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The design behind the design behind the design

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Presentation by Jason Hobbs at the 2014 IA Summit in San Diego, California. It's the closest I've come to really saying what I think information architecture (IA) really is.

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The design behind the design behind the design

  1. 1. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 1 The design behind the design behind the design Jason Hobbs 2014 / 15 [1]
  2. 2. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 2 Contents 1. The design behind the design 2. Behind the blueprint 3. Concept diagrams 4. The information architectures of the Habitus 5. Sense-making and meaning-making 6. Synthetic cognition: drawing as thinking 7. Wrap up
  3. 3. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 3 Acknowledgements This essay was first presented at the IA Summit in San Diego, Califonia in 2014. The organisers need to be thanked for allowing me on stage. Some content and images have been altered or removed since then and there is some new content that has been added. Much of the thinking in this essay has been informed by my work with Terence Fenn and our many conversations. References to our papers are contained herein and for further information regard- ing our collaboration go to www.fennhobbs.com
  4. 4. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 4 The design behind the design
  5. 5. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 5 I first heard the expression ‘the design behind the design’ via the Boxes and Arrows website. It was referring to the work of informa- tion architects (IA’s) in the late 1990’s and early 2000’s. Specifically it was referring to the thinking and deliverables that literally came pre- graphic design and coding and thus it was the design hidden to users. It was behind the graphic design, the con- tent, the functionality...that users directly perceived when interact- ing (at that time) with websites.
  6. 6. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 6 Amongst other things, the kinds of design deliverables that were being produced by IA’s were site maps (articulating the structure and relationships of content and functionality in websites), task flows (processes) and wireframes (page level navigation and infor- mation design). True to the term architecture (in a classical sense) these deliverables were referred to as schematics or blueprints for how to build things like websites. The kinds of arguments for why this kind of design was necessary included: • Improved usability • Time saved once in build • Facilitating consensus between stakeholders • Assisting in building customer centricity • Assisting in build-phase scoping and costing • Providing something to test at a lo-fidelity • Etc.
  7. 7. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 7 Behind the blueprint
  8. 8. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 8 There existed in those earlier days a view that IA (even within the IA community) was less a design-oriented activity and something more akin to engineering: How do we organise content for the purposes of storage and re- trieval, on and from servers, mediated by controls that existed in interfaces that existed in browsers? This view had a strong library orientation and much of the early work on the topic of IA emerged from the fields of Library Science and Knowledge Management. In this orientation IA has meaning because it serves a utility func- tion. It’s worth noting that at that time not all IA’s were operating in this paradigm. Creative agencies that employed IA’s had a far stronger marketing-orientation towards why and how IA should be practiced and organisations of various kinds that were practicing user-centered design were frequently engaging with infor- mation architecture concerns through a interaction design-oriented lense. And yet, when doing IA, especially when building something from scratch, I always had a strong intuition that we were doing more than just designing systems for storage and retrieval. There was a sense that in linking pages, items of information, cat- egorising, grouping and creating connections I was creating new worlds. It felt a lot more like role-playing, like designing the worlds in which players would travel to kill dragons and steal treasure than engi- neering storage and retrieval systems. It felt fun. And there was an openness, a freedom (because of how easy it is to connect stuff online) to make these connections in any way we liked, without too much concern for what pre-existing knowledge structures may exist, as long as it worked for the player to navigate the dungeon, find and kill the dragon and make off with the loot.
  9. 9. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 9 An experiment: how do you create a banana-frog? First, you take the set of all bananas and the set of all frogs, And where they overlap, you’ll find the banana-frog. BANANAS FROGS BANANA FROG
  10. 10. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 10 It’s a similar, corollary intuition, that when we suspend disbelief in perceiving theatre, film, reading or art that within that fictional real- ity there is still something relevant, meaningful and ‘real’. How do we understand these fictions? For example: “Why do elephants drink? To forget.” So, suspend your desire for utility for just a moment. To imagine that IA is something more than what we currently think of it as, means going somewhere new.
  11. 11. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 11 An information architecture does not require serving a utility func- tion in order to have meaning. The above experiment starts with a basic HTML page with the word ‘Winter’ in the centre hyperlinking to a page that says ‘Spring’ which is hyperlinked to a page which says “Summer” and so on until you return back to ‘Winter’. It’s a loop, just like the seasons. And its meaning lies in the circular structure of the architecture providing the metaphor.
  12. 12. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 12 Anthropological space What the seasons experiment hints at is the idea of constructing meaning by building it in a different kind of space to the one we are used to perceiving around us in every-day life. Otto Bollnow theorised the concept of Anthropological space [2] which explored three new characteristics of space. He argued that it is heterogeneous (personal, subjective, relativistic); hodological (physical, social and psychological); and that it has evolved (that our ideas about space have changed over time). Design, in all forms, seems to me to take place half-in and half-out of this Anthropological space.
  13. 13. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 13 “It’s Pitch Black. You Are Likely to be Eaten by a Grue” Andrea Resmini [3]
  14. 14. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 14 Andrea Resmini “Johannesburg Art Gallery, Cross-channel Heuristic Search Phase” 2012
  15. 15. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 15 Making the implicit, explicit: an exercise in visualising the possible information architecture of an exhibition. Michael Dean’s ‘Introduction of Muscle’ [4]
  16. 16. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 16
  17. 17. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 17
  18. 18. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 18
  19. 19. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 19
  20. 20. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 20
  21. 21. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 21
  22. 22. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 22
  23. 23. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 23
  24. 24. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 24
  25. 25. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 25 Naoko Fukasawa “My product is already in your mind, you just haven’t seen it yet” [5]
  26. 26. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 26 Alessi, by Naoto Fukasawa, Shiba Saucepan with Lid 18cm Wood
  27. 27. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 27 Concept diagrams: exposing the design in anthropological space
  28. 28. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 28 [6]
  29. 29. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 29 [7]
  30. 30. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 30 [8]
  31. 31. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 31 [9]
  32. 32. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 32 [10]
  33. 33. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 33 [11]
  34. 34. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 34 [12]
  35. 35. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 35 [13]
  36. 36. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 36 [14]
  37. 37. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 37 Concept diagrams reveal the otherwise hidden design in, of and for anthropological space. Returning to the example of the ‘Seasons’ in HTML, on the Web, the design of anthropological space is explicit. The hidden informa- tion that usually composes anthropological space becomes fore- grounded. And it is for this reason that I believe IA has emerged as a field of practice now. Whether the designer self identifies with the term IA or is even aware that when they structure both data and information on the Web they are doing IA, is irrelevant. The process of making deci- sions about structuring information is the direct design of anthro- pological space. It’s not just the web though… other things have emerged in our time that echo this idea.
  38. 38. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 38 At the start of E.T. The Extra-Terrestrial, just be- fore the boys hear the trash can being knocked over and the dog barking they are playing Dun- geons and Dragons at the table. This was in 1982. Although role playing games have existed in one form or another for millennia I find that their emergence now, in their highly structured format (for example the intricate rule books that accom- pany them), at the same time as the emergence of the Web very interesting. Both are examples of designing and literally playing in information space. For those not aware of role-playing games such as Dun- geon & Dragons the way it works is simple: players as- sume characters (much like personae in our design field) that proceed through fictional worlds based on scripted narratives. Interestingly it is collaborative (multiple play- ers play together in the same narrative) and the narrative is co-created by the unpredictable decisions that players make alone or together in these worlds.
  39. 39. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 39 Computer games are a further example of what has been discussed. Building and play- ing in information space. We make sense of these spaces through a variety of formal techniques (covered extensively in HCI literature) but also because intuitively game makers apply cultural references that make sense to certain target audiences. For ex- ample, elves, dragons and wizards make sense to Western audiences for whom certain games are targeted. Where possibly unknown entities are introduced rule books and descriptions are provided to allow sufficient understanding to interact with them and play around. ‘NoClip’ is an old cheat in computer games. I first discovered it playing Doom (if I recall correctly). ‘NoClip’ is a command that when activated gives the first-person player the ability to move through walls and such and be untouchable to monsters. It was originally created to allow the programmers designing the spaces the ability to move through them to check if everything had been correctly built without hitches and bugs. When I first used the command I set a path in a straight line wanting to head as far out as possible. Like Jim Carrey in the Truman Show I wanted to head out in a boat to the walls that marked the boundary of this information space. When I arrived at the limit I turned around to look down on the landscape, a privileged view from a vantage meant only to be perceived through windows out into the sky.
  40. 40. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 40 And to me, this all makes sense. In an information age, information becomes foregrounded. And this information, especially in a utility context, requires architecting.
  41. 41. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 41 Pierre Bourdieu The Habitus “…[the] lifestyle, the values, the dispositions and expectation of particular social groups that are acquired through the activities and experiences of everyday life…the habitus could be understood as a structure of the mind characterized by a set of acquired schema- ta, sensibilities, dispositions and taste. The particular contents of the habitus are a complex result of embodying social structures— such as the gender, race, and class discrimination […] - that are then reproduced through tastes, preferences, and actions for fu- ture embodiment…” [15] The Habitas, as a concept, speaks to the background of the social context of design. It explains that we make sense of the world, interpret information and project onto the world meanings that are embedded socially. Further, design exists in relation to the Habi- tus.
  42. 42. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 42
  43. 43. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 43 With knowledge of geography, I interpret the land- scape as consisting of items such as mesa’s and tor’s, features that come with a set of theory and explanation as to their formation. The meaning of the landscape is trans- formed when viewed through the lense of geography.
  44. 44. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 44 Equally, the pres- ence of this cross on the outskirts of Trompsburg in South Africa tells me much about the disposition of the local inhabitants and goes further to sug- gest a relationship between nature and the faith held by the inhabitants.
  45. 45. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 45 The information architectures of the Habitus
  46. 46. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 46 The argument here is that all art and design, whether implicitly or explicitly, is a discourse in the information architectures of the Habitus which is highlighted in critical theory. Manet’s Olympia (1863), on the left, is an ex- plicit example of this where Olympia (with var- ious items positioned to suggest that she is a prostitute) makes eye contact with the viewer and thus acknowledges the viewing of her na- ked body. Her pose, referred to as the odal- isque position in the history of art, has a long tradition in the presentation of naked women in art however acknowledging the (male) eye in this context and deviating from the presenta- tion of the nude as mythological figure (Venus for instance) was highly controversial. Above, Sleeping Venus or the Dresden Venus (c. 1510) by Giorgione
  47. 47. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 47 Cubist still life works gathered objects from everyday life (newspaper clippings, bottles, musical instruments, African masks) and their works may be thought of as discussing the Habitus of their time by using found objects that break from those traditionally used to convey the nature and stature of commissioning patrons (items reflecting wealth or learnedness for instance). These contemporary objects became the content for a contemporary discussion of the nature of representa- tional art and the shifts and departures the cubists were making through formal means. Roy Lichtenstein’s 1979 Cubist Still Life with Playing Cards, on the left, then fur- ther presents a folding over of time and reference...art about art (history) and the associated consumerist and market ori- ented forces associated with valuing art. Above, Pablo Picasso’s Still Life with Chair Caning (1912)
  48. 48. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 48 Lastly, Damien Hirst’s 2007 sculpture For the Love of God, on the left, appears to reference the memento mori, images of skulls or similar, in the tradition of still life painting in the history of art. At the same time it suggests a discussion of the value of art in the contemporary art market (the skull is encrusted with 8601 diamonds and is a platinum cast from an 18th century skull). Above, Philippe de Champaigne’s Vanitas (c. 1671)
  49. 49. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 49 The history of art, as a set of discourses, is an information ar- chitecture, a background and Habitus referenced, addressed and discussed in art.
  50. 50. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 50 “It is interesting to note that in a city such as Johannesburg signs of order and regulation - stop signs, no-parking zones, yellow lines, red lines, and broad yellow grids painted onto the roads and pavements - appear to function purely as decoration.” Image top right presents a manipulated photograph where street signage has been intentionally removed. Quote and photographic art works by Stephen Hobbs
  51. 51. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 51 Architecture about architecture. Photos taken by the author at the Sensing Spaces exhibition at the Royal Academy of Arts in London 2014. At left, Eduardo Souto de Moura, right, Diebedo Francis Kere.
  52. 52. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 52 Architecture about architecture. Photos taken by the author at the Sensing Spaces exhibition at the Royal Academy of Arts in London 2014. Above left and top right, Grafton Architects, bottom right Edu- ardo Souto de Moura quote.
  53. 53. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 53 This image was produced as part of the information architecture solutioning for the Johannesburg Art Gallery by J Hobbs and T Fenn [16]. The solution was oriented around three intersecting dimensions: meaning (what art and the gallery means in a South African, and more specifically Johannesburg, context); organisation (the internal dynamics of the gallery itself); and place (Region F in the inner city of Johannesburg). The decision to foreground the solution (the interlocking circles) above a photograph of the outside of the front entrance to the gallery suggests the solution layered over the Habitus as background.
  54. 54. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 54 Collage has a special ability to bring together fragments from disparate places to form a new whole. Fragments capable of representing different moments from across the Habitus to start a new conversation. The above work by urbanist and architect Thiresh Govender (date) collects various views of a walk through the inner city of Jo- hannesburg into one single image.
  55. 55. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 55 It is not just in art that we find these information architectures of the Habitus. Science, religion, history… all these are the hidden information architectures of the Habitus. Information architectures in the Habitus: • Emerge as self-organising systems • Orient around areas of knowledge (or topics) • Provide nodes for exchange and the interpretation of information • Develop identity over time and facilitate shared practice and collective learning • Develop bodies of knowledge and associated storage for this knowledge over time • Apply social means of validating new knowledge for inclusion • Contain values important to the community • Intersect with other adjacent information architectures And perhaps most importantly, they present themselves, when well established, as reality.
  56. 56. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 56
  57. 57. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 57 This is the basis for The Matrix films. The rabbit hole leads us out of the information architecture of the Matrix. The maker of the Matrix is even referred to as ‘the Architect’. However, in our lived lives, we exist within a multitude of interlocking matrices.
  58. 58. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 58
  59. 59. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET
  60. 60. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET
  61. 61. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET
  62. 62. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET
  63. 63. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET
  64. 64. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET
  65. 65. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 65 [1]
  66. 66. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 66 Sense-making and meaning making
  67. 67. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 67 In some ways this may be viewed as a Post-Modern condition. However, information architecture (as sense-making through re- searching) looks across this landscape of multiple, interlocking information architectures to tell a story. Information architecture (as meaning-making through design) strives to resolve problems that emerge in this landscape by manipulating aspects of existing architectures, creating new connections between existing archi- tectures or formulating new architectures that further interlock with existing architectures (or combinations of these). A set of examples of representations of sense-making by 4th year students from the Interaction Design and Industrial Design course collaboration delivered at the University of Johannesburg in 2014 follow. It is worth noting that when designers attempt to solve hyper complex prob- lems (or wicked problems) the act of sense-making (understanding) and mean- ing-making (resolving) can be viewed as two sides of the same coin [17]. Fur- thermore, the information architectures created in meaning-making do not strive to be scientific in nature but rather are solution-oriented [18]. And lastly, since the act of sense-making involves interpretation across multiple interlocking in- formation architectures that span disciplines, information architecture as a prac- tice is transdiscipinary in nature [19].
  68. 68. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 68 Ormond and Jacobsz. 4th Year industrial design / interaction design student work (Johannesburg, SA)
  69. 69. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 69 VD Westhuizen, McCarthy, Van Heerden. 4th Year industrial design / interaction design student work (Johannesburg, SA)
  70. 70. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 70 Malan and Thantsha. 4th Year industrial design / interaction design student work (Johannesburg, SA)
  71. 71. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 71 The design artifact could be a chair, a website, a building, a service or a kettle. DESIGN ARTIFACT
  72. 72. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 72 SYNTHESISRESEARCH DESIGN The artifact however hides the process that the designer goes through to conceive of it. When dealing with simple problems this process is often hidden even to the design- er. Assumptions made through the design process can also simplify a problem: assuming for instance what form the end solution should take without deep research or questioning of the problem.
  73. 73. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 73 STRATEGYRESEARCH DESIGN In the presence of complexity it can help to separate out these stages in the design process. In design management we find pro- ject plans that define distinct stages for researching, determining a strategy and then designing (although the whole process is the act of designing).
  74. 74. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 74 STRATEGYRESEARCH DESIGN It is in this modality of complexity that IA assists in acting as a blueprint (B) for the way in which the design should manifest the strategy in the fields of user experience design, web design, inter- action design, etc. It is often the case that assuming the problem is a simple one where IA, as blueprint, is omitted from the process. This forms the basis for most arguments for utility-oriented IA in digital design. B
  75. 75. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 75 STRATEGYRESEARCH DESIGN PROBLEM ECOLOGY A deep exploration of a problem, through research, reveals that all problems exist in context. This includes history, politics, economics, culture and society, the context of use and environment, the com- missioning organision, varying user types, the marketplace etc. This exploration creates a data-mass and this forms part of the problem. How does the designer make sense of the data mass where interpretation of the problem is subjective: a sociologist will see a social problem, an IT manager will see an IT problem, a mar- keter will see a marketing problem and so on. This creates what we refer to a problem ecology.
  76. 76. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 76 STRATEGYRESEARCH DESIGN SOLUTION ECOLOGY It follows then that the solution space needs to consider and re- solve the various areas of concern (history, politics, economics, marketplace, users, etc) and the presence of various points of view. This is what we refer to as the solution ecology.
  77. 77. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 77 PROBLEM / SOLUTION ECOLOGY RESEARCH DESIGN SENSE-MAKING MEANING-MAKING As noted earlier, in the design process, making sense of the prob- lem ecology and solutioning (making meaning as an act of resolv- ing complexity) is one and the same [17]. We refer to this as the problem / solution ecology. In Design Thinking it is referred to as ideation.
  78. 78. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 78 SYNTHETIC COGNITION RESEARCH DESIGN SENSE-MAKING MEANING-MAKING Complexity in the problem-ecology presents paradoxes, conflicts and contradictions which analytic thinking struggles to resolve. This is the value of design in such circumstances since synthetic think- ing is able to resolve the complexity without simplifying the problem and results in innovative solutions.
  79. 79. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 79 SYNTHETIC COGNITION RESEARCH DESIGN INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE INFORMATION ARCHITECTURE It is in complexity and the presence of the data mass that informa- tion architecture is applied beyond the blueprint to resolve com- plexity and it operates in the mode of synthetic cognition. This then is the design behind the design behind the design.
  80. 80. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 80 Three illusions [20] emerge from the utility view of IA as blueprint as applied in the design of digital design artifacts (the dominant view of IA now) and go some way to explain why we may not understand IA as being argued for in this essay. Illusion 1 IA deliverables are wireframes, site maps, task flows, taxonomies, etc No. The IA deliverable is the synthetic resolution of the problem / solution ecol- ogy as expressed in deliverables which strive to describe it Illusion 2 The design solution is a website, mobile app, etc. No. The design solution is the resolution of the problem / solution ecology; the de- sign artifact is a website, mobile app, etc. Illusion 3 IA derives its meaning (rele- vance, value, purpose) by deliv- ering measurable value to businesses No. The relevance, value and purpose of IA is in making sense of problem / solution ecologies; that business value is derived from this is but one of many potential consequences
  81. 81. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 81 Synthetic cognition: Drawing as thinking
  82. 82. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 82 “…it is a good and necessary place to start, (esp. 1st years and at the start of 1st year) encouraging students to become meta-criti- cal, self-conscious and reflexive in their drawings, processes and results. Essentially students draw as a result of and by means of constant ‘thinking about’ what they are drawing, how they are drawing and why the results must be questioned and mistrusted at every stage until a ‘truce’ is declared and the drawing ended” David Paton, lecturer at the University of Johannesburg. In Paton’s classes he asks students to draw a brick that is present be- fore them. Once complete, he then asks the students to redraw the brick without drawing the outline and only using vertical lines. Paton’s method attempts to provide students with a “strategy to think the brick into being”, so they can take “mental responsibility for what is drawn”. Examples of student drawings provided by David Paton
  83. 83. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 83 Examples of student drawings provided by David Paton Examples of student drawings provided by David Paton
  84. 84. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 84
  85. 85. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 85 Notes by the author from ‘JAG snag’ as part of the design intervention for the Johannesburg Art Gallery (2012)
  86. 86. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 86 Notes by the author from ‘JAG snag’ as part of the design intervention for the Johannesburg Art Gallery (2012)
  87. 87. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 87 Andrea Resmini “Johannesburg Art Gallery, Cross-channel Heuristic Search Phase” 2012
  88. 88. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 88 A discussion about the dots.
  89. 89. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 89 A discussion about the context of the dots.
  90. 90. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 90 A discussion about something.
  91. 91. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 91 A discussion about two things.
  92. 92. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 92 A discussion about how these two things relate.
  93. 93. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 93 The one thing is more important, or there’s more of one thing, in relation to the other thing.
  94. 94. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 94 The one is a sub-set of the other and is of central importance to the latter.
  95. 95. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 95 The one is a sub-set of the other but is not core, just a part.
  96. 96. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 96 The two things are related however the smaller exists or has presence beyond the larger.
  97. 97. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 97 The two things are related, the smaller is not a part of the larger, exists or has presence be- yond the larger and although smaller in some way more important.
  98. 98. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 98 The two things are related, the smaller is not a part of the larger, exists or has presence be- yond the larger and is further away in relevance or importance to the conversation.
  99. 99. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 99 The two things are not directly related but are part of the same discussion.
  100. 100. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 100 The background or context of the discussion.
  101. 101. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 101 Wrap up
  102. 102. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 102 This essay has argued for a broader notion of information archi- tecture to what is commonly understood in the mainstream of the practice today. Beyond a blueprint for the design of digital objects, IA is something that allows us to view the structural, informational make-up of what we call problem ecologies (although more broad- ly it offers a way to map and describe any informational formation). From a design perspective, we are interested in how this way of in- terpreting the world can be used to identify problems (sense-mak- ing) and generate solutions (meaning-making) by applying syn- thetic thinking (that is, non-analytical, creative thinking) to which the last chapter alludes: drawing as a means to conduct synthetic cognition (creative thinking). The implications for the field of IA include: considering where IA can be applied beyond the design of digital artifacts; exploring a broader set of tools for this application; recognising IA as a design activity and what doors that opens; and considering the education- al and theoretical implications of this. For the field of design it is a call to practitioners, teachers and re- searchers to consider the role of IA in design more broadly (that is, across forms of designs: industrial, architectural, communication, digital, etc). That this is not central to design conversations (re- gardless of whether we refer to it as IA or not), given that we are living within a time so well understood as the information age with knowledge economies, continues to surprise me. Hopefully this essay provides some direction and positioning that can assist in pushing both fields forward.
  103. 103. THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN BEHIND THE DESIGN | 2014 | BY JASON HOBBS | +27 72 260 5478 | JASON@HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET | WWW.HUMANEXPERIENCEDESIGN.NET 103 1. http://player.vimeo.com/video/77330591. Parachutes.tv 2. ‘Pervasive IA. Designing Cross-Channel User Experiences’ Resmini and Rosati, 2011. Morgan Kaufmann. Page 68 3. ‘It’s Pitch Black. You Are Likely to be Eaten by a Grue. Lessons from videogames’ Resmini. 2014. http://www.slideshare.net/resmini/its-pitch-black-you-are-likely-to-be-eaten-by-a-grue 4. ‘The Introduction of Muscle’ Michael Dean. 2013. Installation at the Arnolfini. http://www.arnolfini. org.uk/whatson/michael-dean. All photographs by the author. 5. Fukasawa speaking at the 2014 Design Indaba. http://www.designindaba.com/profiles/nao- to-fukasawa 6. http://www.dezeen.com/2013/11/04/next-architects-chinese-bridge-competition/ 7.http://www.spatialpractice.com/projects/17_beijing-cbd-towers/2.html 8. http://www10.aeccafe.com/blogs/arch-showcase/2013/07/11/taichung-city-cultural-center-com- petition-entry-in-taiwan-by-hyunjoon-yoo-architects/concept-diagram-5/ 9.http://www.spearsphotographics.co.uk/untitled-gallery-34755/399002_birds-nest-concept-dia- grams-coloured.html 10. http://plusmood.com/2012/05/swiss-clockwork-embassy-matteo-cainer-architects/ 11. http://plusmood.com/2014/01/museum-of-cycladic-art-kois-associated-architects/9-concept-di- agram/ 12. http://jonascels.com/little-sparta/ 13. http://www.dezeen.com/2012/11/14/ole-scheeren-unveils-duo-skyscrapers-for-singapore/ 14. http://www.archdez.com/2013/09/20/folding-house-by-ar-design-studio/folding-house-by-ar-de- sign-studio-concept-diagram-06/ 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Habitus_%28sociology%29 16. ‘Research Summary and Strategic Recommendations for the JAG’ 2013. Jason Hobbs 17. “Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning”. 1973. Rittel, H & Webber, M. Policy Sciences. (4) 18. “The Information Architecture of Transdisciplinary Design Practice: Rethinking Nathan She- droff‟s Continuum of Understanding” 2012. J Hobbs and T Fenn. Design Development Research 2012 Conference Proceedings. 19. “The Information Architecture of Transdisciplinary Design Practice: Rethinking Nathan She- droff‟s Continuum of Understanding” 2012. J Hobbs and T Fenn. Design Development Research 2012 Conference Proceedings. 20. “The information architecture of meaning-making” J Hobbs and T Fenn. Published in “Reframing Information Architecture” Resmini, Andrea (Ed.). 2014 Springer HCI series. References

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