical
reaction, the bond formed is known as covalent bond
and the compound is called covalent compound.
Molecular Networks – are composed of atoms linked
by continuous network of covalent bonds.
Diamond and Graphite are covalent-network
Diamond is bonded to four other carbon
atoms. This interconnected three-dimensional array
of strong carbon-carbon single bonds contributes to
diamond’s unusual hardness.
Graphite is arranged in layers of
interconnected hexagonal rings.
Silicon dioxide is one of the constituents of
many minerals and gemstone. SiO2 is formed by
strong, directional covalent bonds, and has a well-
defined local structure.
Zachariesen-Warren model for the structure
of SiO2 shows that the “tetrahedra” formed by the
SiO4 groups must touch each other at their corners to
form network structure, but can do at widely varying
MOLECULAR BALLS AND TUBES
Fullerenes – are molecules composed entirely of
carbon, in the form of a hollow sphere, ellipsoid, tube,
*BUCKYBALL is spherical fullerenes.
*BUCKMINSTERFULLERENCE is the smallest buckyball
and it is also called C60.
Carbon Nanotubes – are cylindrical carbon molecule
with length-to-diameter ratio greater than 1,000,000.
The discovery of carbon nanotubes was credited to
Sumio Iijima in 1991.
LESSON 3.3 CHEMICAL TRANSFORMATIONS
Chemical Reaction – is material transformation from a
beginning mass to a resulting substance.
The following are observations to indicate a chemical
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› Change in color of the substance
› Evolution of gas
› Release of heat
› Formation of precipitate
Chemical Equation – is a way to describe what goes
on in a chemical reaction, the actual change in a
𝑨𝒈𝑵𝑶𝟑(𝒂𝒒) + 𝑵𝒂𝑪𝒍(𝒂𝒒) → 𝑨𝒈𝑪𝒍(𝒔) + 𝑵𝒂𝑵𝑶𝟑(𝒂𝒒)
The arrow pointing to the right indicates the direction
of the reaction. The substances to the left of the
arrow are Reactants. The materials to the right of the
arrow are products.
Reduction-oxidation (redox) reaction – is a chemical
reaction that involves transfer of electrons from one
substance to another.
Reduction – is a process wherein a substance accepts
Oxidation – is a process wherein a substance gives off
Oxidizing agents – Substances which tend to gain
Reducing agents – Substances which tend to lose
SOME COMMON REDOX CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Combustion or burning is a redox chemical
reaction that involves the reaction of the substance
with atmospheric oxygen when it is ignited.
Incomplete combustion produces carbon
(as soot) and carbon compounds, like carbon
monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide CO2.
Burning of plastic, like PVC, produces
substances like Chlorinated dioxins or simply dioxins.
Dioxins – are carcinogenic, and directly
correlated with an increase in the likelihood of
Polystyrene (Styrofoam) – when burn in an
open air produces organic pollutants like carbon
monoxide, PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons),
carbon black, and styrene monomer, which are
harmful and carcinogenic substances.
Corrosion – is breaking down of essential
properties in a material due to chemical reactions
with its surroundings.
SEVERAL WAYS TO PREVENT RUSTING OF IRON:
1. Cover iron with paint
2. Attach a more active metal
3. Mixing or coating the iron with another metal
whose oxide is structurally stable.
Zinc is usually used as a coating in a process
Respiration – is exothermic and provides the energy
that animals require in order to survive.
Photosynthesis – is the process by which plants form
glucose; it is the reverse of respiration.
Chlorophylls – it is the green pigments of the plant.
METABOLISM: CHEMICAL REACTION IN CELLS
Digestion – the process of breaking down
mechanically or chemically into simpler
compounds the complex compounds like
carbohydrate, proteins, and fats.
Enzymes – are protein molecules that speed up
* Carbohydrates are converted into glucose
* Meat and other protein-rich is converted to
* Fats are converted into fatty acid
Metabolism – refers to the chemical reactions which
take place in the cells and tissues which are
important for the fulfillment of the vital
functions of a living organism.
Anabolism – is a continuous balance between the
synthesis of complex compounds with the
consumption of energy.
Catabolism – is the breakdown of complex molecules
with the release of energy.
Guys yung fate of carbohydrates, Protein,
tska fats dko n cnama .. nsa may page 73
9. Physical Science Page 9
to 76 po .. nllito ako eih’’ (‘^.^v) basahin niu
nlang bka masali din yun sa exm eih’
SOME HOUSEHOLD CHEMICALS AND THEIR
SYNTHETIC DETERGENTS: SURFACTANTS
Alkylbenzenesulfunates is the first synthetic
detergent. These detergents were cheaper
and unlike soap they did not form curd. They
form micelle structure in water.
Linear Alkysulfunate a detergent wherein the
branched alkyl chain was replaced with
straight alkyl chain, just like soap. It
decomposes overtime forming CO2, H2O, and
which are all found in the environment.
LAS and ABS detergents are known as
anionic detergents because the polar part of
the molecule I negative ion.
Researchers also developed cationic
detergents where the polar part is not ionic
but maintains polarity because of OH or other
Hydrogen peroxide – is a colorless, rather unstable
liquid usually marketed as 3% solution in
Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is found in
household bleach and is very strong oxidizing
CREAMS AND LOTIONS
Cream and Lotions are skin products that help the
skin maintain enough moisture.
* have emulsions of water and oil
* Lotion has more water than oil
* Cream has more oil than water
* contains emulsifying agents
* Some cream have additional ingredient like
Sunscreens are usually lotions with additional
ingredients to help absorb ultraviolet
UV light is classified into two:
UV-A extends from wavelength of
320 nm to 400 nm
UV-B extends from 280 to 320 nm.
DEODORANT AND ANTIPERSPIRANTS
Deodorants are designed to reduce body odor.
Triclosan an antibacterial agent that can kill
bacteria and thereby eliminate the odor that
produced by ammonia or hydrogen sulfide.
Antiperspirant reduces the amount of perspiration
that sweat glands produce. It contains
Antioxidants are substances that retard oxidation
FOOD ADDITIVES AND COLORINGS
Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) is a salt of non-
essential amino acid, glutamic acid. It is white
crystalline powder, when dissolved in water, it
dissociates to sodium and glutamic acid.
Umami – unique taste of MSG.
Excitoxin – is a chemical that damage and kill
Sulfur dioxide – it helps maintain the
appearance of the fruit and prevent the fruit
Nitrates and nitrites – are primarily used for
preserving meat products such as longanisa,
tocino, sausages, ham, hotdogs, bacon and
Nitrosamines – powerful carcinogens, which
combine with stomach acids and chemicals in
Food Colorings – are substances added to
food and beverages to change or enhance
Artificial sweeteners – are also common
additives in food products that we buy from
supermarkets. They duplicate the effect of
sugar or corn syrup in taste but usually have
less food energy.
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Aspartame – is an artificial, non-
saccharide sweetener and is about
200 times as sweet as sugar with no
Saccharin – is an artificial sweetener
with effectively no food energy and is
about 300 times sweet as sucrose.
Sucralose – is chlorinated sugar and
600 times sweeter than sucrose.
Kung may mali po sa reviewer na to’ pki
CORRECT nlang po’ marami yta 2ng kulang ewn ko
lang feeling lang (^.^v) dagdagan niu nlang …..
GOODLUCK SA TEST BLOCKMATES!!!!