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Influential Leaders Of Human History

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Influential Leaders Of Human History

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This presentation is all about the leader of 1 AD to 569 AD. Here all influential leader are included in the timeline of -569AD. In fact, the raise and fall reason of those leader is described the content. In addition, the legacy and contribution of the leader also included in this presentation.

This presentation is all about the leader of 1 AD to 569 AD. Here all influential leader are included in the timeline of -569AD. In fact, the raise and fall reason of those leader is described the content. In addition, the legacy and contribution of the leader also included in this presentation.

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Influential Leaders Of Human History

  1. 1. Influential Leaders Of Human History ( TIMELINE : 1-569 A.D. )
  2. 2. Notable Inventions Paper -105 AD Magnetic compass -80 AD Abacus -190 AD Tea – 220 AD
  3. 3. 2 China continued to be dominated by the Han Dynasty During this period, Europe, North Africa and the Near East fell under increasing domination by the Roman Empire The 1st century saw the appearance of Christianity THE 1ST CENTURY
  4. 4. Artabanus III of Parthia 10-40 A.D Vologases I of Parthia 51-77 A.D Pacorus II 78-105 A.D Vologases III of Parthia 105-148 A.D Vologases IV of Parthia 148-191 A.D 195 CE First Parthian war. 197 CE - 198 CE Second Parthian war.
  5. 5.  The early part of the century was shaped by Constantine the Great  Became the first Roman emperor to adopt Christianity
  6. 6. In the Middle East, the Parthian empire has been replaced by the more effective Sassanid Empire. Shapur II 309 to 379. Kavadh I 488 to 531 Khosrow I 531 to 579 SUCCESSFUL IN BOTH MILITARY AND ADMINISTRATIVE DUTIES KHOSRAU WOULD BECOME THE IRANIAN IDEAL OF A KING. KHOSROW
  7. 7. Pompeii
  8. 8. Buried under 4 to 6 m (13 to 2 ft) of volcanic ash in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius Pompeii was an ancient Roman city of Italy.
  9. 9. UNESCO World Heritage Site 2.5 million visitors annually
  10. 10.  Roman Empire attained its greatest expansion under the emperor Trajan.  Removal of the Jews from Jerusalem during the reign of Hadrian.  Han Dynasty of China was firmly cemented into power during the first half of the century.  But in the second half there was corruption and open rebellion. THE 2nd CENTURY
  11. 11.  A peasant revolt in China against the Eastern Han dynasty  It took 21 years until the uprising was fully suppressed.  Got its name from the color of the cloths that the rebels wore on their heads.
  12. 12. THE 3rd CENTURY The Roman Empire saw a crisis Assassination of the Roman Emperor Severus Alexander The Han Dynasty comes to an end with establishment of the Three Kingdoms in ancient China
  13. 13. Gupta Empire was on the rise towards the end of the century Korea was ruled by the Three Kingdoms of Korea Japan entered the Kofun period
  14. 14. The 5th century is noted for being a period of migration and political instability throughout Eurasia.  In China, the period of the Sixteen Kingdoms continued. Towards the end of the 5th century, the Gupta Empire of India was invaded from Central Asia and occupied by elements of the Huna peoples.
  15. 15. or (বঙ্গাব্দ Bônggabdô or Banggabda). Beginning of the Bengali Calendar
  16. 16. 1 A.D. – 300 A.D. 300 A.D. – 500 A.D. ROMAN EMPIRE GUPTA EPIRE BYZANTINE EPIRE HAN EMPIRE PARTHIAN EMPIRE SASSANID EPIRE EMPIRES
  17. 17. Regions of Reign Vietnam China India Pakistan Israel Italy France PRESENT WORLD
  18. 18. Other Notable events in the timeline  1–49 AD: Birth of Jesus Christ, Crucifixion of Jesus, Buddhism introduced to China. Han dynasty founded in China  50–99 AD: Jews revolt against Rome; Jerusalem destroyed , Colosseum built in Rome  200–249: Persian (Sassanid) empire re-established. End of Chinese Han dynasty  250–299 AD: Develop hieroglyphic writing, advances in art, architecture, science.  350–399 AD: Roman empire permanently divided.  450–499 AD: Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy established by Theodoric the Great  500–549 AD: Plague spreads through Europe, Justinian I, the Great becomes Byzantine emperor
  19. 19. Augustus Trung sisters Jesus christ 63 BC – 14 AD 12 AD – 43 AD 4 BC – 30AD
  20. 20. Trajan Cao Cao Kanishka 35 AD – 117 AD 155 AD – 220 AD 127 AD – 150 AD
  21. 21. Constantine the great Chandragupta ii Clovis i 272 AD – 337 AD 466 AD – 511 AD 380 AD – 415 AD
  22. 22. Octavian Augustus
  23. 23. THE 1st ROMAN EMPEROR
  24. 24. ‘Master of the Horse’ Julius Caesar Octavius Augustus
  25. 25. 4 Augustus Lepidus Antony
  26. 26. Western Eastern Southern
  27. 27. 6
  28. 28. Law governed the people not arbitrary decisions Kept control over the provinces through Legends
  29. 29. The Senate gave him the title ‘AUGUSTUS’
  30. 30. Reforms Of Augustus
  31. 31. Made Tax Reforms Augustus imposed consistent, direct taxation on the provinces Greatly increased Rome’s Net Revenue Established a STABLE RELATIONSHIP between Rome and itsprovinces. Ending private exploitation by local tax officials
  32. 32. Separate Police and Firefighter force
  33. 33. Founded the Pratorian Guard Protected the Border
  34. 34. Improved Food security of the locals
  35. 35. He personally financed a Network of roads so that news and troops can travel easily throughout the realm Under Augustus many of Rome's Public buildings were constructed
  36. 36. What makesAugustus A GREAT LEADER?
  37. 37. 16 GOLDEN AGE
  38. 38. Peace with the Parthian Empire & Peace between Populares and Optimates. Ending in 180 C.E.
  39. 39. 18 PAX ROMANA ( Roman Peace )
  40. 40. 19 Ifound Rome a city of bricks and left it a city of marbles - Octavian Augustus
  41. 41. Risk Taking Political Skills Military Skills What can we LEARN from AUGUSTUS ?
  42. 42. Maintained a Balance SENATE MILITARY
  43. 43. He was brutal, but not psychopath Strong Leader - Raising army from the age of 19 Capable Ruler - 40 years of rule He was wealthy but did not scorn money. Donated wealth to the Roman treasury
  44. 44. 2 Age is Just a Number Be Ambitious & Take risks 01 03 Suppress your Ego & be Patient 02 HE PROVED :
  45. 45. Jesus (4 BC – AD 30/33)
  46. 46. Jesus of gospels vs. jesus of history ⬗ Before Enlightenment, gospels were the only accurate account ⬗ The accounts of other religious communities were not popular ⬗ After research distinction between the two has been drawn
  47. 47. Jesus from different persepectives Christian Muslim Jewish
  48. 48. Jesus From Different Perspectives Christian Worshipped as the incarnation of God, the Son and the second of the Holy Trinity Muslim Seen as a messenger of Allah sent with a holy scripture to guide Bani Isra’il Jewish Denied of being God or his mediator and criticized for leading Jews away from their own Lord to a different God
  49. 49. Evolution of the Early Judean Ministry (In accordanceto The Gospels) .
  50. 50. Jerusalem (roman province of Judea) Capernaum (ruled by Herold Antipas)
  51. 51. Footsteps of Jesus (in accordance to the gospels)
  52. 52. Footsteps of Jesus (in present world)
  53. 53. How was Jesus as a leader? What were his qualities and strategies?
  54. 54. Not self-promoting A strategic team builder Empowered Others A relationship builder Expressed control and authority as a leader when needed Engaged crisis head-on
  55. 55. “⬗ Jesus cast a vision, with clarity, simplicity, and directness -Mark 1:15
  56. 56. Teachings of Jesus . . . Love for Humanity Unique Value of People Teachings of God
  57. 57. Has Jesus influenced our world?
  58. 58. ⬗ Provided people faith and hope ⬗ Provided them with answers about life ⬗ Opened the doors for the existence of Christianity ⬗ Played a major role in the progression of Islam
  59. 59. Influence is also evident in the widespread of both Christianity and Islam Christianity and Islam being the most widespread religions in the world at present
  60. 60. What can we learn from Jesus?
  61. 61. Trưng Sisters
  62. 62. Brief History : Birth: 12 AD Death: 43 AD Reign: 40 AD to 43 AD Daughters of a powerful Vietnamese military leader(Me Linh) Their mother's name was Man Thien Excelled in both literature and martial arts
  63. 63. Vietnam Before Han Empire Rule Vietnam During Han Empire Rule
  64. 64. Trưng Trắc Trưng Nhị • Older sister • Husband, Thi Sách, killed by The Chinese National Heroes of Vietnam Queen Vice-regent
  65. 65. “Foremost, I will avenge my country, Second, I will restore the Hung lineage, Third, I will avenge the death of my husband, Lastly, I vow that these goals will be accomplished.”
  66. 66. Revolt: Reign: 40 AD to 43 AD Army of 80,000 warriors 36 female generals (including their mother) liberated their own village forced the Chinese out of 65 cities Two sisters on elephants
  67. 67. Vietnamese version of the Trung Queens’ territory
  68. 68. Vietnam under Trung sisters
  69. 69. End of Revolt & Death Ma Yuan and his army • 10,000 troops • A support fleet to the south • In April or May, 43 AD Whether the sisters were killed in battle or later put on trial is unclear
  70. 70. • Firm determination • Highly skilled warriors • 80,000 warriors • Underestimated by Han Empire because most of them were women • A support fleet to the south • Desertion by warriors • 10,000 troops • Ma Yuan overestimated them Reasons for Winning: Reasons for Losing:
  71. 71. Accomplishments: • Abolished the taxes which were crippling their people • Restored many of the Vietnamese traditions • Creation of the first royal government of Vietnam, along with the expulsion of the Chinese
  72. 72. What have we learnt? Fairness Wisdom Gender Equality Promoting peace and prosperity Loyalty Dedicati on Leadership Qualities:
  73. 73. Legacy: • Temples • Statues • Yearly festival • Stories • Poems • Plays • Postage • Stamps • Posters • An annual holiday called Hai Ba Trung day
  74. 74. • 200 years after the Trung sisters’ death , three kingdom period of 220 AD to 280 AD , Lady Trieu led a rebellion in 248 AD
  75. 75. TRAJAN
  76. 76. Felicior Augusto, melior Traiano be luckier than Augustus and better than Trajan English:
  77. 77. Trajan’s conquests
  78. 78. Dacian conquest (Romania) 1st War: 101–102 AD Dacia became an important Roman province bringing wealth to Rome through its gold mines 14-20% of Dacian territories annexed by Roman Empire Trajan led 150,000 soldiers in the first & 200,000 soldiers in the second war 2nd War: 105–106 AD Dacia
  79. 79. Parthian Campaigns (115-117)
  80. 80. Parthian Campaigns (115-117) Mesopotamia Armenia VS
  81. 81. ANNEXATION OF NABATEAN KINGDOM (Arabian Peninsula) ROMAN EMPIRE ARABIAN PROVINCE
  82. 82. Roman Empire at its maximum extent under Trajan’s Rule
  83. 83. SPAIN BRITAIN EGYPT ALGERIA TUNISIA MOROCCO GREECE IRAQ KUWAIT SYRIA TURKEY ROMANIA ARMENIA ROMAN EMPIRE UNDER TRAJAN ACROSS 3 CONTINENTS
  84. 84. Trajan PHILANTHROPIC RULER SOCIAL WELFARE POLICIES PUBLIC BUILDING PROGRAMS A VIRTUOUS PAGAN A RULER WHO RULED LESS BY FEAR Alimenta OPTIMUS KIND WISE SOLDIER EMPEROR RUTHLESS NO ABANDON SLAVE POLICY NO TREASON TRIALS longest period of stability BOOST THE URBAN ECONOMIES • PROHIBITED WASTEFUL EXPENDITURE ON FESTIVALS • REDUCED TAX
  85. 85. PUBLIC BUILDING PROGRAMS
  86. 86. TRAJAN’S FORUM (Public Squares) FORUM MAP FORUM DURING DAY FORUM AT NIGHT • Imperial Forum was the center of Roman Empire
  87. 87. TRAJAN’S MARKET • Thought to be World’s first and oldest shopping mall • Arcades of the market believed by many to be administrative offices for Emperor Trajan
  88. 88. TRAJAN’S COLUMN • The structure is about 115 feet in height • To commemorate Dacian War victory • 155 scenes battle scenes
  89. 89. TRAJAN’S BRIDGE • One of the greatest achievements in Roman architecture • For more than 1,000 years it was the longest arch bridge in both total and span length.
  90. 90. Trajan in numbers: 1st 2nd Nerva Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius Non Roman Emperor, Hispania born 0 Had no child, adopted Hadrian
  91. 91. Trajan in numbers:
  92. 92. Trajan in numbers: 98AD 117AD Became the Roman Emperor as Nerva’s adoptive son died on August 8
  93. 93. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Kanishka (127-151) • King of Kings • Son of God, Shah • Father’s name VIMA KADPHISES • Ruler from KUSHAN DYNASTY • Ascended the Kushan throne in 78 CE • Follower of BUDDHISM
  94. 94. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Kushan Empire---Who Were They? • The Kushan Empire started as a branch of the Yuezhi, the origin is from China. • Some scholars connect the Kushans with the Tocharians of the Tarim Basin in China, Caucasian people whose blonde or red-haired mummies have long puzzled observers.
  95. 95. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee LOCATION The Kushan Empire in South Asia originally formed in the early 1st century CE, in the territories of ancient Bactria, around the Oxus River in Central Asia
  96. 96. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee
  97. 97. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee
  98. 98. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee By using the ‘SILK ROUTE’ they used to trade art, crops, horse, luxury goods, golds, silver etc.
  99. 99. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Kanishka and Buddhism • Kanishka belonged to little Yuehi- Chi section of the horde. The capital during his period was Purusyapura where he built many Buddhist buildings. • Kanishka was the active patron of Buddhist Church during the later part of his reign. • 700 feet high stupa- Buddha’s remains
  100. 100. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee The coins during his rule prove that he honoured a medley of Gods - Zoroastrian, Greek, Mitraic and Indian. The prominent Indian deity was God Shiva. This Kushan king also convened a council of Buddhist theologians to settle disputes relating to Buddhist faith and practices.
  101. 101. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee KANISKA……A Great Leader • Made own language for KUSHAN EMPIRE • Had two capitals based on seasons 1. Purushapura (Peshawar, PAKISTAN) 2. Mathura (INDIA)
  102. 102. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee Also had a SUMMER Capital in BAGRAM This are known as BAGRAM TREASURE
  103. 103. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee • Was tolerant to all other religions in his empire. He honored the Zoroastrian, Greek and Brahmanic deities.
  104. 104. © 2011 Maharaj Mukherjee The conclusions of Kaniskha council were engraved on copper sheets and preserved in the stupa of the capital. Delegates to the council primarily belonged to the Hinayana sect.
  105. 105. 155AD- 220AD Cao Cao A military dictator of China
  106. 106. • Birth: 155 AD • Death: Aged 65 in 220 AD • His reign has started after the end of “Han Dynasty” • Considered as an excellent strategist ruler and poet. • He had 25 sons, the most famous being his sons Cao Pi and Cao Zhi.
  107. 107. • Cao Cao governed a large area of northern China. • After the end of Han Dynasty he captured three kingdoms Wei, Shu, and Wu. • He is portrayed as the Villain of the popular 14th century CE epic the “Romance Of the three kingdoms”.
  108. 108. • He is traditionally represented as a cunning and deceitful general in classical Chinese literature. • He is the self-appointed imperial ruler of Han Dynasty and later formed his own state. • The life of Cao Cao was recorded in his own book, “Apologia", written in 210-211 CE . • This is one of the earliest autobiographies from ancient China.
  109. 109. •His life was also a subject of a celebrated novel from the “ Ming Dynasty” the Romance of the three kingdoms, where he is the deliciously Machiavellian villain of the piece.
  110. 110. Famous Chinese expression “speak of Cao Cao and he appears” which is broadly similar to “speak of the devil’’ in English. “Any who stand in my ways shall be cut down.” “I remain myself. I have never cared about others misjudging me.”
  111. 111. 184 AD The Yellow Turban Rebellion breaks out when local government offices are attacked across China 205 AD Cao Cao takes over the former Han government and appoints himself chancellor in effect, a military dictator Revolts 215 AD Cao Cao represses for good the Yellow Turban Rebellion
  112. 112. Leadership Qualities Great politician Great vision Multiples talents in literature Administrative skills Great military strategy Dedication
  113. 113. Business lessons from Cao Cao’s life • Talent is as important as money • Reputation is an important asset • There’s a right time to seek help • Find the whys in life • Anyone may lose everything one day • Never let external pressures force you to do something • It is okay to fail
  114. 114. Zeno 495 BC – 430 BC Constantine The Great 272AD-337AD
  115. 115. Diocletian (284AD- 305AD) 21 years
  116. 116. Diocletian became emperor in 284 and started the Roman Tetrarchy ruling system. Manages to retire and force his co-Augustus, Maximian, to retire with him (305) Constantine’s father Constantius became Augustus
  117. 117. Constantius Diocletian Maximian
  118. 118.  Constantine’s key battle was against Maxentius.  Constantine credited his victory to a vision he had in which he was told to go into battle with the Christian symbol  Troops Carried the Chi-Rho symbol with them. Chi-rho symbol  By 313 Constantine captured all of the Empire and officially declared that Christianity was to be tolerated
  119. 119. Constantine and Church in Rome Before he left, he gave most of the Rome to the Pope • He gave the land and buildings of his enemies to Pope Church overnight became the most important landholder in Rome • Converted pagan temples into Christian churches.
  120. 120. Built church with his mother, Helen. Established New Rome: Constantinople Formed Nicene creed to resolve the Arian controversy Constantine the Great and the Church
  121. 121. Major Social Changes in 4th century Due to Constantine and his Successors Sunday as a day of rest Crucifixion prohibited Churches could receive legacies Christian could not charge another Christian interest on a loan Christian clergy given tax relief
  122. 122. The Nicene Creed is a statement of belief widely used in Christian ritual. It is called Nicene because it was originally adopted in the city of Nicaea by the First Council of Nicaea Constantine Called the 1st council of Nicaea in 325 at which the Nicene Creed was professed by Christians
  123. 123. II
  124. 124. • Ramagupta succeeds their father, Samudragupta. • Ramagupta was defeated by his enemy, The Shaka. • Chandragupta dethroned Ramagupta.
  125. 125. • Ramagupta succeeds their father, Samudragupta. • Ramagupta was defeated by his enemy, The Shaka. • Chandragupta dethroned Ramagupta. • He campaigned through the subcontinent. • Established alliance though matrimony.
  126. 126. • Ramagupta succeeds their father, Samudragupta. • Ramagupta was defeated by his enemy, The Shaka. • Chandragupta dethroned Ramagupta. • He campaigned through the subcontinent. • Established alliance though matrimony. • He fought with vigor. • He ruled peacefully.
  127. 127. • He extended his rule in every direction but the South. • He added the title Vikramaditya (Son of Power) to his title. • All his achievements can be found inscribed on a famous iron pillar in Delhi, still clear to this day. • Hindus still follow Vikram Samvat which celebrates the beginning of his rule. • He welcomed foreigners and different cultures. • He established trade with Egypt and other western countries. • He allowed Chinese pilgrim to spend 11 years during his time to study Sanskrit and write about the prosperity during his time.
  128. 128. Clovis I
  129. 129. Who was Clovis I? •Clovis was the first king of the Franks.
  130. 130. What do we know about ClovisI? • United all of the Frankish tribes under oneruler, • Changed the form of leadership from a Groupof Royal Chieftains to rule by a Single King . • Ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. This is called Hereditary monarchy. • Founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled for the next two centuries.
  131. 131. What do we know about ClovisI? • son ofChildericI,king ofthe Salian Franks, and Basina,Queen ofThuringia. • Succeeded his father in 481, at the ageof fifteen. • Conquered the remaining Western Roman Empire at the BattleofSoissons(486), • Conversion to Christianity in 496, led to widespread conversion ,religious unification, the birth ofthe early Holy RomanEmpire.
  132. 132. How did Clovis consolidate the Franks? • secured an alliancewith the Ostrogoths throughthe marriage ofhis sister. • With other Frankish sub-kings, hedefeated the Alamanni in the Battle ofTolbiac in 496. • turned against the Romancommanders • had the Frankish king Chararic imprisonedand Executed • killed Ragnachar,the Frankish king ofCambrai. • conquered all the Frankish kingdoms to the west of the RiverMaas
  133. 133. How did Clovis consolidate the Franks? • Clovis continued his war with the Visigoths with support of his people and the church, defeating them at the Battle of Vouille in 507 • With his realm secure, Clovis elected to rule his united empire from Paris. • Theodoric would prevent Clovis’s attempts to expand his domain and secured the former Visigothic lands for himself. Alaric II
  134. 134. How did Clovis come to power? • Numerous small Frankish kingdoms existed during the 5th century. • The Salian Franks occupied the area in what is now the Netherlands and Belgium. • Childeric I, became king in 457 upon the death of Merovech, ruling over lands he had received as a foederatus of the Romans. • In 463 he fought in conjunction with Aegidius defeted the Visigoths in Orleans. • Childeric died; Clovis succeeded him as king. Childeric I- father of Clovis Cl gr M ovis I andson of erovech
  135. 135.  Conquests of Clovis between 481 and 511 AD
  136. 136. Battle of Tolbiac ClovisIleading the Franks to victory in the BattleofTolbiac, in 19th century painting
  137. 137. The Baptism of Clovis by Saint Remigius • converted to Christianity • was baptized on Christmas Day, 496, • a statue of him being baptized by Saint Remigius can still be seen there. • Event important as he is seen as the last of the pagan kings
  138. 138. Tomb of Clovis I Tomb of Clovis I at the Basilica of StDenis in Saint Denis
  139. 139. Frankish territories at the time of Clovis' death • After his death, his sons divided the kingdom among themselves. • This led to the different sections and cultures and identities, and also disunity.
  140. 140. What is the Legacy of Clovis I ? • Clovis’s kingdom included Roman Gaul and parts of western Germany influencing country borders • The French consider him the Founder of France • History would Latinize his name to Louis; and remain popular inFrench culture to the present. • Kingdom that was a blend Roman and Germanic cultures: language, worship, and law. • His conversion to Christianity made him ally of the papacy and its protector.

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