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Peloponnesian War
Athens-Sparta Conflict
Despite the grandeur that was Athens
under Pericles, other city-states did
exist.
Many of them resented the
domination o...
Athens
Sparta
Sparta - Lifestyles
 Government
 Oligarchy
 Ruled by a small group
 Rigid social structure
 Militaristic and aggressi...
AthensAthens SpartaSparta
SharedShared
`
AthensAthens SpartaSparta
• Limited directLimited direct
democracydemocracy
• Outlawed debtOutlawed debt
slaveryslavery
• ...
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 B.C.E.)
Cause: Competition between Sparta
and Athens for control of Greek world
 Athens domin...
Peloponnesian War
(431-404 B.C.E.)
War lasted 27 years
Pitted Greek against Greek
Athens, a great naval power,
located ...
Peloponnesian War
Sparta invaded Athens
Pericles pulled all people inside the city
walls, causing overcrowded conditions...
Results of the Peloponnesian War
Sparta, with the help of the Persian
navy, defeated Athens in 404 BCE.
All Athenian shi...
Results of the Peloponnesian War
Cultural advances slowed and the
Greeks were politically weaker.
Athens remained the cu...
Alexander and
the Hellenistic Age
Rise of Macedonia
Land north of the Greek city-states
Considered to be only “half
civilized” and populated by
barbarians...
M a c e d o n i aM a c e d o n i a
Philip II of Macedonia
 Became king of the Macedonians in 359
B .C. E.
 He dreamt of an empire and wanted to
control all...
Phillip II - Alliances & Conquest
 338 BCE - Victory at the Battle of
Chaeronea was against Athens and Thebes
which meant...
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
 Son of Phillip II
 20 yrs old when his father was
assassinated
 Became the lea...
Alexander the Great
 He was tutored by the famous
Greek philosopher Aristotle
Conquest of Persia
 He began to build an army
and navy in order to attack
the Persians
 By 334 BCE, he had enough ships ...
Conquest of Persia
 Alexander’s first victory over the
Persians came at Granicus
 He then conquered all of Asia Minor,
P...
Alexander’s conquests
Onward to India
 Alexander and his army
continued to move east,
over the Hindu Kush
mountains, and into
Northern India.
...
Sudden Death
 Died in Babylon suddenly without leaving an heir.
 His empire was eventually divided into three areas
unde...
Legacy of Alexander
 Created 70 new cities,
40 of them bore his
name.
 Examples
 Alexandria in Egypt
 Alexandroupolis ...
Legacy of Alexander
 Greek soldiers, traders,
and artisans settled in
cities conquered by
Alexander.
 Extended Greek cul...
Legacy of Alexander
 Established an empire that stretched from Greece to
Egypt and the margins of India
Legacy of Alexander
 Gradually, a new culture
emerged out of this blending
of Greek, Egyptian and
Persian (oriental influ...
6 peloponnesian war alexander the great
6 peloponnesian war alexander the great
6 peloponnesian war alexander the great
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Peloponnesian War

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6 peloponnesian war alexander the great

  1. 1. Peloponnesian War Athens-Sparta Conflict
  2. 2. Despite the grandeur that was Athens under Pericles, other city-states did exist. Many of them resented the domination of Athens. The most powerful rival Athens had was its Peloponnesian rival to the south, Sparta Peloponnesian War
  3. 3. Athens Sparta
  4. 4. Sparta - Lifestyles  Government  Oligarchy  Ruled by a small group  Rigid social structure  Militaristic and aggressive society  Sparta was a very militaristic society who sent their sons off to the army at the age of 7.  Citizens were soldiers.  Conquered people became state-owned slaves (helots) who worked the fields to feed the society.
  5. 5. AthensAthens SpartaSparta SharedShared `
  6. 6. AthensAthens SpartaSparta • Limited directLimited direct democracydemocracy • Outlawed debtOutlawed debt slaveryslavery • Granted citizenshipGranted citizenship to some foreignersto some foreigners • Merchants &Merchants & farmersfarmers • Traded with otherTraded with other city statescity states • Boys educated ifBoys educated if affordableaffordable • Broad education inBroad education in many topicsmany topics • Monarchy with twoMonarchy with two kings - oligarchykings - oligarchy • Military societyMilitary society • Boys trained to beBoys trained to be soldierssoldiers • Women could inheritWomen could inherit propertyproperty • Conquered peoplesConquered peoples became state ownedbecame state owned slavesslaves • Only native-bornOnly native-born could be Spartancould be Spartan citizenscitizens • Disdained tradeDisdained trade • Isolated from otherIsolated from other city states in Greececity states in Greece • Common languageCommon language • Common religionCommon religion • Sense of superioritySense of superiority over non-Greeksover non-Greeks SharedShared
  7. 7. Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E.) Cause: Competition between Sparta and Athens for control of Greek world  Athens dominance of the Greek city- states in the Delian League v. Sparta in the Peloponnesian League
  8. 8. Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.E.) War lasted 27 years Pitted Greek against Greek Athens, a great naval power, located on the sea Sparta, located inland, immune to naval attack
  9. 9. Peloponnesian War Sparta invaded Athens Pericles pulled all people inside the city walls, causing overcrowded conditions Plague broke out killing 1/4 to 1/3 of the total population of Athens, including Pericles Sparta even enlisted the help of the hated Persians
  10. 10. Results of the Peloponnesian War Sparta, with the help of the Persian navy, defeated Athens in 404 BCE. All Athenian ships were burned Its navy destroyed. Ended Athenian political domination of the Greek world.
  11. 11. Results of the Peloponnesian War Cultural advances slowed and the Greeks were politically weaker. Athens remained the cultural center of the Greek world
  12. 12. Alexander and the Hellenistic Age
  13. 13. Rise of Macedonia Land north of the Greek city-states Considered to be only “half civilized” and populated by barbarians to most Greeks
  14. 14. M a c e d o n i aM a c e d o n i a
  15. 15. Philip II of Macedonia  Became king of the Macedonians in 359 B .C. E.  He dreamt of an empire and wanted to control all of Greece  His biggest goal was to take over the Persian Empire as well!  Alliances  Through threats, bribery, and diplomacy, he formed alliances with many of the Greek city- states.  The rest he simply conquered.
  16. 16. Phillip II - Alliances & Conquest  338 BCE - Victory at the Battle of Chaeronea was against Athens and Thebes which meant that he brought the rest of Greece under his control  Conquered most of Greece  However, Phillip was assassinated before he could conquer the Persian Empire, which was his greatest plan.
  17. 17. Alexander the Great Alexander the Great  Son of Phillip II  20 yrs old when his father was assassinated  Became the leader of the Macedonians.  Even though he was so young, he had trained as a soldier in his father’s military and shared his father’s dream of Persian conquest.
  18. 18. Alexander the Great  He was tutored by the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle
  19. 19. Conquest of Persia  He began to build an army and navy in order to attack the Persians  By 334 BCE, he had enough ships to challenge Persian dominance over the Dardanelles.  Persia was not the powerful empire it was in earlier times.  Darius III was weak  Persia had internal conflict.
  20. 20. Conquest of Persia  Alexander’s first victory over the Persians came at Granicus  He then conquered all of Asia Minor, Palestine, and Egypt.  In 331 BCE, he took Babylon and other Persian capitals
  21. 21. Alexander’s conquests
  22. 22. Onward to India  Alexander and his army continued to move east, over the Hindu Kush mountains, and into Northern India.  There he met armored elephants and decided he should stop for a while.
  23. 23. Sudden Death  Died in Babylon suddenly without leaving an heir.  His empire was eventually divided into three areas under three generals:  Macedonia & Greece  Egypt  Persia
  24. 24. Legacy of Alexander  Created 70 new cities, 40 of them bore his name.  Examples  Alexandria in Egypt  Alexandroupolis in Greece
  25. 25. Legacy of Alexander  Greek soldiers, traders, and artisans settled in cities conquered by Alexander.  Extended Greek cultural influences  Built Greek temples  Held Greek festivals  Erected Greek art and architecture.
  26. 26. Legacy of Alexander  Established an empire that stretched from Greece to Egypt and the margins of India
  27. 27. Legacy of Alexander  Gradually, a new culture emerged out of this blending of Greek, Egyptian and Persian (oriental influences)  This new culture was called Hellenistic that lasted until the rise of the Roman Empire  This Hellenistic culture was spread through trade.

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