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The Nervous System (Slide Show)



Nervous System

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Nervous System

  1. 1. SystemNervousT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy iTutor.com
  2. 2. The Nervous System The nervous system is very important in helpingto maintain the homeostasis (balance) of thehuman body. A series of sensory receptors work with thenervous system to provide information aboutchanges in both the internal and externalenvironments. The human nervous system is a complex ofinterconnected systems in which larger systemsare comprised of smaller subsystems each ofwhich have specific structures with specificfunctions.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Structure and functionNeurons (nerve cells) are the basic elements of the nervoussystem.Soma(Cell Body)DendritesAxon Terminal end fibersNucleus© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. NeuronsCell BodyThe main processing center of the cell.DendritesThin branching extensions of the cell body that conduct nerveimpulses toward the cell body.AxonA single branch (in most neurons) which conducts nerve impulsesaway from the cell body.Myelin sheath and neurilemma are coverings.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedNeuronsImpulse TransmissionTerminal end fibers are located at the ends of the axon and theytransmit impulses leaving the neuron across a synapse to thenext neuron.
  5. 5. NeuronANeuronBNeurotransmitterSynapseAll neurons have two basic propertiesExcitabilityconductivity© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedThree Types of NeuronsEfferent (motor) Conveys information from the CNS to muscles and glands.Afferent (sensory)Carry information from sensory receptors to the CNS.InterneuronCarry and process sensory information.
  6. 6. Types of NeuronsDendriteAxonAxonAxonCell BodyCell BodyCell Body(i) Efferent (motor) neuron(ii) Afferent (sensory) neuron(iii) InterneuronNeurofilbril NodeReceptorcellMyelin sheath© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Neuroglia Support, protect, connect and remove debris from thenervous system Types of Neuroglial CellsAstrocytes Oligodendroglia Microglia© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Nervous System All bodily activities, voluntary andinvoluntary, are controlled by the nervoussystem. Two Major Components– Central Nervous System (CNS)• Made up of the brain and spinal cord– Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)• Made up of all the nerves that leadinto and out of the CNS.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Central Nervous System The central nervous system is composed of two majorinterconnected organs:– The brain– The spinal cord. These organs work together to integrate and coordinatesensory and motor information for the purpose ofcontrolling the various tissues, organs, and organsystems of the body. The central nervous system is responsible for higherneural functions, such as memory, learning, and emotion.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Brain Weighs about 3 pounds in adults 75% water 20% of oxygen Contains over 100 billion neurons Controls bodily functions and interactions with the outside world© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedFour Parts: Cerebrum Diencephalons Brain stem Cerebellum
  11. 11. BrainstemMade up of the midbrain; Pons and the medulla oblongata.Midbrain : Involved with visual reflexesPons:• Located between the midbrain and the medulla oblongata• Controls certain respiratory functionsMedulla Oblongata:• Contains centers that regulate heart and lungfunctioning, swallowing, coughing, vomiting and sneezing© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedCerebellumArea that coordinates musculoskeletal movement tomaintain posture, balance, and muscle tone.Inferior to the occipitallobes of the cerebrum.Posterior to the pons andmedulla oblongata .Cerebellum
  12. 12. Cerebrum Located above the cerebellum. Contains two hemispheres with an outer portion called thecerebral cortex. The two hemispheres are connected by a bridge of nerve fibersthat relay information between the two hemispheres called thecorpus callosum. The left and right lobes are each divided into four lobes or partsparietal lobe• Frontal lobe• Temporal lobe• Occipital lobeDiencephalon: The deep portion of the brain containing:• Thalamus• Hypothalamus• Epithalamus• Ventral thalamus© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13. Serves as relay center for sensations like:Heart rateBlood pressureTemperature control© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedBehavioral responsesDigestive functionsWater and electrolyte balance
  14. 14. Spinal CordExtends from the medulla oblongata of the brain to thearea around the first lumbar vertebra in the lower back.Nerves from the peripheral nervous system extend outfrom the spinal cord.Protected by: Vertebral columnMeninges are three layers of membranes that cover thebrain and spinal cord.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedLayers of the meningesDura materOuter tough fibrous membrane.Arachnoid materMiddle weblike membrane containing CSF.Pia materInnermost layer containing several blood vessels. Cerebrospinal fluid  Meninges
  15. 15. Central Nervous SystemBrainSpinal Cord© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Peripheral Nervous System The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is a collection ofperipheral nerves, ganglia and specialized sensorystructures that, as a system, carries sensory and motorinformation between the central nervous system and all otherorgans and tissues of the body. The peripheral nervous system is functionally divided intotwo major divisions:– The Sensory or Afferent Division– The Motor or Efferent Division• The Somatic Nervous System• The Autonomic (Visceral) Nervous System.Spinal CordPeripheral nerves
  17. 17. Peripheral Nervous SystemConsists of 12 pairs of cranial nerves and 31 pairs of spinalnervesS.No Cranial Nerves Function1 Olfactory Sense of smell2 Optic Sense of vision3 Oculomotor Eye movements4 Trochlear Aids muscles that move the eyes5 TrigeminalEyes, tear glands,scalp, forehead, teeth,gums, lips, and mouth muscles6 Abducens Muscle conditioning7 FacialTaste, facial expressions, tear and salivaryglands© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. S.NoCranial Nerves Function8 Vestibulocochlear Hearing and equilibrium9 GlossopharyngealPharynx, tonsils tongue and carotidarteries; stimulates salivary glands10 VagusSpeech, swallowing, heart muscle,smooth muscle and certain glands11 AccessoryMuscles of the soft palate, pharynx,larynx and neck12 Hypoglossal Tongue movement© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. Somatic Nervous System Responsible for receiving and processing sensory input from theskin, muscles, tendons, joints, eyes, tongue, nose and ears aswell as excite the voluntary contraction of skeletal muscles.Autonomic Nervous System Carries impulses from the central nervous system toglands, various smooth muscles, cardiac muscle and variousmembranes. Stimulates organs, glands, and senses.The EndCall us for more Information:1-855-694-8886www.iTutor.comVisit
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