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P4C Level 2, Southwark

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P4C Level 2, Southwark

  1. 1. Philosophy for Children (P4C) Will Ord & James Nottingham www.p4c.com www.sapere.org.uk
  2. 2. The aim of a thinking skills programme such as P4C is not to turn children into philosophers but to help them become more thoughtful, more reflective, more considerate and more reason-able individuals P4C – Created by Matthew Lipman
  3. 3. The four C’s of P4C Collaborative Caring Critical Creative Community Inquiry of
  4. 4. What might these 3 ½ year olds gain from P4C?
  5. 5. youtube.com/Jabulani4
  6. 6. An Ethos for Learning Not all of our questions answered … … but all of our answers questioned
  7. 7. Novice Beginner Proficient Competent Expert The Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition Basis for Action Need routines Can read the context
  8. 8.  Need generalised rules and structures as a guide  Quality management systems can be very helpful  If something goes wrong, blame the system or senior people Little personal responsibility in this context Novice: rule-governed behaviour Beginner: hungering for certainty  Starting to notice patterns  Wishing things were more predictable  Looking for “the book” or “the expert” to provide the answers  Feel limited personal responsibility
  9. 9.  Efficient and organised  Can assess relative importance and urgency  Can readily describe and explain actions  Feel personal responsibility for outcomes Competent: planned & analytical Proficient: strategic and able to read context  Seldom surprised, have learned what to expect  Have organised knowledge into wise sayings  Sometimes forget to explain complexities of the big picture to analytical competent colleagues  Rapid, fluid, involved, intuitive type of behaviour
  10. 10. Highly intuitive, based on huge store of wisdom Great capacity to handle the unexpected Highly nuanced behaviour, very context specific Often there are no words to describe expert performance, and often it is subconscious anyway Hard to fit this into quality systems Performance drops if generalised rules are imposed Usually does not make for good teaching of novices, but great for teaching competent people Expert: right thing at the right time
  11. 11. Facts and Concepts Fact Paris is the capital of France Concept (Capital) cities Knowledge Understanding
  12. 12. What concepts can be inferred from this Banksy piece?
  13. 13. Example question starters What is … playing? How do we know what is … What if … Always or never When would … What is the difference between … Is it possible to … Who decides what is … Should we …
  14. 14. Socratic questions Are you saying that …? Can you give us an example of …? Why do you say that …? What reasons support your idea? Are you assuming that …? What would happen if …? How could we look at this in a different way? What alternatives are there to this? Wouldn’t that mean that …? What are the consequences of that? Clarify Reasons Assumptions Viewpoints Effects
  15. 15. Scandinavians talk about ‘curling parents’
  16. 16. The Learning Challenge Clarity Confusion 1. Concept 2. Conflict 2 1
  17. 17. ANALYSE ANTICIPATE APPLY CAUSAL- LINK CHOOSE CLASSIFY COMPARE CONNECT CONTRAST DECIDE DEFINE DESCRIBE DETERMINE DISCUSS ELABORATE ESTIMATE EVALUATE EXEMPLIFY EXPLORE GENERALISE GIVE EXAMPLES GIVE REASONS GROUP HYPOTHESI SE IDENTIFY INFER INTERPRET ORGANISE PARAPHRA SE PREDICT QUESTION RANK REPRESEN T RESPOND SEQUENCE SIMPLIFY SHOW HOW SOLVE SORT SUMMARISE SUPPORT TEST VERIFY VISUALISE A selection of thinking skills
  18. 18. Being in the pit represents cognitive conflict Stealing is wrong Robin Hood was right
  19. 19. If A = B then Does B = A? Friend Trust Trust Friend For example … Wobblers (If A = B)
  20. 20. Eureka moments come from challenge Clarity Confusion 1. Concept 2. Conflict 3. Construct 2 1 3
  21. 21. Kriticos = able to make judgements Critical Thinking Comes from the Greek, Kriticos Meaning: able to make judgements Source: www.etymonline.com
  22. 22. Rank order should not matter … Progress is the key to learning 92 85 73 64 43 32 90 86 78 70 41 35 90 85 84 78 40 34
  23. 23. Download slides from … www.challenginglearning.com Resources for inquiry from: www.p4c.com @JamesNottinghm www.facebook.com/C hallengingLearning

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