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project for Characterisation of Aluminum based metal matrix composite reinforced with TiC and TiO2

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project for Characterisation of Aluminum based metal matrix composite reinforced with TiC and TiO2

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It is mainly used for upcoming automotive, aerospace parts.

Its mainly focusing on CHARACTERISATION of base material with reinforcement materials.
By increasing strength, less weight low wear rate etc.

It is mainly used for upcoming automotive, aerospace parts.

Its mainly focusing on CHARACTERISATION of base material with reinforcement materials.
By increasing strength, less weight low wear rate etc.

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project for Characterisation of Aluminum based metal matrix composite reinforced with TiC and TiO2

  1. 1. SIDDHARTH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY,PUTTUR Department of Mechanical Engineering Characterisation of Aluminium Based Metal Matrix Composite Reinforced With TiC and TiO2. Team Members L.N.Jaswanth (17F65A0309) M.Dilip (16F61A0316) M.Chandrahas (16F61A0311) K.Jagadeesh (16F61A0327) K.Karthik (16F61A0332) Under The Guidance of Dr. F.Anand Raju Professor (Dept of Mechanical Engineering)
  2. 2. Abstract • Aluminium alloy is widely used in automobile industries due to improved physical and mechanical properties such as low density, low weight, low coefficient of thermal expansion, good corrosion resistance, high tensile strength,high stiffness, high hardness and wear resistance as compared to the other alloys and conventional metals.Their applications in various fields like automobile, aerospace, defence, sports, electronics, bio-medical and other industrial purpose etc. • In this project aluminium matrix is reinforced with TiC and TiO2 is a Nanoparticles of different composition and its mechanical and physical properties are evaluated.
  3. 3. Contents • Objectives • Introduction • Materials of Methodology • Experimentation • Experimental Details • Results and Discussion • Applications • Conclusion
  4. 4. Objectives: The objectives of this projects are: • To fabricate Metal matrix composites with the base metal as Aluminium reinforced with a different percentages of Titanium Carbide and Titanium Oxide by powder metallurgy method. • To characterize its mechanical & physical properties such as hardness test, density test, wear test.
  5. 5. Introduction Composite material : • Two or more chemically distinct materials which when combined have improved properties over the individual materials. • Composites are combinations of two materials which one of the material is called the reinforcing phase, is in the form of fibres, sheet, or particles and is added in the other material is called the matrix phase.
  6. 6. Importance of composites: • Composites can be very strong and stiff, yet very light in weight, so ratios of strength-to- weight and stiffness-to weight are several times greater than steel or aluminium. • Toughness is greater than other materials. • Fatigue properties are generally better than for common engineering metals.
  7. 7. Matrix: • A matrix is a material into which the reinforcement is embedded, and is completely continuous. • In a structural applications, the matrix is usually a lighter metal such as aluminium, magnesium, or titanium, and provides a compliant supports for the reinforcement. Reinforcement Material: • Reinforcement material is added into the matrix to enhance or reduce their properties like wear resistance, hardness, density, porosity, mechanical strength, thermal expansion. • The reinforcement can be continuous or discontinuous.
  8. 8. Metal matrix composites (MMCs) • A metal matrix composite (MMC) is a composite material with at least two constituent parts, one being a metal necessarily, the other material may be a different metal or another material, such as a ceramic or organic compound. • Reinforcement: Alumina, SiC, Zirconia, TiN, CBN etc. • Matrix: Aluminium, Steel, Mg, Titanium, Cobalt and Cobalt-Nickel etc. Matrix Reinforcement
  9. 9. Classification of MMCs
  10. 10. Advantages of MMC • Higher temperature capability • Higher transverse stiffness and strength • No moisture absorption • Higher electrical and thermal conductivites
  11. 11. Materials of methodology Materials: • This present work is for preparation of aluminium metal matrix composite, aluminium alloy is used as base material; titanium oxide and titanium carbide in powder form are used as the reinforcements. Titanium carbide, titanium oxide, and aluminium powder’s are required for the preparation of cylindrical specimens.
  12. 12. Aluminium alloys • Aluminium is a slivery white, soft, nonmagnetic, ductile metal. • First digit indicates alloy group  1xx.x Aluminium >99%  2xx.x Copper  3xx.x Silicon, copper and /or M  4xx.x Silicon  5xx.x Mg  7xx.x Zinc  8xx.x Tin  9xx.x Other elements
  13. 13. Titanium Oxide • Titanium oxide is also known as titanium dioxide or titania, it is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formulaTiO2. • The melting point and density of titanium dioxide is 1843℃ and 4.23g/cm3. • Boiling point: 2,972℃. • Titanium dioxide has an elastic modulus of 228Gpa and tensile strength of 367Mpa. • The grain size of titanium oxide 30-50nm.
  14. 14. Titanium Carbide • Titanium carbide is an extremely hard refractory ceramic material, similar to tungsten carbide. • It has the appearance of black powder with the sodium chloride crystal structure. • The grain size of the titanium carbide is 100nm. • The melting point and density of titanium carbide is 3120℃ and 4.93g/cm3 • Boiling point: 4,820℃. • Titanium carbide has an elastic of approximately 440 Gpa, and a shear modulus of approximantely 188Gpa.
  15. 15. Applications on TiC & TiO2 Titanium Carbide • It is used to make a tool bits • It is used in cermet preparation. • It is used in scratch proof watches. Titanium Oxide • Its exhibits good photo catalytic properties, hence is used in antiseptic and antibacterial compositions. • It is used for manufacture of printing ink, self cleaning ceramics and glass, coating etc.
  16. 16. Properties of Materials used: Material Tensile Strength (MPa) Young’s Modulus (GPa) Density (g/cm3) Coefficient of thermal expansion (μm/m °C) Pure Al 140 68 2.70 27.4 TiO2 367 288 4.23 7.14 TiC 258 451 4.93 7.70
  17. 17. Experimentation Powder Metallurgy Process  Powder preparation  Blending or mixing  Powder compaction  Sintering  Finishing Operations
  18. 18. Specimens Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 90%Al+5%TiO2+5%TiC 92%Al+4%TiO2+4%TiC 94%Al+3%TiO2+3%TiC D=1cm H=3cm
  19. 19. Experimental Details • The following tests are conducted on the aluminium composites to know their mechanical properties. Hardness test: • Hardness is the property of a material that enables it to resist plastic deformation, usually by penetration. The usual method to achieve a hardness value is to measure the depth or area of an indentation left by an indenter of a specific shape, with a specific force applied for a specific time. There are three principal standard test methods for expressing the relationship between hardness and the size of the impression, these being Brinell, Vickers, and Rockwell. Here the micro hardness (VHN) of the work piece was determined using ASTM standard: E3 84- 99. Test material was indented with a 10 mm diameter hardened steel ball subjected to a load of 5 kg applied for 10 seconds. The diameter of the indentation left in the test material is measured with a low powered microscope.
  20. 20. • Vickers hardness number is calculated by dividing the load applied by the surface area of the indentation. The diameter of the impression is the average of two readings at right angles and the use of a Vickers hardness number table can simplify the determination of Vickers hardness structures. Fig:Vickers Hardness test (VHT)
  21. 21. Wear test: • Wear test is carried out to predict the wear performance and to investigate the wear mechanism. Two specific reasons are as follows, from a material point of view, the test is performed to evaluate the wear property of a material so as to determine whether the material is adequate for a specific wear application. • Prior to testing, the pins and disc surface were cleaned with acetone. All of the tests were performed on hybrid composite pins of various compositions with applied loads of 5, 10, 15 and 20 N. A varying sliding distance of 500, 1000 and 1500 m was employed, with sliding speeds of 3.14 m/s. Fig: Wear test
  22. 22. Density test: • The basic method of determining the density of the specimen by measuring the ratio of mass and volume was used. Density is a ratio expressed by the formula D=W / V or density equals the weight of material divided by the volume it occupies. Density is used to determine the degree of compaction by comparing the in-place density to the maximum density. The degree of compaction, expressed as a percent, is then compared to the specification requirement to determine pass or fail. In this project density of the work piece samples were determined using Archimedes method with standard of ASTM: B962-08. • Fig:Density test
  23. 23. Results and Discussion • The following table shows the mechanical properties of the samples predicted by hardness and density tests. • Hardness Analysis • From the above table it is evident that 94%Al-3%TiC3%TiO2 material has vicker`s hardness number of 79, 92%Al-4%TiC-4%TiO2 material has hardness number value of 87 where as 90%Al-5%TiC-5%TiO2 material has high hardness value of vicker`s hardness number of 92. Sample no Composition (Wt%) Density (g/cm3) Micro Hardness (VHN) 1. 94%Al-3%TiC 3%TiO2 2.882 79 2. 92%Al -4%TiC 4%TiO2 2.901 87 3. 92%Al -4%TiC 4%TiO2 2.937 92
  24. 24. 79 87 92 70 75 80 85 90 95 94% Al-3%TiC-3%TiO2 92% Al-4%TiC-4%TiO2 90% Al-5%TiC-5%TiO2 HARDNESS Composite Composition Micro Hardness VHN Fig: Hardness value comparison of composite material • The above graph shows it is evident that 94%Al-3%TiC3%TiO2 material has vicker`s hardness number of 79, 92%Al-4%TiC-4%TiO2 material has hardness number value of 87 where as 90%Al-5%TiC-5%TiO2 material has high hardness value of vicker`s hardness number of 92.
  25. 25. Density Analysis: • The test results shows that 94%Al-3%TiC-3%TiO2 material has density value of 2.882 g/cm3, likewise 92%Al-4%TiC4%TiO2 material has density value of 2.901 g/cm3 also 90%Al- 5%TiC-5%TiO2 material has high density value of 2.937 g/cm3. 2.882 2.901 2.937 2.85 2.86 2.87 2.88 2.89 2.9 2.91 2.92 2.93 2.94 2.95 Al 94%-3%TiC-3%TiO2 Al 92%-4%TiC-4%TiO2 Al 90%-5%TiC-5%TiO2 DENSITY Composites Composition Actual Density, g/cm Fig: Density value comparison of composite material
  26. 26. Wear analysis: • The effect of each control factor such as sliding distance, speed, and load on wear behaviour of aluminium composite material composite material was analysed. Fig:Wear rate of composite material for 500m sliding distance • The graph shows the wear rate of composite material obtained by wear test performed at sliding distance of 500m and at load level of 5, 10, 15,20N with sliding speeds of 3.14 m/s. For all these combinations the rate of wear is 0.22, 0.24, and 0.27 respectively. 0.22 0.24 0.27 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 94% Al-3%TiC- 3%TiO2 92% Al-4%TiC- 4%TiO2 90% Al-5%TiC- 5%TiO2 Sliding distance of 500m at load of 5,10,15,20N Wear rate(mm) Composites Composition
  27. 27. Fig:Wear rate of composite material for 1000m sliding distance • The above graph shows the wear rate of composite material obtained by wear test performed at sliding distance of 1000m sliding distance with same level of other input parameter the rate of wear obtained by wear test is 0.23, 0.25, and 0.28 respectively. 0.23 0.25 0.28 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 94% Al-3%TiC- 3%TiO2 92% Al-4%TiC- 4%TiO2 90% Al-5%TiC- 5%TiO2 Sliding distance of 1000m at load of 5,10,15,20N Wear rate (mm) Composites Composition
  28. 28. • For 1500m sliding distance with same level of other input parameters the rate of wear is 0.24, 0.27, and 0.28 respectively. 0.24 0.27 0.29 0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25 0.3 0.35 94% Al-3%TiC- 3%TiO2 92% Al-4%TiC- 4%TiO2 90% Al-5%TiC-5%TiC Sliding distance of 1500m at level of 5,10,15,20N Wear rate (mm) Composites of Composition Fig:Wear rate of composite material for 1500m sliding distance
  29. 29. The Main Applications of MMC • Space application • Automotive application • Railway application • Aerospace application
  30. 30. Conclusion • In this project the Al-TiC-TiO2 composite material was successfully fabricated and the effect of TiC and TiO2 was studied on the mechanical properties of composite material such as wear for all loads, sliding velocity and sliding distance, hardness, and density was studied by conducting experimental tests. Hardness, density and wear rate was increased with the increases in TiC and TiO2 content in Al composite material. • As Al is very light in weight and by adding very small amount of reinforcement into it the hardness increases which is very effective in applications where there is requirement of low weight high strength properties like in the field of aerospace and automobile.

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