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Modern Architecture

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Modern Architecture

  1. 1. MODERN ARCHITECTURE De Guzman, Jeremy Francisco, Nicca Mischelle Salita, Jenny
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Modern Architecture, new architectural style that emerged in many Western countries in the decade after World War I. It was based on the "rational" use of modern materials, the principles of functionalist planning, and the rejection of historical precedent and ornament. This style has been generally designated as modern, although the labels International style, Neue Sachlichkeit, and functionalism have also been used.
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE STYLE  Development of the Style  Since the mid-19th cent. there had been repeated attempts to assimilate modern technology in practice and theory and to formulate a modern style of architecture suitable to its age. A functionalist approach eventually replaced the formerly eclectic approach to design. Technical progress in the use of iron and glass made possible the construction of Sir Joseph Paxton's celebrated Crystal Palace in London (1851), in which a remarkable delicacy was achieved. In the ensuing years iron, steel, and glass enabled architects and engineers to enclose the vast interior spaces of train sheds, department stores, and market halls, but often the structural forms were clothed with irrelevant ornament.  As late as 1889 the exposed, iron skeleton of the newly erected Eiffel Tower in Paris was met with public outrage. In Chicago, William Le Baron Jenney pioneered the use of a complete steel skeleton for the urban skyscraper in his Home Insurance Building (1883–85). His contemporary, Louis Henry Sullivan, first articulated the theory of functionalism, which he demonstrated in his numerous commercial designs. In addition, experiments in concrete construction were being carried out in France by François Hennebique and Auguste Perret, and in the United States by Ernest Ransome.  As a result of these advances, the formal conception of architecture was also undergoing a profound transformation. Frank Lloyd Wright, a pupil of Sullivan, experimented with the interpenetration of interior and exterior spaces in his residential designs. In Holland, where Wright's work was widely admired, the architects of de Stijl sought to organize building elements into new combinations of overlapping and hovering rectangular planes.
  4. 4. THE STYLE EVOLVES  Increasingly, during the 1950s, modern architecture was criticized for its sterility, its "institutional" anonymity, and its disregard for regional building traditions. More varied and individual, as well as regionalist, modes of expression were sought by architects of the next generation, although the basic emphasis on structure and materials continued. This tendency was evident in the works of Louis Kahn, Edward Durell Stone, and Philip Cortelyou Johnson in the United States, and the architects of the so-called New Brutalism movement in England. A dynamic sculptural unity distinguished the buildings of Eero Saarinen and the late works of Le Corbusier. Other leading architects of this generation include Alvar Aalto of Finland, the Italians Pier Luigi Nervi and Paolo Soleri, and in Central and South America, Lúcio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer, Juan O'Gorman, and Felix Candela.
  5. 5. GREATEST MODERN ARCHITECTS OF OUR TIME  The role architecture plays in our everyday lives is astronomical. From the cool houses we marvel at on Freshome‟s pages to historical & iconic buildings that we recognize instantly, architecture surrounds us daily. The architects behind these buildings and homes are what we love and the following 10 architects have paved the way for ingenious design, cutting edge innovation and have become pioneers of our built environment.
  6. 6. 1.) FRANK GEHRY (BORN 2.28.1929)  There is no mistaking Gehry‟s works, as they are the most distinctive, and innovative architectural phenomena around. His deconstructive forms are iconic as tourists flock to all of his buildings worldwide to marvel at the architectural forms he creates. Named by Vanity Fair as “the most important architect of our age”, he has set the precedence for contemporary architecture. His ability to create spaces that manipulate forms and surfaces is his most notable feats and we all love his unique uses of materials that almost defy all logic in how they work together. Frank Gehry‟s – City of Wine Complex, Northern Spain
  7. 7. 2.) FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT (BORN 6.8.1867)  Some consider Frank Lloyd Wright to be the greatest architect of all time. For he thought of interior & exterior spaces as one and was ahead of his time in building forms, construction methods, and never went to a formal architecture school. His humble American upbringing led him to learning under Louis Sullivan – another legend in architecture and to this day Wright is noted for his prairie-style buildings and organic influences. His organic and natural forms that seemed to become one with nature and his innovative detailing are still considered to be the best building and design concepts, even after nearly 150 years.  His most notable projects include: The Guggenheim Museum in New York City, New York, Fallingwater Residence in Mill Run, Pennsylvania, Arizona State University Gammage Auditorium & Taliesin West – Wright‟s home and studio in Scottsdale, Arizona
  8. 8. 3.) IEOH MING PEI – I.M. PEI (BORN 4.26.1917)  The Chinese born architect came to study architecture in the United States as a teenager and later became one of the greatest architects of modern architecture. Almost 80 years later I.M. Pei‟s work can be seen worldwide and are noted for their unique use of geometric forms and incorporating Chinese influences into his work. His National Center for Atmospheric Research in Colorado embodies Pei‟s iconic geometric forms and unity with natural elements in their surroundings. Pei‟s work graces some of the most prestigious government and acclaimed sites throughout the world. I.M. Pei‟s – National Center for Atmospheric Research & I.M. Pei‟s entrance to the Le Grand Louvre in Paris
  9. 9. 4.) ZAHA HADID (BORN 10.31.1950)  The first woman architect who ever won the Pritzker Architecture prize went to the legendary Zaha Hadid. Born in Iraq Hadid went on to win this iconic award which is often termed the „Nobel peace prize of architecture‟. Hadid‟s forms are characterized as futuristic, unconventional, daring and artistic. Many of her projects were never built and she still was ranked on Forbes list at 69th most powerful women in 2008. Her beautiful buildings always leave us with our mouths open, as if to say, “How did she design that?”Zaha Hadid and her many works, including a mobile museum for Chanel with Karl Lagerfield  Her most noted projects are: MAXXI – the National Museum of the 21st Century Arts the Bridge Pavilion in Zaragoza, Bergisel Ski Jump in Innsbruck, Phaeno Science Center and the Opera House in Guangzhou.