Sustainable 
and 
Smart 
City 
: 
AUST 
Summer 
Course 
Chapter 
5 
: 
Smart 
Electrical 
Grid 
Professor 
Isam 
SHAHROUR ...
Ø Electrical 
distribu.on 
system 
Ø Electrical 
Smart 
Grid 
Ø Smart 
Grid 
Pilot
Sources 
of 
electricity 
in 
the 
world
(1) 
(2) 
(3) 
(5) 
(4) 
Electrical 
grid 
system
Lignes 
HTB 
(Haute 
Tension) 
(400 
kV) 
Lignes 
HTA 
(Moyenne 
Tension) 
(63 
à 
225 
kV) 
Ligne 
Basse 
Tension 
(230 
...
Electrical 
Grid 
– 
France 
ERDF 
RTE
Electrical 
ConsumpRon, 
France 
August, 
16, 
2014
Electrical 
ConsumpRon, 
France 
2014 
February, 
11, 
2014 
June 
17, 
2014
Distributed 
Electrical 
grid 
(Renewable 
energy, 
storage) 
ConsumpRon 
ProducRon 
Storage
Lebanon 
electrical 
system 
Electricity 
of 
Lebanon: 
• Public 
establishment 
with 
an 
industrial 
and 
commercial 
vo...
Lebanon 
Other 
actors 
: 
• hydroelectric 
power 
plants 
of 
Litani 
River 
Authority, 
• Concessions 
for 
hydroelectri...
Lebanon 
The 
transmission 
network 
consists 
of 
• High 
voltage 
power 
lines 
(66, 
150, 
and 
220 
kV 
) 
• More 
tha...
The 
government 
has 
contractually 
agreed 
to 
a 
three 
year 
service 
of 
two 
Turkish 
power 
ships 
that 
will 
prov...
Poor 
performance 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
1. Aging 
power 
plants: 
• The 
last 
power 
plant 
was 
installed 
in 
t...
Poor 
performance 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
3. 
Sub-­‐opRmal 
fuel 
mix 
Beddawi 
and 
Zahrani 
(435 
MW) 
are 
equipp...
Poor 
performance 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
4. 
Large 
Losses 
in 
Transmission 
and 
DistribuRon 
About 
15% 
of 
the...
Technical 
Losses 
and 
Power 
Shortages 
in 
MW 
(2009), 
Copyrights: 
Carboun
Challenges 
of 
the 
electrical 
system
Challenges 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
1. 
Growing 
power 
demand 
Combina.on 
of 
growing 
demand 
for 
electricity 
an...
Department 
of 
Energy 
US
Challenges 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
2. 
IntegraRng 
of 
renewable 
energy 
The 
increase 
development 
of 
renewable ...
Challenges 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
3. 
Increase 
the 
efficiency 
of 
the 
system 
• Around 
66% 
of 
the 
primary 
...
Challenges 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
4. 
Increase 
the 
reliability 
and 
stability 
of 
the 
grid 
The 
stability 
an...
Energy 
Security 
US 
Blackout 
(2003) 
• 50 
Million 
people 
Other 
blackout 
: 
• Italy 
(2003): 
$ 
55 
billions 
• In...
Cost 
of 
the 
electrical 
outage 
in 
the 
United 
States 
: 
between 
$80 
billion 
and 
$188 
billion 
/year
Challenges 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
5. 
Increase 
the 
compaRbility 
and 
standardizaRon 
Compa.bility 
is 
vital 
fo...
Challenges 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
6. 
Update 
the 
grid 
to 
the 
new 
market 
(price 
variaRon) 
In 
an 
open 
ele...
Challenges 
of 
the 
electrical 
system 
7. 
Decrease 
the 
peak 
demand 
: 
Huge 
save 
in 
the 
infrastructure 
Deployin...
Movies 
A1 
to 
A3
Ø Electrical 
distribu.on 
system 
Ø Electrical 
Smart 
Grid 
Ø Pilot 
project
Health, 
Educa.on 
Art, 
Culture
SubstaRon 
monitoring 
Ba`ery 
Central 
Unit 
CommunicaRon 
system 
Smart 
short 
Circuit 
Motor 
Current 
Sensor 
Voltage...
Smart 
Grid 
provides 
1. OpRmal 
management 
of 
the 
demand-­‐ 
response 
• Enhance 
the 
demand 
es.ma.on 
with 
regula...
Smart 
Grid 
provides 
2. 
Security 
and 
reliability 
Reduce 
and 
minimize 
the 
service 
fault 
using 
protec.on 
and 
...
Smart 
Grid 
provides 
3. 
Enhance 
the 
resilience 
The 
smart 
grid 
enhances 
the 
electrical 
and 
urban 
system 
resi...
Smart 
Grid 
provides 
4. 
Increase 
the 
end-­‐users 
involvement 
conver.ng 
“customers” 
into 
“prosumers”: 
• The 
glo...
Smart 
Grid 
pilot 
SunRise 
“demonstrator 
of 
the 
Smart 
and 
Sustainable 
City
Electrical 
Grid 
Figure 
1: 
The 
Electrical 
Grid 
of 
Lille 
1 
-­‐ 
ScienRfic 
Campus 
/ 
High 
Tension 
Lines 
(Red) ...
SubstaRon 
M1 
Transformers 
High 
Tension 
Distribu.on 
Panel 
(TGHT)
Low 
Voltage 
DistribuRon 
Panel 
(TGBT)
Figure 
7: 
Vertelis 
Soeware 
Monitoring 
system 
The 
system 
provides 
: 
• Automa.c 
reading 
of 
energy 
indexes 
wit...
Electricity 
price 
5 
rates 
depending 
on 
the 
Rme 
of 
day 
and 
the 
season
IUT 
A 
– 
DAILY 
consump.on 
DATA 
March 
1st, 
2013 
– 
June 
30th, 
2013 
Winter 
Rates 
HPH, 
HPE 
Summer 
Rates 
HPE,...
IUT 
A 
– 
DAILY 
consump.on 
DATA 
March 
1st, 
2013 
– 
June 
30th, 
2013 
5 
000 
4 
500 
4 
000 
3 
500 
3 
000 
2 
50...
IUT 
A 
– 
DAILY 
consump.on 
DATA 
Oct. 
1st, 
2013 
– 
Feb. 
28th, 
2014 
5 
000 
4 
500 
4 
000 
3 
500 
3 
000 
2 
500...
IUT 
A 
– 
monthly 
Consump.on 
Comparison 
Month ConsumpRon 
[kWh] 
March 104,656 
April 116,569 
May 123,187 
June 109,7...
Consump.on 
by 
sector 
March 
1st, 
2013 
– 
Oct. 
15th, 
2013 
1600000 
1400000 
1200000 
1000000 
800000 
600000 
40000...
Ranking 
By 
Building 
March 
1st, 
2013 
– 
October 
15th, 
2013 
1200000 
1000000 
800000 
600000 
400000 
200000 
0 
M4...
Thank 
you
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 5 “Smart Electrical Grid” American Universit...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 5 “Smart Electrical Grid” American Universit...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 5 “Smart Electrical Grid” American Universit...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 5 “Smart Electrical Grid” American Universit...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 5 “Smart Electrical Grid” American Universit...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 5 “Smart Electrical Grid” American Universit...
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Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City » Chapter 5 “Smart Electrical Grid” American University of Science and Technology August 2014

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This lecture presents the Smart Electrical Grid Concept. It includes a presentation of the electrical distribution system, the Electrical Smart Grid and the implementation of this concept in the SunRise demonstrator “Smart and Sustainable City - Lille1 Campus – France”

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Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City » Chapter 5 “Smart Electrical Grid” American University of Science and Technology August 2014

  1. 1. Sustainable and Smart City : AUST Summer Course Chapter 5 : Smart Electrical Grid Professor Isam SHAHROUR Isam.shahrour@univ-­‐lille1.fr
  2. 2. Ø Electrical distribu.on system Ø Electrical Smart Grid Ø Smart Grid Pilot
  3. 3. Sources of electricity in the world
  4. 4. (1) (2) (3) (5) (4) Electrical grid system
  5. 5. Lignes HTB (Haute Tension) (400 kV) Lignes HTA (Moyenne Tension) (63 à 225 kV) Ligne Basse Tension (230 et 400 V) France (1) (2) (3) (5) (6) (4)
  6. 6. Electrical Grid – France ERDF RTE
  7. 7. Electrical ConsumpRon, France August, 16, 2014
  8. 8. Electrical ConsumpRon, France 2014 February, 11, 2014 June 17, 2014
  9. 9. Distributed Electrical grid (Renewable energy, storage) ConsumpRon ProducRon Storage
  10. 10. Lebanon electrical system Electricity of Lebanon: • Public establishment with an industrial and commercial voca.on. • Founded in 1966 • Responsible for the genera.on, transmission and distribu.on of the electricity in Lebanon. • Controls over 90% of the Lebanese electricity sector
  11. 11. Lebanon Other actors : • hydroelectric power plants of Litani River Authority, • Concessions for hydroelectric power plants such as Nahr Ibrahim and Al Bared • Distribu.on concessions in Zahle, Jbeil, Aley, and Bhamdoun.
  12. 12. Lebanon The transmission network consists of • High voltage power lines (66, 150, and 220 kV ) • More than 1 615 km (1336 km of overhead lines and 279km of underground cables) of various voltages used for transmission and distribu.on. • 58 power substa.ons conver.ng power from high voltage to medium voltage. • Substa.ons conver.ng power from medium to low voltage (more than 15,000 transformers )
  13. 13. The government has contractually agreed to a three year service of two Turkish power ships that will provide 270 MW
  14. 14. Poor performance of the electrical system 1. Aging power plants: • The last power plant was installed in the early 2000s. • Around 50% of the installed capacity is 20 to 40 years old (life span between 20 to 30 years ; requires con.nuous maintenance) • 10% of the genera.on capacity is even over 40 years old 2. Lack of maintenance: Power plants are subject to long periods of opera.on at high loads with li`le maintenance which reduces their life.me and their efficiency.
  15. 15. Poor performance of the electrical system 3. Sub-­‐opRmal fuel mix Beddawi and Zahrani (435 MW) are equipped with combined cycle gas turbines, which are designed to best operate using natural gas. Both use gas-­‐oil which substan.ally reduces the plants’ efficiency and rapidly degrades the turbines.
  16. 16. Poor performance of the electrical system 4. Large Losses in Transmission and DistribuRon About 15% of the energy losses (8-­‐10% in Western countries), due to : • Lack of rehabilita.on of power lines • inadequacy in the number of substa.ons
  17. 17. Technical Losses and Power Shortages in MW (2009), Copyrights: Carboun
  18. 18. Challenges of the electrical system
  19. 19. Challenges of the electrical system 1. Growing power demand Combina.on of growing demand for electricity and the need to upgrade exis.ng equipment requires massive investment. The Interna.onal Energy Agency es.ma.on for 2030: -­‐ over $6 trillion of investment in transmission and distribu.on and as much for genera.on. -­‐ 5,087 GW of genera.ng capacity with 2,700 GW for developing countries (1,100 GW in China).
  20. 20. Department of Energy US
  21. 21. Challenges of the electrical system 2. IntegraRng of renewable energy The increase development of renewable energy requires development of innova.ve solu.ons (technology, storage, sogware, management skills) for an effec.ve integra.on of different sources into the electrical grid with addi.onal capacity in the response demand strategy.
  22. 22. Challenges of the electrical system 3. Increase the efficiency of the system • Around 66% of the primary energy is lost in power conversion (genera.on), • Up to 16% of the electricity is lost in the grid (US Energy AdministraRon esRmated the cost of electrical lost to $20 billion in 2005).
  23. 23. Challenges of the electrical system 4. Increase the reliability and stability of the grid The stability and reliability of the electrical supply is vital for industry, services and life quality. Supply faults could cause huge disturbance and economic lost.
  24. 24. Energy Security US Blackout (2003) • 50 Million people Other blackout : • Italy (2003): $ 55 billions • Indonesia (2005) $ 100 billions • 24 hours for full recovery • Cost: $6 to $10 billion
  25. 25. Cost of the electrical outage in the United States : between $80 billion and $188 billion /year
  26. 26. Challenges of the electrical system 5. Increase the compaRbility and standardizaRon Compa.bility is vital for interconnec.ng systems between countries or across con.nents.
  27. 27. Challenges of the electrical system 6. Update the grid to the new market (price variaRon) In an open electrical markets, the price of electricity could fluctuate widely by the hour or even by the minute. Innova.on is required to help users to beneficiate from these opportuni.es or (and) reduce their impact.
  28. 28. Challenges of the electrical system 7. Decrease the peak demand : Huge save in the infrastructure Deploying ba-ery storage in commercial buildings: opportuni6es and challenges, 5 June 2013 | Issue 3 By Amir Kavousian, Jus6n Ho, Larry Win, and Heming Yip
  29. 29. Movies A1 to A3
  30. 30. Ø Electrical distribu.on system Ø Electrical Smart Grid Ø Pilot project
  31. 31. Health, Educa.on Art, Culture
  32. 32. SubstaRon monitoring Ba`ery Central Unit CommunicaRon system Smart short Circuit Motor Current Sensor Voltage Sensor
  33. 33. Smart Grid provides 1. OpRmal management of the demand-­‐ response • Enhance the demand es.ma.on with regular update • Enhance the es.ma.on of the energy sources availability (renewable energy and storage capacity included) and with regular update. This es.ma.on could by conducted at small and large scales. • Applica.on of incen.ve measurement (price varia.on) for the reduc.on of the peak consump.on. • Adapta.on of the electrical produc.on to the demand.
  34. 34. Smart Grid provides 2. Security and reliability Reduce and minimize the service fault using protec.on and control devices across the grid. • Rapid localiza.on of the fault. • Rapid and automa.c interven.on to confine the system fault and limit its extension. • Rapid repara.on and system re-­‐start
  35. 35. Smart Grid provides 3. Enhance the resilience The smart grid enhances the electrical and urban system resilience: -­‐ Develop a global understanding of the electrical system and its interac.on with other systems (networks, end-­‐users, environment,..) -­‐ Learn from the system failure (due to natural disaster, technical or human factors) -­‐ Improve the system capacity to face failure risk -­‐ Improve the system self healing
  36. 36. Smart Grid provides 4. Increase the end-­‐users involvement conver.ng “customers” into “prosumers”: • The global informa.on system leads to be`er usage adjustments and cost management. • Consumers can use more efficiently local produc.on and storage.
  37. 37. Smart Grid pilot SunRise “demonstrator of the Smart and Sustainable City
  38. 38. Electrical Grid Figure 1: The Electrical Grid of Lille 1 -­‐ ScienRfic Campus / High Tension Lines (Red) & Low (Basse) Tension Lines (Blue) 19 Substa.ons
  39. 39. SubstaRon M1 Transformers High Tension Distribu.on Panel (TGHT)
  40. 40. Low Voltage DistribuRon Panel (TGBT)
  41. 41. Figure 7: Vertelis Soeware Monitoring system The system provides : • Automa.c reading of energy indexes with automa.c repor.ng • Load curves • Sta.s.cs (min, max, average, etc.) • Events related to the energy quality • Status of the system
  42. 42. Electricity price 5 rates depending on the Rme of day and the season
  43. 43. IUT A – DAILY consump.on DATA March 1st, 2013 – June 30th, 2013 Winter Rates HPH, HPE Summer Rates HPE, HCE ConsumpRon [kWh] Total 454,124
  44. 44. IUT A – DAILY consump.on DATA March 1st, 2013 – June 30th, 2013 5 000 4 500 4 000 3 500 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 Friday, March 01, 2013 Friday, March 08, 2013 Friday, March 15, 2013 Friday, March 22, 2013 Friday, March 29, 2013 Friday, April 05, 2013 Friday, April 12, 2013 Friday, April 19, 2013 Friday, April 26, 2013 Friday, May 03, 2013 Friday, May 10, 2013 Friday, May 17, 2013 Friday, May 24, 2013 Friday, May 31, 2013 Friday, June 07, 2013 Friday, June 14, 2013 Friday, June 21, 2013 Friday, June 28, 2013 ConsumpRon [kWh]
  45. 45. IUT A – DAILY consump.on DATA Oct. 1st, 2013 – Feb. 28th, 2014 5 000 4 500 4 000 3 500 3 000 2 500 2 000 1 500 1 000 500 0 ConsumpRon [kWh]
  46. 46. IUT A – monthly Consump.on Comparison Month ConsumpRon [kWh] March 104,656 April 116,569 May 123,187 June 109,712 October 119,665 November 26,868 December 107,056 January 115,303 February 108,369 Total 931,385 July & August were leg out of this comparison, due to the fact that they are vaca.on months. 140 000 120 000 100 000 80 000 60 000 40 000 20 000 0 ConsumpRon [kWh]
  47. 47. Consump.on by sector March 1st, 2013 – Oct. 15th, 2013 1600000 1400000 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0
  48. 48. Ranking By Building March 1st, 2013 – October 15th, 2013 1200000 1000000 800000 600000 400000 200000 0 M4 Polytech IUT A Ecole Centrale C4 Camus C9 ConsumpRon [kWh]
  49. 49. Thank you

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