Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent and unprovoked seizures. Seizures occur due to abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which leads to temporary disruptions in normal brain function. These disruptions can result in various physical, sensory, emotional, and cognitive symptoms. Seizures in epilepsy can manifest in different ways and can vary in intensity and duration. Some common seizure types include: 1. Generalized seizures: These seizures involve both sides of the brain and typically result in loss of consciousness. Examples of generalized seizures include tonic-clonic seizures (previously known as grand mal seizures), absence seizures (previously known as petit mal seizures), and atonic seizures. 2. Focal seizures: Formerly known as partial seizures, these seizures are localized to a specific area of the brain. Focal seizures can be further categorized as focal onset aware seizures (previously simple partial seizures), where the person remains conscious during the seizure, or focal onset impaired awareness seizures (previously complex partial seizures), where the person experiences an altered level of consciousness. Epilepsy can have various causes, including genetic factors, brain injuries, infections, developmental disorders, and brain tumors. However, in many cases, the exact cause remains unknown. Diagnosis of epilepsy typically involves a thorough medical history review, neurological examination, and various diagnostic tests, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), brain imaging (MRI or CT scan), and blood tests. Treatment options for epilepsy aim to control seizures and may involve the use of antiepileptic medications. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be considered. It's important for individuals with epilepsy to work closely with healthcare professionals to manage their condition effectively. With proper medical care and lifestyle adjustments, many people with epilepsy are able to lead fulfilling lives and have their seizures well controlled.