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Farming as a system igcse

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Farming as a system igcse

  1. 1. Economic Geography: Farming
  2. 2. Agriculture A system of growing crops and raising animals which involves soil conservation and sustainable irrigation. In simple terms, also known as farming. Other types of ‘cultures’-silviculture; pisciculture; viticulture; sericulture;aquaculture
  3. 3. Farming As A System
  4. 4. Inputs Any farm can be viewed as a system, with inputs, throughputs (or processes), outputs and feedback. Inputs can be divided into two groups. Physical inputs are naturally occurring things such as water, raw materials and the land. Human or Cultural Inputs are things like money, labour, and skills.
  5. 5. Processes And Outputs Processes or Throughputs are the actions within the farm that allow the inputs to turn into outputs. Processes could include things such as milking, harvesting and shearing. Outputs can be negative or positive, although they are usually the latter. Negative outputs include waste products and soil erosion. The positive outputs are the finished products, such as meat, milk and eggs, and the money gained from the sale of those products.
  6. 6. Feedback Feedback is what is put back into the system. The main two examples of this are money, from the sale of the outputs, and knowledge, gained from the whole manufacturing process. This knowledge could then be used to make the product better or improve the efficiency of the processes.
  7. 7. Types of Farming Arable- growing crops Pastoral- rearing animals
  8. 8. Mixed farming
  9. 9. These three types can be-  Subsistence (Intensive/extensive)- slash and burn also known as Jhooming  Commercial (intensive/extensive)  Shifting  Sedentary  Plantations- Monoculture  Livestock/ranching Done either on Small scale or large scale
  10. 10. Sustainable agriculture Maximizing the carrying capacity of land (yield) with the use of correct irrigation techniques to ensure soil conservation Some possible ways- Organic farming Crop rotation Irrigation techniques like- drip/sprinkler etc. Fallow land Limited use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides- use of natural manure
  11. 11. Case studies Subsistence farming Commercial farming- one plantation and one other
  12. 12. Green Revolution The introduction of modern western style farming techniques in LEDCs during the late 1960's and 1970's.  Norman Borlaug- 1940’s researched on wheat Supported by Rockefeller and Ford foundations- a lot of work done on varieties of rice- especially in Philippines Introduction of HYVs
  13. 13. Advantages of GR Increased food production- improved food trade Helped solve problem of food shortage- Shorter growing period- farmers could grow 2-3 crops in the same duration Consumers had access to different types of crops Some farmers in LEDCs gained financially
  14. 14. Disadvantages of GR Expensive for some farmer- HYVs were not cheap Water intensive Heavily rely on Insecticides and fertilizers increasing chances of euthrophication Not suitable to the local palate as the taste changed Natural varieties lost Foreign dependence increased (tariffs and subsidies became very important) Mechanization increased leading to umemployment
  15. 15. GM crops Vs Organic Crops Genetically modified- so look/production was better but taste is not- though uniform-led to unnecessary growth in size/shape/texture of crops- effects on humans still not known-destruction of native species Organic- grown the natural way- takes longer-more expensive-but healthy food.
  16. 16. Food security The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”. Its 3 pillars are- Food Availability Food Access Food Use
  17. 17. Malnourised Badly nourished Under/over Disease of affluence and Poverty
  18. 18. http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/standard/geography /images/g287.jpg http://agriculturechp10.weebly.com/uploads/1/1/2/ 1/11215473/1335920.jpeg?443 http://www.clipartlab.com/clipart_preview/clipart/ va5-agriculture.gif http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/standard/geography /images/g30.gif