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Production of vitamins

overview about vitamin production

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Production of vitamins

  2. 2. Vitamins are organic substances that are essential for the health, growth, reproduction. Each vitamin performs for special function, hence, one cannot replace or act for another. Except vitamin-D, the human body cannot synthesize others. They are classed as, 1) Fat soluble vs. water soluble vitamins 2) Vitamin B complex and 3) Vitamin like substances
  3. 3. Fat soluble vitamins Water soluble vitamins Vitamin A Biotin Vitamin D Choline Vitamin E Folic acid Vitamin K Niacin Pantothenic acid Riboflavin Thiamin Vitamin B6(pyridoxine; pyridoxal; pyridoxamine) Vitamin B12 (cobalamines) Vitamin C (ascorbic acid; hydroascorbic acid)
  4. 4.  Chemical composition The fat soluble vitamins contain only carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, whereas the water soluble B vitamins contains these three elements plus nitrogen.  Occurrence Vitamins originates primarily in plant tissues which includes vegetable products (cabbage, carrot, orange, lemon, corn or maize oil, corn or maize bran…) and microorganisms (brewers yeast, bakers yeast…). Animals – fish, ox or calf liver oil. Vitamin c and d present only animal tissues.  Excretion Fat soluble – via faces Water soluble – primarily via urine, limited amount present in faces.
  5. 5.  Cobalamies composed of a central cobalt atom coordinated by a porphyrin-like group called corrin.  The cobalamin biosynthesis by pseudomonas denitrificans require external supply of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidozole (5,6- DBI) and cobalt salt.  cobamide also from propionibacterium shermanii.
  6. 6.  Extraction  Extraction – lyses of cell  Unstable cobalamine become more stable when treated with cyanide(KCN), forms cyanocobalamine. Purification  Adsorption method using alumina and silanized silica gel  Then followed by elution with water-alcohol or water- phenol mixtures
  7. 7.  Production by fermentation of Ashbya gossypii Production upto 10-15 g/L after 10 days.  Isolation Broth at 121 c/hratph4.5–riboflavinsolubilised Precipitation isbytitaniumchloride Reoxidisedintheair anddissolvedat60cin10%HCL Aftercoolingneutralizedtoyieldpurerformsofriboflavincrystals.
  8. 8. D-glucose ↓ D-gluconic acid ↓ 2-keto-D-glconic acid ↓ 2,5-diketo-D-gluconic acid ↓ 2-keto-L-gulonic acid Erwinia sp. Coreynebacterium sp.
  9. 9.  Harvesting and isolation the 2-keto-L-gulonic acid is isolated from the harvested broth at the end of second stage fermentation by treating with sodium carbonate. the subsequent concentration to crystallization yields 90% 2- keto-L-gulonate
  10. 10.  Vitamin E natural occurrence:  In oils of soybean, corn, sunflower, rapeseed & olive.  In green vegetables of spinach, parsely, cabbage, leek & lettuce.  Bio engineered plants like Tobacco and Arabidopsis for over expression of Tocols.  Bio engineered plants like soybean, rape seed and maize kernels for altered tocol content.  γ-tocopherol to α-tocopherol by γ-TMT, this achieved up to 95%.
  11. 11.  Min level of vitamin E (100 IU/day) to prevent coronary heart disease.  For degenerative diseases, diabetes, prostate cancer, teeth problems, vision problems vitamins mostly suggested.  Higher intake of water soluble vitamins cause hypervitaminosis.  There is sneither optional nor substitute for any vitamin.