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Assessment of learning Chapter 1

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Assessment of learning Chapter 1

  1. 1. Republic of the Philippines CAPIZ STATE UNIVERSITY College of Education Main Campus, Roxas City Tel. No. (036) 6214 578 local 118 Ed. 310 – Assessment of Student Learning 1 First Semester 2014 -2015 JARRY S. FUENTES MARIA SHEILA D. SIMON, Ed. D. BSEd 3d TLE Major Course Facilitator Discussant Number 1 Group Number 1 Topics: Basic Concepts in Assessment Content:  Introduction  Definitions of Important Concepts  Test, Non- test, Examination, Test item and Quiz  Educational Measurement  Types of Measurement  Indicators, variables and Factors  Assessment  Various Role of Assessment Evaluation of Learning Program  Principles of Educational Evaluation Basic concepts in Assessment As teachers, we are continually faced with the challenge of assessing the progress of our students as well as our own effectiveness as teachers. Definitions of Important Concepts Students go to school to learn so that they will be able to function as independent beings in an ever- changing world.
  2. 2. According to Linn and Miller (2005) define assessment as any of a variety of procedures used to obtain information about student performance. Assessment refers to the full range of information gathered and synthesized by teachers about their students and their classrooms (Arends, 1994) Assessment is a method for analyzing and evaluating student achievement or program success. Measurement, Evaluation and Assessment Measurement as used in education refers to the process of quantifying an individual’s achievement, personality, and attitudes among others by means of appropriate measuring instruments. Educational Measurement The first step towards elevating a field of study into a science is to take measurements of the quantities and qualities of interest in the field. Types of Measurement Objective measurements- are measurements that do not depend on the person or individual taking the measurements. Subjective measurements- often differ from one assessor to the next even if the same quantity or quality is being measured. The underlying principle in educational measurement is summarized by the following formula: Measurement of quantity or quality of interest = true value plus random error. Evaluation is the process of systematic collection and analysis of both qualitative and quantitative data for the purpose of making some decision and judgments. Assessment, Test, and Measurement Test: An instrument or systematic procedure for measuring a sample of behavior by posing a set of questions in a uniform manner. Measurement: The process of obtaining a numerical description of the degree to which an individual possesses a particular characteristic. Measurement answers the question “How much?” Comparison among Measurement, Evaluation and Assessment Measurement determines “how much” has been learned through the use of a variety of tests.
  3. 3. Test, Non- test, Examination, Test item and Quiz A test in the educational setting is a question or a series of question which aims to determine how well a student learned from a subject or topic taught. A non- test is a question or activity which determines the interests, attitude and other student’s characteristics whose answer or answers is/are not judged wrong or incorrect. Examples: Personality inventory,” What is your favorite sports?”, “Why do you prefer green vegetables?” An examination is a long test which may or may be composed of one or more test formats. Examples: Mid- term examination, Licensure Examination for Teachers, comprehensive examination. A test item is any question included in a test or examination. Examples: Who was the President of the Philippines when World War 2 broke out? Is “Little Red Riding Hood” a short story? A quiz is a short test usually given at the beginning or at the end of a discussion period. Indicators, variables and Factors An educational variable (denoted by an English alphabet, like X) is a measurable characteristic of a student. Variables may be directly measurable as in X= age or X= height of a student. An indicator, I, denotes the presence or absence of a measured characteristics. Thus: I= 1, if the characteristics is present = O, if the characteristic is absent Assessment Once measurement is taken of an educational quantity or quality of interest, then the next step is to assess the status of that educational phenomenon. Various Roles of Assessment Assessment plays a number of roles in making instructional decisions. Summative Role- An assessment may be done for summative purposes as in the illustration given above for grade VI mathematics achievement. Diagnostic Role- Assessment may be done for diagnostic purposes. In the case, we are interested in determining the gaps in learning or learning processes, hopefully, to be able to bridge these gaps.
  4. 4. Formative Assessment- Another purpose of assessment is formative. In this role, assessment guides the teachers on his/ her day- to- day teaching activity. Placement- The final role of assessment in curricular decisions concerns placement. Assessment plays a vital role in determining the appropriate placement of a student both in terms of achievements and aptitude. Aptitude- refers to the area or discipline where a student would most likely excel or do well. Evaluation of Learning and Programs Evaluations models are important in the context of education. Evaluation implies that measurement and assessment of educational characteristics had been done and that it is now desired to pass on value judgment on the educational outcome. A Systems Model for Evaluation Evaluation provides a tool for determining the extent to which an educational process or program is effective and all the same time indicates directions foe remediating processes of the curriculum that do not contribute to successful student performance.( Jason , 2003) Evaluation Is the process of gathering and interpreting evidence regarding the problems and progress of individuals in achieving desirable educational goals. Chief Purposes of Evaluation  The improvement of the individual learner Other Purposes of Evaluation  To maintain standard  To select students  To motivate learning CONTEXT INPUTS PROCESS OUTPUT OUTCOME
  5. 5.  To guide learning  To furnish instruction  To appraise educational instrumentalities Function of Evaluation  Prediction  Diagnosis  Research Areas of Educational Evaluation  Achievement  Aptitude  Interest  Personality A well defined system of evaluation:  Enable one to clarify goals  Check upon each phase of development  Diagnose learning difficulties  Plan carefully for remediation Principles of Educational Evaluation  Evaluation must be based on previously accepted educational objectives.  Evaluation should be continuous comprehensive and cumulative process.  Evaluation should recognize that the total individual personality is involved in learning.  Evaluation should be democratic and cooperative.  Evaluation should be positive and action-directed  Evaluation should give opportunity to the pupil to become increasingly independent in self- appraisal and self- direction.  Evaluation should include all significant evidence from every possible source.  Evaluation should take into consideration the limitations of the particular educational situations. Measurements  Is the part of the educational evaluation process whereby some tools or instruments are use to provide a quantitative description of the progress of students towards desirable educational goals. Test or Testing  Is a systematic procedure to determine the presence or absence of certain characteristics of qualities in a learner.
  6. 6. Types of Evaluation  Placement  Formative  Diagnostic  Summative Placement- evaluation accounts for a student’s entry behavior or performance. Formative- evaluation provides the students with feedback regarding his success or failure in attaining instructional objectives. Diagnostic- evaluation is use to detect students’ learning difficulties which are not revealed by formative test or check by remedial instruction and other instructional adjustment. Summative- evaluation is concerned with what students have learned. Stages of Teaching-Learning in which educational Evaluation is integrated: 1. Clarifying objectives 2. Identifying variables that affect learning 3. Providing relevant instructional activities to achieve objectives 4. Determining the extent to which the objectives are achieved.
  7. 7. MARRYDEN ANDALECIO BSEd 3D TLE Discussant Number 2 Topic:  Educational Assessment serves three important functions  Principles of Educational Assessment  General Principles of Assessment  Characteristics of Assessment  Integrating Assessment with Instruction  Elements of the Assessment Process  THE OUTCOMES OF STUDENT LEARNING Educational Assessment serves three important functions (Bernardo, 2003): 1. Student selection and certification -To make decisions, about which students get admitted, retained, promoted, and certified for graduation. 2. Instructional monitoring - To provide information about student learning and teaching performance to help teachers monitor manage, and make decisions about the instructional system. 3. For - Public accountability and program evaluation - Making decisions about the different aspects of the educational process - Helping make GOOD decisions, if they provide accurate, authentic, reliable and valid information about educational: LEARNING GOALS. Principles of Educational Assessment First Principles  Educational assessment always begins with educational values and standards.  Assessment is not an end in itself but a vehicle for attaining educational goals and for improving on these educational goals.
  8. 8.  These educational goals (values and standards) should be made explicit to all concerned from the very beginning.  Desired learning competencies (skills, knowledge, values, ways of thinking and learning) determine what we choose to assess.  Educational values and standards should also characterize how we assess.  Assessment systems should lead educators to help students attain the educational goals, values, and standards. General Principles of Assessment 1. Clearly specifying what is to be assessed has priority in the assessment process. 2. An assessment procedure should be selected because of its relevance to the characteristics or performance to be measured. 3. Comprehensive assessment requires a variety of procedures. 4. Proper use of assessment procedures requires the awareness of their limitations. 5. Assessment is a means to an end, not an end in itself. Characteristics of Assessment  Assessment is not a single event but a continue cycle.  Assessment must be an open process.  Assessment must promote valid inferences.  Assessment that matters should always employ multiple measures of performance.  Assessment should measures what is worth learning, not just what is easy to measure.  Assessment should support every student’s opportunity to learn important mathematics. Integrating Assessment with Instruction Introduction Bernardo (2004) explained that educational assessment works best when it accurately reflects the students’ attainment and understanding of educational values and standards, and the instructional processes that lead to their attainment. Assessment and the Instructional Process- the main purpose of classroom instruction is to help students achieve a set of intended learning goals. This interdependence can be clearly seen in the following steps included in the instructional process: 1. Identifying Instructional Goals 2. Pre- assessing the learners’ needs 3. Providing Relevant Instruction 4. Assessing the Intended Learning Outcomes 5. Using the Results
  9. 9. a. Improvement of Learning and Instruction b. Marking and Reporting to Parents c. Use of Results for other School Purposes Elements of the Assessment Process -assessment should center on the learner and the learning process. Huba and Freed (2000) explained the four elements of learner centered assessment. 1. Formulating statements of intended learning outcomes 2. Developing or Selecting Assessment Measures 3. Creating Experiences Leading to Outcomes 4. Discussing and Using Assessment Results to Improve Learning THE OUTCOMES OF STUDENT LEARNING Program Objectives and Student Learning Outcomes -the shift of focus in education from content to student learning outcomes has changed teachers’ instructional perspective. In the past, teachers were often heard about their concern to finish their subject matter before the end of the term. The Three Types of Learning - Believing that there were more than one (1) type of learning, Benjamin Bloom and a committee of colleagues in 1956, identified three domains of educational activities: the cognitive, referring to mental skills; affective referring to growth in feeling or emotion; and psychomotor, referring to manual or physical skills.
  10. 10. The Categories/ Levels of Cognitive Domain Learning Objectives Arranged Hierarchically Adapted from Bloom by Lori Anderson (2000) Creating Evaluating Applying Analyzing Understanding Remembering
  11. 11. DOMAIN II: Psychomotor (Skills) In the early seventies, E Simpson, Dave and A, S, Harrow recommended categories for the psychomotor domain which included physical coordination, movement and use of the skills body parts. The Categories/ Levels of Psychomotor Domains Learning Objectives Arranged Hierarchically Simpson, Dave and Harrow (1972) Taxonomy of the Psychomotor Domain N: Y David Mc Kayle Adapting Practicing Imitating Observing
  12. 12. DOMAIN III: Affective (Attitude) -the affective domain refers to the way in which in which we deal with the situation emotionally such as feelings, appreciation, enthusiasm, motivation, value, and attitude. The taxonomy is ordered into 5 levels as the person progresses towards internalization in which the attitude or feeling consistently guides or controls a person’s behavior. The CategoriesLevels of Affective Domain Learning Objectives Arranged Hierarchically D.R Krathwohl, B, S. Bloom, and B.B. Masia (1964) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: Handbook II- Affective Domain, New York: David Mckay Co. Receiving Responding Valuing Organizing Internalizing
  13. 13. Assessing Student Learning Outcomes - An outcome is the process of gathering information on whether the instrument the instruction, service and activities that the program provide are producing the desired learning outcomes Principles of Good Practice in Assessing Learning Outcomes 1. The assessment of student learning starts with the institutions mission and core values. 2. Assessment works best when the program has clear statement of objectives aligned with the institutional missions and core values. 3. Outcomes- based assessment focuses on the student activities that will be relevant after schooling concludes. 4. Assessment requires attention not only to outcomes but also and equally to the activities and experiences that lead to the attainment of learning outcomes. 5. Assessment works best when it is continuous, ongoing and not episodic. Assessment should be cumulative because improvement is best achieved through a linked series of activities done over time in instructional cycle. Instructional Mission Program Goals Subject Objectives Summative Assessment of Outcomes Desired Student Learning Outcomes Mastery Learning Review/ Reteach Formative Assessment Outcomes Diagnostic Assessment Deciding on Lesson Focus Supporting Student Activities
  14. 14. BEVERLY DADIVAS BSEd 3D TLE Discussant Number 3 Topic:  Function of Educational Assessment  Kinds of Assessment  The Effective Assessment  The Assessment Cycle Kinds of Assessment Formative assessment Formative assessment is an integral part of teaching and learning. It does not contribute to the final mark given for the module; instead it contributes to learning through providing feedback. It should indicate what is good about a piece of work and why this is good; it should also indicate what is not so good and how the work could be improved. Effective formative feedback will affect what the student and the teacher does next. Summative assessment Summative assessment demonstrates the extent of a learner's success in meeting the assessment criteria used to gauge the intended learning outcomes of a module or program, and which contributes to the final mark given for the module. It is normally, though not always, used at the end of a unit of teaching. Summative assessment is used to quantify achievement, to reward achievement, to provide data for selection (to the next stage in education or to employment). For all these reasons the validity and reliability of summative assessment are of the greatest importance. Summative assessment can provide information that has formative/diagnostic value. Diagnostic assessment Like formative assessment, diagnostic assessment is intended to improve the learner’s experience and their level of achievement. However, diagnostic assessment looks backwards rather than forwards. It assesses what the learner already knows and/or the nature of difficulties that the learner might have, which, if undiagnosed, might limit their engagement in new learning. It is often used before teaching or when a problem arises.
  15. 15. Dynamic assessment Dynamic assessment measures what the student achieves when given some teaching in an unfamiliar topic or field. An example might be assessment of how much Swedish is learnt in a short block of teaching to students who have no prior knowledge of the language. It can be useful to assess potential for specific learning in the absence of relevant prior attainment, or to assess general learning potential for students who have a particularly disadvantaged background. It is often used in advance of the main body of teaching. Synoptic assessment Synoptic assessment encourages students to combine elements of their learning from different parts of a program and to show their accumulated knowledge and understanding of a topic or subject area. A synoptic assessment normally enables students to show their ability to integrate and apply their skills, knowledge and understanding with breadth and depth in the subject. It can help to test a student's capability of applying the knowledge and understanding gained in one part of a program to increase their understanding in other parts of the program, or across the program as a whole. Synoptic assessment can be part of other forms of assessment. Criterion referenced assessment Each student’s achievement is judged against specific criteria. In principle no account is taken of how other students have performed. In practice, normative thinking can affect judgments of whether or not a specific criterion has been met. Reliability and validity should be assured through processes such as moderation, trial marking, and the collation of exemplars. Ipsative assessment This is assessment against the student’s own previous standards. It can measure how well a particular task has been undertaken against the student’s average attainment, against their best work, or against their most recent piece of work. Ipsative assessment tends to correlate with effort, to promote effort-based attributions of success, and to enhance motivation to learn. The Effective Assessment Enhancing learning by enhancing assessment Assessment is a central element in the overall quality of teaching and learning in higher education. Well designed assessment sets clear expectations, establishes a reasonable workload (one that does not push students into rote reproductive approaches to study), and provides opportunities for students to self-monitor, rehearse, practice and receive feedback. Assessment is an integral component of a coherent educational experience.
  16. 16. The ideas and strategies in the Assessing Student Learning resources support three interrelated objectives for quality in student assessment in higher education. Three objectives for higher education assessment 1. Assessment that guides and encourages effective approaches to learning; 2. Assessment that validly and reliably measures expected learning outcomes, in particular the higher- order learning that characterizes higher education; and 3. Assessment and grading that defines and protects academic standards. 16 indicators of effective assessment in higher education A checklist for quality in student assessment 1. Assessment is treated by staff and students as an integral and prominent component of the entire teaching and learning process rather than a final adjunct to it. 2. The multiple roles of assessment are recognized. The powerful motivating effect of assessment requirements on students is understood and assessment tasks are designed to foster valued study habits. 3. There is a faculty/departmental policy that guide individuals’ assessment practices. Subject assessment is integrated into an overall plan for course assessment. 4. There is a clear alignment between expected learning outcomes, what is taught and learnt, and the knowledge and skills assessed — there is a closed and coherent ‘curriculum loop’. 5. Assessment tasks assess the capacity to analyze and synthesis new information and concepts rather than simply recall information previously presented. 6. A variety of assessment methods is employed so that the limitations of particular methods are minimized. 7. Assessment tasks are designed to assess relevant generic skills as well as subject- specific knowledge and skills. 8. There is a steady progression in the complexity and demands of assessment requirements in the later years of courses.
  17. 17. 9. There is provision for student choice in assessment tasks and weighting at certain times. 10. Student and staff workloads are considered in the scheduling and design of assessment tasks. 11. Excessive assessment is avoided. Assessment tasks are designed to sample student learning. 12. Assessment tasks are weighted to balance the developmental (‘formative’) and judgmental (‘summative’) roles of assessment. Early low-stakes, low-weight assessment is used to provide students with feedback. 13. Grades are calculated and reported on the basis of clearly articulated learning outcomes and criteria for levels of achievement. 14. Students receive explanatory and diagnostic feedback as well as grades. 15. Assessment tasks are checked to ensure there are no inherent biases that may disadvantage particular student groups. 16. Plagiarism is minimized through careful task design, explicit education and appropriate monitoring of academic honesty. Assessment Cycle 1. Articulate the learning goals of the curricular block and a set of objectives that should lead to the accomplishment of those goals. 2. Design strategies (e.g., curricular and instructional methods) that will accomplish the objectives, taking into account student learning experiences and diverse learning styles, as well as research on how students learn. 3. Determine the areas of student’s activities and accomplishments in which quality will be judged. Select assessment methods designed o measure student progress toward completion of goals and objectives. 4. Gather assessment data; summarize and interpret the result. 5. Use the results of the assessment to improve the curricular block--- the payoff. 6. Return 1.
  18. 18.  What do I want students to learn?  How do I teach effectively?  Are my outcomes being met?  How do I use what I've learned? References: [1] QAA (2006) Code of Practice for the Assurance of Academic Quality and Standards in Higher Education, Gloucester: Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. Www. Google. Com Book of Assessment of Student Learning 1 by: ROSITA DE GUZMAN-SANTOS Ph. D

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