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Idealism
Idealism
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Idealism

  1. 1. IDEALISM PLEASE LIKE MY VIDEO AND PLEASE SUSCRIBE MY CHANNEL
  2. 2. IdealismDefinition In popular usage, an idealist is someone who believes in high ideals and strives to make them real, even though they may be impossible. It’s often contrasted with pragmatist or realist, i.e. someone whose goals are less ambitious but more achievable. This sense of “idealism” is very different from the way the word is used in philosophy. In philosophy, idealism is about the basic structure of reality: idealists hold that the most basic “unit” of reality is not material, but conceptual. But what does that actually mean? What are people talking about when they say that reality is conceptual rather than material? Answers vary widely.
  3. 3. Types of Idealism Idealism doesn’t have well-defined sub-schools, but here are some labels for the purpose of this article: a. Subjective Idealism b. Divine Idealism c. Ontological Idealism d. Epistemological Idealism
  4. 4. a. Subjective Idealism For some idealists, it means that nothing is truly real other than consciousness and its contents. That is, when you look out on the world what you are really seeing is a world created by the mind. Perception, in other words, is reality. That doesn’t mean that you’re stuck in your own mind, though, since we’re lucky enough to have other minds that we can communicate with. Thus, the truth may lie somewhere in between your mind and mine (but still not in any external physical world). We can call this inter subjective idealism.
  5. 5. b. Divine Idealism Alternatively, the world may be seen as manifestations of some other mind, such as the mind of one God. (However, remember that all of physical reality would be contained in the mind of God on this view — so God would have to be a consciousness outside of the physical multiverse!)
  6. 6. c. Ontological Idealism Others don’t take it quite as far: they argue that the material world exists, but that at its most basic level it’s made out of ideas. For example, some physicists believe that the universe, at its most basic level, is made of numbers. So scientific formulas don’t just describe physical reality; they are the physical reality. E=MC2, for example, would be seen as a fundamental aspect of reality which Einstein discovered, rather than a description that he invented.
  7. 7. d. Epistemological Idealism Maybe it doesn’t actually matter whether there’s a physical world beyond the mind. After all, the mind is our only tool for understanding that world, and therefore all of our perceptions and understandings will be constrained by the structure of the mind. When we try to understand that structure, we may not be exploring the most basic truths of the universe (as ontological idealists would claim); rather, we’re just trying to understand the human mechanisms and tools that make all understanding possible.
  8. 8. Idealism also has a place in the analysis of history. Historical idealists hold that human history can be explained as the a process of ideas changing and evolving, and that ideas shape human beings rather than the other way around. This process, according to historical idealism, will eventually reach a stage of “complete expression,” when no more unfolding will be possible. At this point, history will end as there will be no more changes to human society (and, by extension, human consciousness). Very few historians accept this view today, since it seems that chaotic historical change will go on forever; but in the past, many historians believed that we would someday reach the end of history.
  9. 9. Idealism vs. Materialism The opposite of idealism is materialism, or the view that reality is material instead of conceptual. For materialists, the physical world is the only true reality. Our thoughts and perceptions are part of the material world just like other objects. Consciousness is a physical process in which one chunk of matter (your brain) interacts with another (the book, screen, or sky that you’re looking at).
  10. 10. Idealism and materialism are both impossible to prove or disprove, of course — they’re falsifiable statements, which means there’s no neutral test that could weigh them against each other. The test, ultimately, has to be one of intuition, or “gut reaction.” Many people find that materialism makes more sense because, after all, everyone has the experience of interacting with an outside world and believing that’s really “out there.” On the other hand, it’s impossible for us to step “outside” our own minds, so how can we be so sure that there really is an “out there” at all?
  11. 11. Quiz Start
  12. 12. 1.Idealism can be traced back to… a.Jesus of Nazareth b.Plato c.Buddha d.Thomas Jefferson
  13. 13. 2.The opposite of idealism is… a.Materialism b.Realism c.Pragmatism d.Rationalism
  14. 14. 3.This article discusses which of the following types of idealism? a.Scientific idealism b.Political idealism c.Subjective idealism d.All of the above
  15. 15. THANK YOU

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