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100018913.pdf

  1. 1. Understanding Growth Pole Model
  2. 2. Growth Pole Model[GPM] • Developed by F Perroux in 1955 • “Growth does not appear everywhere and all at once; It appears in Points or Poles with varying intensity; it spreads along diverse channel and with varying terminal affects to the whole of the economy”
  3. 3. Growth pole model[GPM] • The central idea of the GPM is that economic development is not uniform at every place but take place around a specific Poles. • These Poles named as Propulsive Poles; Characterized by Core Industries which includes a wide variety of sectors such as IT, Automotives, aeronautical, Steel, Petro- chemical, Electronics, Agri-business • The Firms of Propulsive Poles have following characters; – Relatively Large Unit – Have high ability to innovate – Belongs to relatively Fast Growing Sectors – Have Intense Interrelationship with other sectors of economy • While all other regions which lack the strong character is known as Propelled
  4. 4. Growth pole model[GPM] • Perroux also used the term Dominant Region: Poles of development are concentrated and • Dominated Regions: sides Poles are concentrated – Here economic activities is governed by demand from Dominant Region • The GPM also envisaged the possibility of emergence of Secondary Growth Poles; Mainly if a Secondary Industrial Sector emerges with its own linked industries. This may contribute to the regional economic diversification • Perroux argued that Growth Poles are the dominant force of economic development from where both Centripetal and Centrifugal forces emanates. • Such poles generates Growth both within and in the surrounding areas. Thus benefiting the area and its surrounding regions
  5. 5. Growth pole model[GPM] • GPM is Anti-thesis to all other Models of Regional Planning – Myrdal’s Model of Circular and Cumulative Causation; – Hirschmann’s Model of Polarization and Trickle down effects; – Friedmann’s Model of Centro- Periphery etc highlight both Backwash and Spreading effects • While GPM focuses on Spreading effects rather than backwash effect
  6. 6. Merits of Growth pole Model • It place emphasis on various policy oriented Concepts: Propulsive Firms, Leading Industries, Agglomeration which are used by many countries for regional planning • GPM promises of having Spreading Effects rather than Backwash effect • It uncovers inequalities in the economy of a country and focuses our attention to the dominant and dominated regions • GPM presents a basis for careful decentralization of economy by supporting the creation of new Development Poles
  7. 7. Limitations of Growth pole Model • The GPM has its root in western Economic Thought: accelerating development through industrialization only. Not suitable for Agrarian Based countries • Spreading Effects and Backwash effects are the function of the level of development of a region; the backward regions bound to have Backwash Effects • Backwash effects likely to dominate the spreading effects for a number of years, even in the developed countries. • Switzerland and Denmark has NO Poles of Development but development and prosperity spread all over the region
  8. 8. Growth Pole Model and Regional Planning • J Boundeville has brought the GPM in regional Planning through his theory: Growth Centres and Growth Axis. • Boundeville defined a Regional Growth Pole as a “Set of expanding industries located in a urban area and inducing further development of economic activities throughout its Zone of influence” • His Concept of Growth Axis(Principal Cities System) was utilized in practice in the spatial planning of France • GPM has occupied an importance place in the regional Planning theory and most of the developing and underdeveloped country regard it as the most promising hope for regenerating the economy of the backward regions. • As Concentration of investments and public expenditure in a few selected points will enable more effective use of limited resources and there would be better chance of generating more development.
  9. 9. Growth foci model(GFM) • Proposed by R P Mishra • Recognized the importance of Growth Pole Model in Regional Planning • Since it is not applicable to developing and under developed countries, GFM is basically modification of GPM for these countries • The Growth Foci Model is based on following Theories; – Central Place Theory – Christaller – Growth Pole Model – Spatial Diffusion Theory – T Hagarstrand (1902)
  10. 10. Growth foci model(GFM) • Over Emphasis on Industrial Development • Growth pole should not concerned with only Industrial Development but also function as a) Service centres – to meet day-to-day need b) Must act as a innovative and growth promoting centres in terms of; • Must have processing and manufacturing activities of both basic and non basic items • Provide employment to the drop out of agricultural system • In under developed countries, growth Foci have to function as social interaction Points. They have to act as; – Centre of diffusion of information – Provision of extension services – Educational services – Meeting Points
  11. 11. Hierarchy of Growth foci model(GFM) • Initially R P Mishra envisaged Four Tier of Hierarchy of Growth Foci 1. Service centre – at Local Level 2. Growth Points – at Sub Regional Level 3. Growth Centres – at Regional Level 4. Growth Poles – at National Level
  12. 12. Hierarchy of Growth foci model(GFM) • Later on it was developed as Five Tier of Hierarchy of Growth Foci 1. Village – at Local Level [Central Village] 2. Service centre – Meso Level [Tehsil/Block] 3. Growth Points – at Sub Regional Level [Town] 4. Growth Centres – at Regional Level [District Headquarter] 5. Growth Poles – at National Level[state H.Q]
  13. 13. Growth foci Hierarchy – Nature and function Hierarchy of Growth Foci Population and Coverage Nature Facilities Expected 1. Central Village Population 6000 covering 6 villages Revenue village or village panchayat Offering • Marketing, • Recreational and social services; • Primary school, • Sub post office, • Health sub centre, • Primary co-operative
  14. 14. Growth foci Hierarchy – Nature and function Hierarchy of Growth Foci Population and Coverage Nature Facilities Expected 2. Service Centre Population 30,000 covering 5 central villages + 5,000 population in the service centre itself; Town Panchayat Head quarters of the extension officers, minor govt. functionaries; focal points for social intercourse Will have • Grocery store • General merchant shops, • Minor repair facilities, • Tailor, • Larger shops, • Restaurants, • Primary and middle school, • Sub-post office, • Co-operative bank, • Rice mill, flour mill, • Cinema theatre
  15. 15. Growth foci Hierarchy – Nature and function Hierarchy of Growth Foci Population and Coverage Nature Facilities Expected 3. Growth Points Coverage 1.5 lakh population i.e. serving 5 service centers plus 10,000 to 25,000 population of the growth point itself municipal town or taluk head quarters. Sub-regional innovative and propulsive urban centers; contribute to the social, economic and emotional integration of the respective sub region; linked with sister growth points by state highways and with the service centers by district/local road net works Will contain all the facilities located in the service centers. Over and above it will have • Agro industries, • Dairy Processing units, • Junior college, • Primary level specialized medical facilities etc.
  16. 16. Growth foci Hierarchy – Nature and function Hierarchy of Growth Foci Population and Coverage Nature Facilities Expected 4. Growth Centres Coverage – 10 to 12 lakhs of population; plus 50, 000 to 5,00,000 population of the growth centre it self. There will be 500 growth centers in the country as a whole. District headquarters; acts as counter magnets to large urban centers like Bombay, Madras, Calcutta, Delhi etc. • Predominance of secondary activities; • Will have collecting, storage and processing facilities for agricultural products; • Will produce agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, and machines; • Will have radio/television station, banking facilities, degree college, university, technical institutions; • Operation of external economies; • Will function as industrial hubs of the area they serve.
  17. 17. Growth foci Hierarchy – Nature and function Hierarchy of Growth Foci Population and Coverage Nature Facilities Expected 5. Growth Poles Population of a growth pole ranges from 5 lakhs to 25 lakhs – It will serve a population of 20 – 30 million Designed to serve as the ‘Heart’ of one macro region of the country; state headquarters • Will send out financial technological, research and industrial impulses to all centers and points within the area of their command; • Will perform highly specialized secondary and tertiary activities.
  18. 18. Village Cluster Model • It is one of the emerging concept or approach in Regional Planning • Based on Concept called “Viable Unit Areas of Development in Rural Space”. • Useful Grassroots level Unit for setting up and organizing Rural Development Programmes. • Small and Marginal farmers facing problems of Uncertainty to their immediate requirements; – Planning materials – Seeds, fertilizers, irrigation, machine and tools – Production and Productivities – Marketing • Employment and Livelihood issue are also critical for rural development • VCA supposed to address these Problems
  19. 19. Village Cluster Model • A Cluster is a contiguous group of 12-15 Villages Panchayats comprising of 5-6 thousand Families • VCA aims at Sustainable Livelihood and Gainful Employment to the Rural Masses through; – Judicious use of regional or local resources – Resource development and Conservation – Expansion of suitable technologies – Skill enhancement of rural masses – particularly the poorest of the poor – Expansion of livelihood opportunities • Farmers in the cluster villages are Encouraged to take part in the programmes of holistic development – Community Participation and Partnership • The underlying Principle of Mutual Trust is basic element of such partnership
  20. 20. The Objectives of Village Cluster Model 1. Identifying and solving the common felt needs 2. Formulation and execution of Common Action Plan through participatory Approach by formulation of Local People’s Organization (LOs) 3. Adoption of Innovative approaches like Contract Farming, Farm-field School (FFS) and other Participatory Mode 4. Income Generation and Income enhancement 5. Improving the Quality of Life 6. Improving the Quality of Environment
  21. 21. Expected Outcome and Output of Village Cluster Model A. Livelihood  Access to Micro Finance, Banking, and Critical Inputs  Access to technology, information and Market  Access to Agro-services centres  Increase in Productivity Natural Resources  Post Production facilities and development of Value Chain  Employment Opportunities through micro enterprises  Viability of Off farm production and services activities for Landless and poor households B. Community Health  Safe drinking water  Drainage and sanitation facilities  Primary Health Centres  Development of Healthy Habits amongst Stakeholders
  22. 22. Expected Outcome and Output of Village Cluster Model C. Women Empowerment  Hardship Reduction  Functional Literacy  Enhancement of Social Values  Participation in Pos  Social Justice and Gender Equality  Good Governance – Vibrant POs D. Judicious Use of Resource – Conservation and Management  Optimum Utilization of Natural Resources  Sustainable use of local resources – land, water and forest  Improving the quality of environment  Awareness programme for stakeholders
  23. 23. Application of Village Cluster Model VCA through Resource conservation have many scope and Application such as; • Community seed development and Management • Integrated Pest Management • Farm Mechanization • Enhancement of efficiency of Common Resources: Land, Water etc • Watershed Development • Organic Farming • Contract Farming • Precision Farming • Reduction in Cost of Cultivation • Enhancement of Farm Income through higher Production efficiency • Risk and Uncertainty Avoidance through Farm-Field School • Agro-services and entrepreneurship • Effective integration with other institutions for mutual benefits • Capacity Building and Skill development
  24. 24. Success Stories of Village Cluster Model Various successful case studies involving VCA through Resource conservation are Available such as; • Project Siruthali (Revitalizing Water Bodies) – Coimbatore • Precision Farming Project in Tamilnadu • Crop Revolution in Punjab • Periyar PURA [Provision of Urban Amenities in Rural Areas] • Summer Mungbean Farming in Fatehpur - UP • BAIF Programme for Sustainable development [Bhartiya Agro Industry Foundation]
  25. 25. THANKS

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