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DATABASE
NORMALIZATION
WHAT IS NORMALIZATION
A technique of organizing the data into multiple related tables to minimize
DATA REDUNDANCY.
WHAT IS DATA REDUNDANCY AND WHY SHOULD WE REDUCE IT?



TABLE
ROW1
ROW2
ROW3
ISSUES
 Repetition of data increases the size of database.
 Insertion problems
 Deletion problems
 Updation problems
Insertion Anomaly
Roll no Name Branch HOD Office_tel
1 A Jaffna Mr.R 9988
2 B Jaffna Mr.R 9988
3 C Jaffna Mr.R 9988
4 D Jaffna Mr.R 9988
To insert redundant data for every new
row (of student data in our case)is a
data insertion problem
Deletion Anomaly
Roll no Name Branch HOD Office_tel
1 A Jaffna Mr.R 9988
2 B Jaffna Mr.R 9988
3 C Jaffna Mr.R 9988
4 D Jaffna Mr.R 9988
Loss of a related dataset when some
other dataset is deleted.
Updation Anomaly
Roll no Name Branch HOD Office_tel
1 A Jaffna Mr.R Mr.Y 9988
2 B Jaffna Mr.R Mr.Y 9988
3 C Jaffna Mr.R 9988
4 D Jaffna Mr.R Mr.Y 9988
How normalization will solve all these
problems?
Roll no Name Branch HOD Office_tel
Roll no Name Branch Branch HOD Office_tel
Branch HOD Office_tel
Jaffna Mr.Y 9988
Roll no Name Branch
1 A Jaffna
2 B Jaffna
Not eliminating redundancy but minimizing
data redundancy.
Type of Normalization
 1st Normal Form
 2nd Normal Form
 3rd Normal Form
 BCNF(boyce-codd normal form)
1st Normal Form (1NF)
There are 4 basic rules that a table should follow to be in 1st Normal form
Rule 1
A X,Y
B W,X
C Y
D Z
 Each column should
contain atomic values.
 Entries like XY and WX
violate this rule.
26.10.89 X
13.2.99 W
22.4.85 Y
D 01.2.93
4 A B
2 C D
3 E F
1 G H
DOB Name
Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4
 A column should contain
values that are of the
same type.
26.10.89 X E
13.2.99 W F
22.4.85 Y G
2.3.21 A B
Name Name
 Each column should
have a unique name
 Order in which data is
saved doesn’t matter
Eg:
Branch_No BranchAddress TelNo
B001 Jaffna 0212229847,0212225848
B002 Nallur 0774512456,0765421456
B003 Kondavil 0215555789
B004 Chavakacheri 0758984566
BranchNo BranchAddress
B001 Jaffna
B002 Nallur
B003 Kondavil
B004 Chavakacheri
Branch_No TelNo
B001 0212229847
B001 0212225848
B002 0774512456
B002 0765421456
B003 0215555789
B004 0758984566
Method 2
Branch_No BranchAddress TelNo
B001 Jaffna 0212225848
B001 Jaffna 0212229847
B002 Nallur 0774512456
B002 Nallur 0765421456
B003 Kondavil 0215555789
B004 Chavakacheri 0758984566
Method 1
Method 2
2nd Normal Form (2NF)
1NF
No Partial dependency
rules
A B
1 2
2 1
3 3
4 4
5 5
A B
3rd Normal Form (3NF)
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I am sharing 'DATABASE NORMALIZATION' with you - Copy.pptx

  • 2. WHAT IS NORMALIZATION A technique of organizing the data into multiple related tables to minimize DATA REDUNDANCY. WHAT IS DATA REDUNDANCY AND WHY SHOULD WE REDUCE IT?    TABLE ROW1 ROW2 ROW3 ISSUES  Repetition of data increases the size of database.  Insertion problems  Deletion problems  Updation problems
  • 3. Insertion Anomaly Roll no Name Branch HOD Office_tel 1 A Jaffna Mr.R 9988 2 B Jaffna Mr.R 9988 3 C Jaffna Mr.R 9988 4 D Jaffna Mr.R 9988 To insert redundant data for every new row (of student data in our case)is a data insertion problem
  • 4. Deletion Anomaly Roll no Name Branch HOD Office_tel 1 A Jaffna Mr.R 9988 2 B Jaffna Mr.R 9988 3 C Jaffna Mr.R 9988 4 D Jaffna Mr.R 9988 Loss of a related dataset when some other dataset is deleted.
  • 5. Updation Anomaly Roll no Name Branch HOD Office_tel 1 A Jaffna Mr.R Mr.Y 9988 2 B Jaffna Mr.R Mr.Y 9988 3 C Jaffna Mr.R 9988 4 D Jaffna Mr.R Mr.Y 9988
  • 6. How normalization will solve all these problems? Roll no Name Branch HOD Office_tel Roll no Name Branch Branch HOD Office_tel Branch HOD Office_tel Jaffna Mr.Y 9988 Roll no Name Branch 1 A Jaffna 2 B Jaffna Not eliminating redundancy but minimizing data redundancy.
  • 7. Type of Normalization  1st Normal Form  2nd Normal Form  3rd Normal Form  BCNF(boyce-codd normal form)
  • 8. 1st Normal Form (1NF) There are 4 basic rules that a table should follow to be in 1st Normal form Rule 1 A X,Y B W,X C Y D Z  Each column should contain atomic values.  Entries like XY and WX violate this rule. 26.10.89 X 13.2.99 W 22.4.85 Y D 01.2.93 4 A B 2 C D 3 E F 1 G H DOB Name Rule 2 Rule 3 Rule 4  A column should contain values that are of the same type. 26.10.89 X E 13.2.99 W F 22.4.85 Y G 2.3.21 A B Name Name  Each column should have a unique name  Order in which data is saved doesn’t matter
  • 9. Eg: Branch_No BranchAddress TelNo B001 Jaffna 0212229847,0212225848 B002 Nallur 0774512456,0765421456 B003 Kondavil 0215555789 B004 Chavakacheri 0758984566 BranchNo BranchAddress B001 Jaffna B002 Nallur B003 Kondavil B004 Chavakacheri Branch_No TelNo B001 0212229847 B001 0212225848 B002 0774512456 B002 0765421456 B003 0215555789 B004 0758984566 Method 2 Branch_No BranchAddress TelNo B001 Jaffna 0212225848 B001 Jaffna 0212229847 B002 Nallur 0774512456 B002 Nallur 0765421456 B003 Kondavil 0215555789 B004 Chavakacheri 0758984566 Method 1 Method 2
  • 10. 2nd Normal Form (2NF) 1NF No Partial dependency rules A B 1 2 2 1 3 3 4 4 5 5 A B