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Team Dynamics
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  1. 1. PrePETS Lebanon 2011 Building a Rotary Team Michel P. Jazzar RLI Lebanon Division founder chairman 2002-2005 RI Representative to UN-ESCWA since 2006 January 16, 2011
  2. 2. of Rotarians, “The selfishness of individuals, of families, of states, and of nations, is the cause of the most of the trouble in the world.” -Taylor Erwin Gauthier, business writer, December 1921 Rotary Clubs.
  3. 3. Individual Duo
  4. 4. Summarize  To accomplish most tasks in Rotary and their careers, people must work in teams.  When individuals work well together, together they can do more than they could alone.
  5. 5. Let’s go and build stronger teams!
  6. 6. Building a Rotary Team  Team acronyms  Stages  What’s a Team  Strategies  System  Key factors  Effective team  Skills  Types  Decision making  Discussion questions
  7. 7. TEAM  Acronym? I read the following acronym definition of “team" on a website last week. Together Everyone Achieves More
  8. 8. What is Team? In a team,  People depend on each other;  May or may not work in the same physical location,  Combine to achieve something together A "team" is two or more people who share responsibility for a common objective, and whose efforts towards that objective benefit from coordination and communication.
  9. 9. Team building is:  The process of working with a team to clarify its task and how team members can work together to achieve it.  A strategy that can help groups to develop into a real team is “team building” M↔
  10. 10. Key actions in Team Building  Setting and maintaining the team objectives and standards: Create your system.  Involving the team as a whole in the achievement of objectives  Maintaining the unity of the team  Communicating efficiently with the team  Consulting the team – members before taking any decisions
  11. 11. System  acronym?  Save  Secure  Your  Your  Self  Salutary  Time  Team  Energy &  Energy &  Money  Mission Create your system: Setting and maintaining the team objectives and standards
  12. 12. What makes an Effective Team? Basic Elements of Effectiveness:  Positive interdependence in small numbers: We instead of Me  Individual accountability/ Personal responsibility  Meaningful purpose, Good communication & Social skills  Group Processing/Transformation  Shared goals and values  Processes/Methods for Conflict Resolution
  13. 13. Types of teams: Best is  Pseudo: Group members have been High performing: assigned to work together but have no commitment to a common goal. This group is an effective  Traditional: Group members agree to work together but see little benefit in team that exceeds all doing so. reasonable expectations.  High performing: This group is an effective team that exceeds all reasonable expectations.
  14. 14. Stages in Team Building Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning
  15. 15. Bruce Tuckman's classic description of the stages of group development [1965, 1977] http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
  16. 16. Tuckman’s stages of team development:*  Forming: Team members discover each other’s behaviors and begin to set team rules and guidelines.  Storming: The team is actively involved in determining how it will accomplish its goals.  Norming: Team members gain confidence, begin to make decisions, and take responsibility for their actions.  Performing: The group transforms from a collection of individuals into a true team. * Based on research done by Bruce Tuckman.
  17. 17. Stage 1: Forming  Team Building  Task  Define team  Define problem  Determine and strategy individual roles  Identify  Develop trust information and needed communication  Develop norms /rules
  18. 18. Five-stage Model of Group Development
  19. 19. Stage 2: Storming During the Storming stage team members:  realize that the task is more difficult than they imagined;  have fluctuations in attitude about chances of success;  may be resistant to the task; and,  have poor collaboration.
  20. 20. Five-stage Model of Group Development
  21. 21. Brainstorming process  Define and agree the objective.  Brainstorm ideas and suggestions having agreed a time limit.  Categorize/condense/combine/refine.  Assess/analyze results or effects.  Prioritize options/rank list as appropriate.  Agree action and timescale/amount.  Control and monitor follow-up. http://www.businessballs.com/brainstorming.htm
  22. 22. Stage 3: Norming During this stage members accept:  their team;  team rules and procedures;  their roles in the team; and,  the individuality of fellow members.  Team members realize that they are not going to crash-and-burn and start helping each other.
  23. 23. Five-stage Model of Group Development
  24. 24. Stage 4: Performing Team members have:  gained insight/near into personal and team processes;  a better understanding of each other’s strengths and weaknesses;  gained the ability to prevent or work through group conflict and resolve differences; and,  developed a close attachment to the team.
  25. 25. Five-stage Model of Group Development
  26. 26. Stage 5: Adjourning  Temporary project team reaches this stage; celebrate their team’s achievements.  Some authors describe stage 5 as "Deforming and Mourning", recognizing the sense of loss felt by team members.
  27. 27. Five-stage Model of Group Development
  28. 28. Stages of group development: Group maturity: Forming Group is 'undeveloped' Immature Storming Group is 'experimenting' Immature Norming Group is 'settling down' Semi-mature Performing Group is now a team! Mature Adjourning Group is disbanding Mature
  29. 29. Team Development Steps: From a Group to a Team
  30. 30. Describe team-building strategies  Interaction: Providing structured activities to help the group develop familiarity and positive communication  Effective meetings: Actively involving all team members in the planning and decision-making processes  Conflict intervention: Engaging in constructive communication rather than destructive criticism
  31. 31. Key factors to successful performance of a team S.C.O.R.E Acronym Strategy Clear Roles and Responsibility Open Communication Rapid Response Effective Leadership
  32. 32. Key factors to successful performance of a team – S.C.O.R.E  Strategy:  Shared purpose  Clearly articulated values and ground rules  Understanding of risks and opportunities facing the team  Clear categorization of the overall responsibilities of the team  Clear Roles and Responsibilities:  Clear definition of roles and responsibilities  Responsibility shared by all members  Specific objectives to measure individual results
  33. 33. Key factors to successful performance of a team – S.C.O.R.E  Open communication:  Respect for individual differences  Open communication environment among team members  Rapid response:  Rapid response to the team’s problems  Effective management to change in the internal and external environment  Effective Leadership:  Team leader who is able to help members achieve the objective and build the team  Team leader who can draw out and free up the skills of all team members, develop individuals
  34. 34. Basic Team Skills The following features are fundamental to good teamwork:  trust: making sure you meet all commitments and maintain confidentiality when required  coaching/training: using your skills, knowledge and experience to assist others or ask for help  sharing information: to assist others do their job  flexibility: show a willingness, enthusiasm to cooperate and help others when possible  good manners: doing small, simple things, [e.g. thanking colleagues for their help]
  35. 35. Team Decision Making  Goal: To reach consensus  Consensus is: Finding a proposal acceptable enough so that all members can support it; no member opposes it.  Consensus is NOT: A unanimous vote; a majority vote; everyone totally satisfied.  Requires: Time, active participation, communication skills, creative thinking, and open-mindedness  Techniques:  Brainstorming  Multi-voting technique or Nominal Group Technique NGT http://www.siliconfareast.com/ngt.htm
  36. 36. The Nominal Group Technique (NGT)  or multi-voting technique, is a methodology for achieving team consensus quickly when the team is ranking several options or alternatives or selecting the best choice among them.  The method basically consists of having each team member come up with his or her personal ranking of the options or choices, and collation of everyone's rankings into the team consensus.
  37. 37. Discussion questions
  38. 38. Does your club promote teamwork? Y or N ? What leadership styles help in doing so?
  39. 39. Types of Leadership Style Volunteers Adult Leaders Consensus
  40. 40. What are the core elements required for building an effective team? 1. Team is empowered by leadership and given clear objectives, expectations, and parameters. 2. Leadership provides the necessary resources - skill sets and availability of team members, budget, access to critical information etc. 3. Free flow of information. •Disagreement and conflict are welcomed and resolved constructively. •Team meets (or exceeds) its objectives, AND contributes to the organizational knowledge and talent pool, while generating job satisfaction.
  41. 41. How can you build a consensus?  How do you ensure that consensus doesn’t result in compromise?  How do you satisfy everyone involved? Building consensus is the act of finding a solution that satisfies everyone’s needs, especially among those who have different viewpoints; it doesn’t mean compromise or surrender. Leading others to consensus results in a decision that is viable and sustainable.
  42. 42. Group work:  Have participants work in small groups on a case study.  Assign group members different viewpoints, with one participant acting as a moderator who must build consensus.
  43. 43. What are common challenges to a team? How can you avoid them?  Challenge 1: Personal agendas being priority  Challenge 2: Using conflict  Challenge 3: Disengagement/disconnection  Challenge 4: Silo thinking  Challenge 5: Lack of clarity
  44. 44. What are common challenges to a team? How can you avoid them?  Challenge 1: Personal Outcome/Result is achieved by the team. agendas being priority  Challenge 2: Using conflict Used well, conflict can be channeled to extend the boundaries of what is possible, encourage creativity and ultimately achieve a better outcome.  Challenge 3: Disengagement/disconnection Look out for signs of those holding back or not offering their views and find ways of getting their views heard.  Challenge 4: Silo thinking Benefits from the team as a collective far outweigh any benefits that could be obtained by an individual discipline or function.  Challenge 5: Lack of clarity As a leader of a team, it is important that the team as a collective has clarity on the outcomes and why they are so important. http://ezinearticles.com/?Team-Working---5-Common- Challenges&id=1642679
  45. 45. Henry Ford
  46. 46. We have learnt 3 acronyms in 1: TSS TEAM SYSTEM SCORE Together Secure Strategy Everyone Your Clear Roles and Achieves Salutary Responsibility More Team Open Energy & Communication Rapid Response Mission Effective Leadership M  V.G.S
  47. 47. Resources - Web:  http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark  http://wilderdom.com/teambuilding  http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanforming stormingnormingperforming.htm  http://www.teamworkandteamplay.com  http://www.chimaeraconsulting.com/tuckman. htm  http://www.managementhelp.org/grp_skll/theo ry/theory.htm
  48. 48. Resources - Books:  The New Art of Managing People – new edition 2008  The Leadership Challenge – 4 Edition -2007 th  The Everything Leadership Book – 2 Edition - 2008 nd  The Rotarian Reader – A 75-Year Anthology – 1986 – by RI. [page33]
  49. 49. Where to get it? www.authorstream.com/Presentation/jazzar-776510-buiding-a-rotary-team-by-michel- p/

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Selfishness = egoism
  • (yes, I am practicing what I preach and constantly invest in my own education).
  • It is not enough to tell Rotary leaders how they should be leaders; we must show them how it is done. To do this, a leader: Sets an example Shows a personal commitment and dependability Communicates a vision successfully Delegates with accountability, rather than control Makes others feel important by expressing appreciation, recognizes accomplishments and always gives credit where credit is due Has a determination to get the job done
  • Standard=criterion Standards= principles
  • Salutary= helpful/useful
  • We instead of me=NOUS a la place de JE Processing= traitement/Transformation Processes=Methode/procedure/practice ===========================================- It is not enough to tell Rotary leaders how they should be leaders; we must show them how it is done. To do this, a leader: Sets an example Shows a personal commitment and dependability Communicates a vision successfully Delegates with accountability, rather than control Makes others feel important by expressing appreciation, recognizes accomplishments and always gives credit where credit is due Has a determination to get the job done
  • As the team matures, members gradually learn to cope with each other and the pressures that they face. As a result, the team goes through the fairly predictable stages noted on the slide. Here are the features of each phase: forming - stage 1 High dependence on leader for guidance and direction. Little agreement on team aims other than received from leader. Individual roles and responsibilities are unclear. Leader must be prepared to answer lots of questions about the team's purpose, objectives and external relationships. Processes are often ignored. Members test tolerance of system and leader. Leader directs (similar to Situational Leadership® 'Telling' mode). storming - stage 2 Decisions don't come easily within group. Team members vie for position as they attempt to establish themselves in relation to other team members and the leader, who might receive challenges from team members. Clarity of purpose increases but plenty of uncertainties persist. Cliques and factions form and there may be power struggles/moved out. The team needs to be focused on its goals to avoid/keep away from becoming distracted by relationships and emotional issues. Compromises may be required to enable progress. Leader coaches/teaches . norming - stage 3 Agreement and consensus is largely forms among team, who respond well to facilitation by leader. Roles and responsibilities are clear and accepted. Big decisions are made by group agreement. Smaller decisions may be delegated to individuals or small teams within group. Commitment and unity is strong. The team may engage in fun and social activities. The team discusses and develops its processes and working style. There is general respect for the leader and some of leadership is more shared by the team. Leader facilitates and enables . performing - stage 4 The team is more strategically aware; the team knows clearly why it is doing what it is doing. The team has a shared vision and is able to stand on its own feet with no interference or participation from the leader. There is a focus on over-achieving goals, and the team makes most of the decisions against criteria agreed with the leader. The team has a high degree of autonomy. Disagreements occur but now they are resolved within the team positively and necessary changes to processes and structure are made by the team. The team is able to work towards achieving the goal, and also to attend to relationship, style and process issues along the way. team members look after each other. The team requires delegated tasks and projects from the leader. The team does not need to be instructed or assisted. Team members might ask for assistance from the leader with personal and interpersonal development. Leader delegates and oversees/manages. Tuckman's fifth stage - Adjourning Bruce Tuckman refined his theory year 1977 and added a fifth stage to the Forming-Storming-Norming-Performing model - he called it Adjourning, which is also referred to as Deforming/distorting and Mourning/expressing grief. Adjourning is arguably/perhaps more of an adjunct to the original four stage model rather than an extension - it views the group from a perspective beyond the purpose of the first four stages. The Adjourning phase is certainly very relevant to the people in the group and their well-being, but not to the main task of managing and developing a team, which is clearly central to the original four stages. adjourning - stage 5 Tuckman's fifth stage, Adjourning, is the break-up of the group, hopefully when the task is completed successfully, its purpose fulfilled; everyone can move on to new things, feeling good about what's been achieved. From an organizational perspective, recognition of and sensitivity to people's vulnerabilities in Tuckman's fifth stage is helpful, particularly if members of the group have been closely bonded and feel a sense of insecurity or threat from this change. Feelings of insecurity would be natural for people with high 'steadiness' attributes (as regards the 'four temperaments' or DISC model) and with strong routine and empathy style (as regards the Benziger thinking styles model, right and left basal brain dominance).
  • To help the students adapt to their team, it might be wise to have them to simple activities to build trust and establish communication between the members. However, in the context of the computational science project many of the forming actions are undertaken as the team determines what their project topic will be and narrows the focus to reach their project goal. Teachers can help students as they "form" their teams by making sure that they understand the process they will go through to get their topic. You may want to include some activities to illustrate trust and/or communication skills in a team.
  • This is probably the most difficult stage for the team. They may be floundering trying to find a project topic that is narrow enough to study or a mentor to help them. They begin to realize that this project is different than other ones that they have done in the past. Teachers can help students through this stage by encouraging members to use their individual skills and assume more responsibilities. Understanding how personality types interact can ease some of the tensions in the storming stage.
  • Additionally I am informed (thanks T Kalota, Oct 2008) of a useful brainstorming/organizing technique using coloured pens when reviewing a written specification, or potentially any set of notes for a design or plan. Underline or circle the words according to the following: nouns/people/things   black (entities)   verbs ('doing'/functional words)   red (relationships)   adjectives/adverbs (describing words)   blue (attributes) This technique was apparently used for clarifying written specifications or notes for a database design, and was termed 'extended relational architecture', advocated by a company of the same name, at one time. (I've been unable to find any further details about the company or this application. If you know more please tell me.) This method of colour-coding notes (using underlines or circles or boxes) to help clarification/prioritization/organization/etc can itself naturally be extended and adapted, for example: nouns/people/things black (entities) verbs ('doing'/functional words) red (relationships) adjectives (describing a noun/thing/etc) blue (attributes) adverbs (describing a verb/function) green (degrees/range/etc) timings/costs/quantities yellow (measures) The colours and categories are not a fixed industry standard. It's an entirely flexible technique. You can use any colours you want, and devise your own coding structures to suit the situation.  
  • During this stage, team members begin to work out their differences and now have more time and energy to spend on their work. Thus they are able to start making significant progress. In the context of the computational science project, the students have probably found a mentor who is helping them and have narrowed their project focus.
  • During the performing stage, the team is now an effective and cohesive unit. As a team, the emphasize quality work; utilize each member’s talents; meet deadlines; and continue to work on team commitment. Examples of the results of good team work can be seen on the Video tapes and CDs from the National Expos. The presentation itself is an example of team work. The duration and intensity of these stages vary from team to team. Sometimes Stage 4 is achieved in a meeting or two; other times it takes months. Understanding the stages of growth will keep you from overreacting to normal problems and setting unrealistic expectations. Don’t panic. With patience and effort the assembly of independent individuals will grow into a team.
  • Mourning=sorrow
  • Settle =resolve, reconcile Disbanding = dissolution
  • Features = appearance
  • Brainstorming: Multi-voting or Nominal Group Technique:
  • Quiz: What’s Your Leadership Style? References: Lewin, K., LIippit, R. and White, R.K. (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created social climates. Journal of Social Psychology, 10, 271-301 Remember, good leaders utilize all three styles depending upon the situation. For example : Use an authoritative style if a group member lacks knowledge about a certain procedure. Use a participative style with group members who understand the objectives and their role in the task. Use a delegative style if the group member knows more than you do about the task.   Great leaders need to adapt and change based upon the objectives, needs of group members, and situational factors. ====================== Consensus = Factors affecting style= Theories of Leadership: Volunteers: Both their training for leadership and their function in leadership must be regarded from a volunteer perspective. Volunteers must be inspired, motivated, and continually encouraged. 1-It is important that leaders grasp/seize the vision of Rotary International. Invite the leaders to briefly share some of the changes they have seen take place that have excited them and increased Rotary's scope/capacity and effectiveness/efficiency. 2-It is important to point out that their clubs elected them to lead, so they must provide both the vision and the spark to ignite the action, or their goals will never be met. 3-It is important that participants understand that they are the key to what will happen — or will not happen — in their club in the coming Rotary year.
  • Foster=perform Avoid=Keep away
  • Challenge 1: Personal agendas being priority For most of our life we are conditioned to do things by ourselves, such as passing exams, getting a college place, finding a job, securing a promotion, to name just a few. We therefore get used to pursuing our personal agenda. To get results in a team you need to create conditions where success or failure depends on the team as a whole. If the outcome can be achieved by one individual, the team will always come second. Challenge 2: Using conflict Conflict in teams is inevitable and conflict is not a bad thing. What is important is that conflict is productive rather than destructive. Used well, conflict can be channeled to stretch the boundaries of what is possible, encourage creativity and ultimately achieve a better outcome. Challenge 3: Disengagement/Detachment Teams achieve more when all of the members are fully engaged and focused on the outcome. The challenge is to avoid situations where people on the team become disengaged. Look out for signs of those holding back or not offering their views and find ways of getting their views heard. Challenge 4: Silo thinking This is a particular challenge where you have people in teams from different professional disciplines or functions within the organization. It is all too easy for people to drift into analyzing what it will mean for their particular discipline and to start viewing things in win-lose terms. In these situations, it is key that the benefits from the team as a collective far outweigh/be more important than any benefits that could be obtained by an individual discipline or function. Challenge 5: Lack of clarity Achieving anything starts with being clear on what you want to achieve and why you want to achieve it. As a leader of a team, it is important that the team as a collective has clarity on the outcomes and why they are so important. Bottom line - No team is ever challenge free, but at the same time wants to get results. What challenges are getting in the way of your team success and what action will you take to address them?