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How to Interpret TMT Dr. B. K. Iyer
Key Points of Exercise Testing <ul><li>Manual SBP measurement (not automated) most important for safety </li></ul><ul><li>...
BORG SCALE 20 Very, very hard 19 18 Very hard 17 16 Hard 15 14 Somewhat hard 13 12 Fairly light 11 10 Very light 9 8 Very,...
Symptom-Sign Limited Testing Endpoints – When to stop! <ul><li>Dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>Systolic blo...
How to interpret a TMT ECG <ul><li>Good skin prep </li></ul><ul><li>PR isoelectric line </li></ul><ul><li>Not one beat </l...
Types of Exercise <ul><li>Isometric (Static) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weight-lifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure work...
Oxygen Consumption During Dynamic Exercise Testing <ul><li>There are 2 types to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial (MO...
Myocardial (MO2) <ul><li>Coronary Flow x Coronary a - VO2  difference </li></ul><ul><li>Wall Tension (Pressure x Volume, C...
Myocardial (MO2) <ul><li>Systolic Blood Pressure x HR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SBP should rise > 40 mmHg </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Problems with Age-Predicted Maximal Heart Rate <ul><li>Which Regression Formula?  (2YY - .Y x Age) </li></ul><ul><li>Big s...
Ventilatory (VO2) <ul><li>Cardiac Output  x a-VO2 Difference </li></ul><ul><li>VE x (% Inspired Air Oxygen Content - Expir...
Key Points of Exercise Testing <ul><li>Manual SBP measurement (not automated) most important for safety </li></ul><ul><li>...
Question 1 <ul><li>What is the most important prognostic measurement from the exercise test? 1. BORG scale estimate 2. ST ...
Question 2 <ul><li>What is the most appropriate indicator of a maximal effort? 1. BORG scale estimate 2. ST depression 3. ...
Questions???
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TMT interpretation

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TMT interpretation

  1. 1. How to Interpret TMT Dr. B. K. Iyer
  2. 2. Key Points of Exercise Testing <ul><li>Manual SBP measurement (not automated) most important for safety </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust to clinical history (couch potatoes) </li></ul><ul><li>No Age predicted Heart Rate Targets </li></ul><ul><li>The BORG Scale of Perceived Exertion </li></ul><ul><li>METs not Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Fit protocol to patient (RAMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid HV and cool down walk </li></ul><ul><li>Use standard ECG analysis/ 3 minute recovery/ use scores </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Expired Gas Analysis? </li></ul>
  3. 3. BORG SCALE 20 Very, very hard 19 18 Very hard 17 16 Hard 15 14 Somewhat hard 13 12 Fairly light 11 10 Very light 9 8 Very, very light 7 6
  4. 4. Symptom-Sign Limited Testing Endpoints – When to stop! <ul><li>Dyspnea, fatigue, chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>Systolic blood pressure drop </li></ul><ul><li>ECG--ST changes, arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Physician Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Borg Scale (17 or greater) </li></ul>
  5. 5. How to interpret a TMT ECG <ul><li>Good skin prep </li></ul><ul><li>PR isoelectric line </li></ul><ul><li>Not one beat </li></ul><ul><li>Three consistent complexes </li></ul><ul><li>Averages can help </li></ul><ul><li>Garbage in, garbage out </li></ul><ul><li>Three minute recovery </li></ul>
  6. 6. Types of Exercise <ul><li>Isometric (Static) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>weight-lifting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure work for heart, limited cardiac output, proportional to effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Isotonic (Dynamic) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>walking, running, swimming, cycling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow work for heart, proportional to external work </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mixed </li></ul>
  7. 7. Oxygen Consumption During Dynamic Exercise Testing <ul><li>There are 2 types to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Myocardial (MO2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal, Cardiac </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventilatory (VO2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External, Total Body </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Myocardial (MO2) <ul><li>Coronary Flow x Coronary a - VO2 difference </li></ul><ul><li>Wall Tension (Pressure x Volume, Contractility, Stroke Work, HR) </li></ul><ul><li>Systolic Blood Pressure x HR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angina and ST Depression usually occurs at same Double Product in an individual ** Direct relationship to VO2 is altered by beta-blockers, training,... </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Myocardial (MO2) <ul><li>Systolic Blood Pressure x HR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SBP should rise > 40 mmHg </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drops are ominous (Exertional Hypotension) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diastolic BP should decline </li></ul>
  10. 10. Problems with Age-Predicted Maximal Heart Rate <ul><li>Which Regression Formula? (2YY - .Y x Age) </li></ul><ul><li>Big scatter around the regression line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>poor correlation [-0.4 to -0.6] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>One SD is plus/minus 12 bpm </li></ul><ul><li>Confounded by Beta Blockers </li></ul><ul><li>A percent value target will be maximal for some and sub-max for others </li></ul><ul><li>Borg scale is better for evaluating Effort </li></ul><ul><li>Do Not Use Target Heart Rate to Terminate the Test or as the Only Indicator of Effort or adequacy of test </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ventilatory (VO2) <ul><li>Cardiac Output x a-VO2 Difference </li></ul><ul><li>VE x (% Inspired Air Oxygen Content - Expired Air Oxygen Content) </li></ul><ul><li>External Work Performed </li></ul><ul><li>****Direct relationship with Myocardial O2 demand and Work is altered by beta-blockers, training,... </li></ul>
  12. 12. Key Points of Exercise Testing <ul><li>Manual SBP measurement (not automated) most important for safety </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust to clinical history (couch potatoes) </li></ul><ul><li>No Age predicted Heart Rate Targets </li></ul><ul><li>The BORG Scale of Perceived Exertion </li></ul><ul><li>METs not Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Fit protocol to patient (RAMP) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid HV and cool down walk </li></ul><ul><li>Use standard ECG analysis/ 3 minute recovery/ use scores </li></ul><ul><li>Heart rate recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Expired Gas Analysis? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Question 1 <ul><li>What is the most important prognostic measurement from the exercise test? 1. BORG scale estimate 2. ST depression 3. Exercise time 4. Exercise capacity </li></ul>
  14. 14. Question 2 <ul><li>What is the most appropriate indicator of a maximal effort? 1. BORG scale estimate 2. ST depression 3. Exercise time 4. Exercise capacity </li></ul>
  15. 15. Questions???

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