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Sustainable	
  and	
  Smart	
  City	
  :	
  
	
  AUST	
  Summer	
  Course	
  
Chapter	
  2	
  :	
  Sustainable	
  City	
  ...
Sustainable	
  City:	
  	
  
A	
  city	
  that	
  contributes	
  to	
  sustainable	
  development	
  
InternaDonal	
  conc...
Q1	
  :	
  What	
  is	
  Sustainability	
  ?	
  
Q3	
  :	
  What	
  are	
  the	
  city	
  challenges	
  regarding	
  
sust...
Sustainable	
  development	
  Dmeline	
  	
  	
  
Sustainable	
  development	
  Dmeline	
  	
  	
  
1996	
  –	
  Habitat	
  Agenda	
  Istanbul	
  
Sustainable	
  development	
  Dmeline	
  	
  	
  
Sustainable	
  development	
  Dmeline	
  	
  	
  
Sustainable	
  development	
  in	
  France	
  	
  
Grenelle	
  1:	
  2009	
   Grenelle	
  2:	
  2010	
  
Sustainable	
  development	
  is	
  development	
  that	
  
meets	
  the	
  needs	
  of	
  the	
  present	
  without	
  
c...
Two	
  key	
  concepts:	
  
•  The	
  concept	
  of	
  'needs',	
  in	
  par?cular	
  the	
  
essen?al	
  needs	
  of	
  t...
Sustainability	
  	
  
A sustainable city :
A	
  city	
  designed,	
  built,	
  and	
  managed	
  in	
  a	
  manner	
  
where	
  ci?zens	
  meet	...
•  A0	
  :	
  Agenda	
  21	
  
•  A1	
  Sustainable	
  Development	
  and	
  2	
  -­‐	
  2	
  Educa?on	
  -­‐	
  
YouTube....
Sustainable	
  development	
  	
  
1.	
  Environment	
  :	
  
-­‐  PreservaDon	
  of	
  natural	
  resources:	
  
Water,	
...
1.	
  Environment	
  :	
  
-­‐  Land	
  protecDon	
  
Agriculture	
  area,	
  Green	
  space,	
  Drainage	
  
space	
  (wa...
Sustainable	
  City	
  	
  
•  Social	
  exclusion,	
  minority,	
  social	
  mixity	
  	
  
•  Children,	
  women,	
  	
 ...
Sustainable	
  City	
  	
  
3.	
  Economy	
  
•  Economic	
  development	
  	
  (Jobs,	
  income	
  
increase….)	
  
•  Co...
Q1	
  :	
  What	
  is	
  Sustainability	
  ?	
  
Q3	
  :	
  What	
  are	
  the	
  city	
  challenges	
  regarding	
  
sust...
Indicators	
  are	
  needed	
  for:	
  
•  	
  Observa?on,	
  	
  
•  	
  Analysis,	
  	
  Understanding	
  	
  
•  Planni...
Indicators	
  of	
  sustainable	
  development	
  are	
  
crucial	
  for:	
  
•  Crea?ng	
  a	
  “concrete	
  defini?on”	
 ...
In	
  1995	
  the	
  Commission	
  on	
  Sustainable	
  Development	
  of	
  
United	
  Na?ons	
  (CSD)	
  proposed	
  a	
...
2001	
  :	
  «	
  Blue	
  Book	
  »	
  Second	
  Edi?on	
  :134	
  	
  indicators	
  were	
  
reduced	
  to	
  58	
  
New	
  set	
  of	
  indicators	
  14	
  themes	
  :	
  
In	
  France	
  :	
  Grenelle	
  de	
  l’environnement	
  
2009	
  :	
  Grernelle	
  1	
  	
  
2010	
  :	
  Grenelles	
  2...
Grenelle	
  1	
  :	
  13	
  areas	
  of	
  SD	
  
United	
  Kingdom	
  
13	
  indictors	
  
Q1	
  :	
  What	
  is	
  Sustainability	
  ?	
  
Q3	
  :	
  What	
  are	
  the	
  city	
  challenges	
  regarding	
  
sust...
3.1	
  City	
  structure	
  and	
  organisa?on	
  
The	
  City	
  :	
  CiDzen	
  &	
  acDvity	
  	
  	
  
The	
  City	
  :	
  
	
  buildings	
  (habitaDon,	
  services	
  and	
  work)	
  
The City : infrastructures
•  Water	
  (drinking	
  and	
  sewage)	
  
•  Energy	
  (gas,	
  electricity,	
  hea?ng)	
  
•  Telecommunica?ons	
  
Urb...
Urban	
  Networks	
  in	
  Jakarta	
  were	
  designed	
  	
  for	
  one	
  
million	
  
	
  In	
  2011,	
  the	
  city	
 ...
3.2	
  City	
  organizaDon	
  	
  
Local	
  	
  government	
  	
  &	
  competency	
  	
  	
  
The	
  City:	
  part	
  of	
  larger	
  enDDes	
  :	
  
Metropolis,	
  Department,	
  Region,	
  State,	
  Great	
  
regio...
Local	
  gouvernement	
  in	
  France	
  	
  
•  Municipality	
  :	
  36	
  700	
  (in	
  1884)	
  
•  Department	
  :	
  ...
Local	
  gouvernement	
  In	
  France	
  	
  
Intercommunalités	
  (Federa?on	
  of	
  Ci?es)	
  
Local	
  gouvernement	
  In	
  France	
  	
  
Intercommunalités	
  (Federa?on	
  of	
  Ci?es)	
  
•  Communautés	
  Urbain...
ResponsibiliDes	
  &	
  Competency	
  	
  	
  
Region	
   	
  Department	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  City	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  	
...
Lebanon	
  	
  
Municipality	
  (Baladiya):	
  661	
  
Elected	
  Municipality	
  Council	
  (8	
  to	
  24)	
  
Beirut	
 ...
Lebanon	
  :	
  	
  
The	
  government	
  Decentralized	
  Services	
  
Lebanon	
  :	
  Decentralized	
  Services	
  (government)	
  
20	
  	
  
Government	
  (decentralized	
  services):	
  
•  Civil	
  registra?on	
  	
  
•  Public	
  order,	
  	
  
•  Energy	
  di...
•  Mainly	
  old	
  ci?es	
  
•  Constructed	
  in	
  the	
  15th	
  -­‐	
  20th	
  
•  Largely	
  expanded	
  laer	
  
• ...
80%	
  (France)	
  
Poor	
  quality	
  buildings	
  
3.3	
  Unsustainable	
  expansion	
  
Developed	
  countries	
  	
  
Today	
  :	
  Inadequate	
  Infrastructures	
  
•  Rapid	
  city	
  expansion	
  
•  Unsustainable	
  urbaniza?on	
  
•  M...
Barriers	
  :	
  
-­‐  Need	
  for	
  huge	
  investment	
  (crisis	
  context)	
  
-­‐  Lack	
  of	
  major	
  innova?ons...
•  Huge	
  expansion	
  of	
  urban	
  areas	
  
(Related	
  to	
  job	
  and	
  services	
  demands)	
  
•  Slums	
  
•  ...
•  Urban	
  planning	
  	
  
•  Lack	
  of	
  funding	
  
•  Lack	
  of	
  qualifica?on(technology,	
  management,…)	
  	
 ...
Huge	
  need	
  for	
  :	
  
•  buildings	
  &	
  Infrastructures,	
  
•  	
  Basic	
  services	
  (educa?on,	
  health)	
...
3.4	
  Funding	
  	
  of	
  sustainable	
  
development	
  of	
  the	
  city	
  	
  
Pubic	
  funding	
  :	
  
State,	
  Region,	
  City	
  
3.4	
  Funding	
  	
  of	
  sustainable	
  development	
  
Private...
A6	
  The	
  failings	
  of	
  our	
  city	
  
A7	
  Urban	
  Design	
  for	
  Successful	
  Ci?es	
  	
  Alexandros	
  Wa...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City »  Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of ...
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Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City » Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of Science and Technology August 2014.

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This lecture presents the Sustainable City Concept. It includes a historical overview of the sustainable development concept, the sustainability indicators, the local government organization and the application of the sustainability approach to the City.

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Professor Isam Shahrour Summer Course « Smart and Sustainable City » Chapter 2 “Sustainable City” American University of Science and Technology August 2014.

  1. 1. Sustainable  and  Smart  City  :    AUST  Summer  Course   Chapter  2  :  Sustainable  City       Professor  Isam  SHAHROUR     Isam.shahrour@univ-­‐lille1.fr  
  2. 2. Sustainable  City:     A  city  that  contributes  to  sustainable  development   InternaDonal  concern  and  priority  since  about  40  years  
  3. 3. Q1  :  What  is  Sustainability  ?   Q3  :  What  are  the  city  challenges  regarding   sustainability  ?   3  QuesDons     Q2:  What  are  the  city  sustainability  indicators  ?    
  4. 4. Sustainable  development  Dmeline      
  5. 5. Sustainable  development  Dmeline      
  6. 6. 1996  –  Habitat  Agenda  Istanbul   Sustainable  development  Dmeline      
  7. 7. Sustainable  development  Dmeline      
  8. 8. Sustainable  development  in  France     Grenelle  1:  2009   Grenelle  2:  2010  
  9. 9. Sustainable  development  is  development  that   meets  the  needs  of  the  present  without   compromising  the  ability  of  future  generaDons  to   meet  their  own  needs.     What  is  “Sustainable  development”  ?    Report  “Our  Common  Future”  (1987)  of  the   World  Commission  on  Environment  and   Development  (General  Assembly  of  the  UN)  
  10. 10. Two  key  concepts:   •  The  concept  of  'needs',  in  par?cular  the   essen?al  needs  of  the  world's  poor,  to  which   priority  should  be  given.   •  The  idea  of  limita?ons  imposed  by  the  state  of   technology  and  social  organiza?on  on  the   environment's  ability  to  meet  present  and   future  needs   Sustainable  development  
  11. 11. Sustainability    
  12. 12. A sustainable city : A  city  designed,  built,  and  managed  in  a  manner   where  ci?zens  meet  their  own  needs     without     endangering  the  well-­‐being  of  the  natural  world  or   the  living  condi?ons  of  other  people,  now  or  in   the  future”  
  13. 13. •  A0  :  Agenda  21   •  A1  Sustainable  Development  and  2  -­‐  2  Educa?on  -­‐   YouTube.   •  A2  Social  Policies  for  Sustainable  Development  -­‐   YouTube   •  A3    Jaime  Lerner_  Sing  a  song  of  sustainable  ci?es  -­‐   YouTube  copie.flv   VIDEOS  
  14. 14. Sustainable  development     1.  Environment  :   -­‐  PreservaDon  of  natural  resources:   Water,  Energy,  Construc?on  material,  Other   materials   PolluDon  reducDon:      Air,  Water,  Soils   Waste  treatment  &  recycling   Solid  waste,  Water  sewage,  demoli?on   materials,  industrial  wastes,…  
  15. 15. 1.  Environment  :   -­‐  Land  protecDon   Agriculture  area,  Green  space,  Drainage   space  (water  infiltra?on,..)   QuesDon  :  Intense  city  ?         Sustainable  development     -­‐  Natural  disaster     -­‐  Protec?on,  Emergency,  Resilience      
  16. 16. Sustainable  City     •  Social  exclusion,  minority,  social  mixity     •  Children,  women,     •  Social  aid   •  Services  expenses  modula?on  (housing,   transport,  educa?on,  health,..)   •  Old  people  services   2.  Social     •  Poverty     •  Housing   •  Health,  Educa?on   •  Governance  par?cipa?on    
  17. 17. Sustainable  City     3.  Economy   •  Economic  development    (Jobs,  income   increase….)   •  Cost  saving   •  Economic  transi?on  :  from    old  industry   to  modern  economy     •  Research  and  innova?on   •  Digital  integra?on     •  Arac?veness  &  compe??veness    
  18. 18. Q1  :  What  is  Sustainability  ?   Q3  :  What  are  the  city  challenges  regarding   sustainability  ?   3  QuesDons     Q2:  What  are  the  city  sustainability  indicators  ?    
  19. 19. Indicators  are  needed  for:   •   Observa?on,     •   Analysis,    Understanding     •  Planning,  Control   “We  can  not  control  what  we    do  not   measure”   Indicator : some thing that indicates the state or level of something (Oxford Dictionary)
  20. 20. Indicators  of  sustainable  development  are   crucial  for:   •  Crea?ng  a  “concrete  defini?on”  of   sustainability.     •  Elabora?on  of    strategy  with  goals  to  be   achieved  and  means  to  be  mobilized.     •  Tracking  progress  towards  goal.   •  In  case  of  a  gap  between  goal  and  realiza?on,   readjus?ng  the  strategy.  
  21. 21. In  1995  the  Commission  on  Sustainable  Development  of   United  Na?ons  (CSD)  proposed  a  set  of  indicators  for  SD   1995  :  «  Blue  Book  »  :134    indicators  for  sustainable   development    
  22. 22. 2001  :  «  Blue  Book  »  Second  Edi?on  :134    indicators  were   reduced  to  58  
  23. 23. New  set  of  indicators  14  themes  :  
  24. 24. In  France  :  Grenelle  de  l’environnement   2009  :  Grernelle  1     2010  :  Grenelles  2    
  25. 25. Grenelle  1  :  13  areas  of  SD  
  26. 26. United  Kingdom  
  27. 27. 13  indictors  
  28. 28. Q1  :  What  is  Sustainability  ?   Q3  :  What  are  the  city  challenges  regarding   sustainability  ?   3  QuesDons     Q2:  What  are  the  city  sustainability  indicators  ?     •  City  structure  and  organisaDon   •  Local    government    &  competency     •  Unsustainable  expansion   •  Funding  of  the  city  sustainable  development  
  29. 29. 3.1  City  structure  and  organisa?on  
  30. 30. The  City  :  CiDzen  &  acDvity      
  31. 31. The  City  :    buildings  (habitaDon,  services  and  work)  
  32. 32. The City : infrastructures
  33. 33. •  Water  (drinking  and  sewage)   •  Energy  (gas,  electricity,  hea?ng)   •  Telecommunica?ons   Urban  Networks:  the  vein  of  the  city   •  Buried  (invisible,  ...)   •  Mixed  (old  and  new,  some  more  than   150  years  old)   •  Huge  investment  and  opera?ng  costs   •   high  interdependency  
  34. 34. Urban  Networks  in  Jakarta  were  designed    for  one   million    In  2011,  the  city  has  more  than  18  million   Networks  may  be  undersized:     In  some  ciDes,  water  leakage    could  reach  40%  
  35. 35. 3.2  City  organizaDon     Local    government    &  competency      
  36. 36. The  City:  part  of  larger  enDDes  :   Metropolis,  Department,  Region,  State,  Great   region,…   CITY    State  
  37. 37. Local  gouvernement  in  France     •  Municipality  :  36  700  (in  1884)   •  Department  :  101  (in  1871)   •  Region  :  22  (in  1982)          2015  :  Reduc?on  to  12    
  38. 38. Local  gouvernement  In  France     Intercommunalités  (Federa?on  of  Ci?es)  
  39. 39. Local  gouvernement  In  France     Intercommunalités  (Federa?on  of  Ci?es)   •  Communautés  Urbaines  (>  250  000  )  (in   1966)  (nombre  15)   •  Communautés  d’aggloméra?ons  (>15  000  )   •  Communauté  de  communes    
  40. 40. ResponsibiliDes  &  Competency       Region    Department            City                              State    
  41. 41. Lebanon     Municipality  (Baladiya):  661   Elected  Municipality  Council  (8  to  24)   Beirut  :  16  elected  +  8  nominated       Federa?on  of  municipali?es  :  50  
  42. 42. Lebanon  :     The  government  Decentralized  Services  
  43. 43. Lebanon  :  Decentralized  Services  (government)   20    
  44. 44. Government  (decentralized  services):   •  Civil  registra?on     •  Public  order,     •  Energy  distribu?on,     •  urban  transport,  road,     •  health,  sports  and  recrea?on,   •   Economic  development,     •  trading  ac?vi?es   Lebanon    Competency     Municipality  and  Federa?on  of  municipali?es   •    Local  issues    
  45. 45. •  Mainly  old  ci?es   •  Constructed  in  the  15th  -­‐  20th   •  Largely  expanded  laer   •  Related  to  the  industrial  and  economic   development     •  Large  construc?on  programs  aser  the  2nd   world  war  (Europe)      3.3  Unsustainable  expansion   Developed  countries    
  46. 46. 80%  (France)   Poor  quality  buildings   3.3  Unsustainable  expansion   Developed  countries    
  47. 47. Today  :  Inadequate  Infrastructures   •  Rapid  city  expansion   •  Unsustainable  urbaniza?on   •  Mixed  :  old  (more  than  150  years),  new  …   •  Lack  of  maintenance   •  Lack  of  investment     •  Increase  quality  demand   •  Responsibility  (??)   3.3  Unsustainable  expansion   Developed  countries    
  48. 48. Barriers  :   -­‐  Need  for  huge  investment  (crisis  context)   -­‐  Lack  of  major  innova?ons  in  urban   infrastructures     -­‐  Socio-­‐economic  model  (role  of  the  private   sector,  taxes,  social  model,....)   -­‐  Cultural  change,   -­‐  Governance  (responsibility,….)   3.3  Unsustainable  expansion   Developed  countries    
  49. 49. •  Huge  expansion  of  urban  areas   (Related  to  job  and  services  demands)   •  Slums   •  Lack  of  buildings  &  infrastructures     •  Poor  quality  construc?on   •  Poor  basic  infrastructure  (drinking  water,   sanita?on,  energy,  roads)   •  Urban  planning  ?     2.  Unsustainable  expansion   2.2  Low  income  countries  
  50. 50. •  Urban  planning     •  Lack  of  funding   •  Lack  of  qualifica?on(technology,  management,…)     •  Corrup?on         3.3  Unsustainable  expansion   Low  income  countries  
  51. 51. Huge  need  for  :   •  buildings  &  Infrastructures,   •   Basic  services  (educa?on,  health)   •  Economic  development  (jobs,…)     •  Qualifica?ons  (building  capacity)   QuesDon  of   •  Investment  (huge)   •  Interna?onal  aid  (interna?onal  concern)   •  Governance  :  transparency,  corrup?on,     •  Building  capacity     3.3  Unsustainable  expansion   Low  income  countries  
  52. 52. 3.4  Funding    of  sustainable   development  of  the  city    
  53. 53. Pubic  funding  :   State,  Region,  City   3.4  Funding    of  sustainable  development   Private  –  sector     Green  industry   CiDzen  charges  for  roads,  tunnels,    city  access,   parking,  waste  treatment,..   Public  -­‐  Private  –sector    c  partnership   Taxes      Greenhouse  gas  taxes,..    
  54. 54. A6  The  failings  of  our  city   A7  Urban  Design  for  Successful  Ci?es    Alexandros  Washbur VIDEOS    

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