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New Aia Hurricane 2007

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New Aia Hurricane 2007

  1. 1. AIA 2007 Hurricane Laminated Glass Protection Beyond the Storm
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Hurricane Formation, Classification and History </li></ul><ul><li>The Effect of Hurricanes on Unprotected Structures </li></ul><ul><li>Test Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Building Code Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Product Options and Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Design Considerations </li></ul>
  3. 3. About Solutia <ul><li>World Headquarters located in St. Louis, MO </li></ul><ul><li>$3 Billion Chemical Company </li></ul><ul><li>Saflex division is the world’s largest producer of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) used in laminated glass </li></ul>
  4. 4. Solutia Architectural Brands
  5. 5. <ul><li>This program is registered with the AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation. </li></ul>Thank you!
  6. 6. The Glass Product Pipeline Float Glass (PPG, Visteon, LOF) Window Manf. Weathershield Interlayer (Solutia, DuPont, HT, etc) Framing System (YKK, Kawneer) Fabricators/Laminators (Oldcastle, Viracon) Glaziers w/ framing (Trainor, Harmon, etc) General Contractor Architect Building Owner Glazing Contractors
  7. 8. Saffir Simpson Scale <ul><li>Category Winds Storm Surge Damage </li></ul><ul><li>1 74 - 95 mph 4 - 5 ft Minimal </li></ul><ul><li>2 96 - 110 mph 6 - 8 ft Moderate </li></ul><ul><li>3 111 - 130 mph 9 - 12 ft Extensive </li></ul><ul><li>4 131 - 155 mph 13 - 18 ft Extreme </li></ul><ul><li>5 155 mph + 18 ft + Catastrophic </li></ul>
  8. 9. Major Hurricanes
  9. 10. The 10 Most Costly Disasters in US History Courtesy ISO, Insurance Information Institute
  10. 12. Post Andrew Investigations <ul><li>Florida Department of Community Affairs </li></ul><ul><li>HUD </li></ul><ul><li>FEMA </li></ul><ul><li>Dade County Building Code Task Force </li></ul><ul><li>Texas Tech University </li></ul><ul><li>Wind Engineering Research Council </li></ul><ul><li>Dade County Grand Jury </li></ul><ul><li>SBCCI </li></ul><ul><li>University of Florida </li></ul>
  11. 13. Post Andrew Conclusions <ul><li>The 2 nd leading cause of damage during Hurricane Andrew was the loss of windows and doors. </li></ul><ul><li>The leading cause of loss of windows and doors was impacts from windbourne debris. </li></ul><ul><li>The loss of windows and doors lead to the loss of contents due to full internal pressurization. </li></ul>
  12. 14. Pressurization of a Dwelling
  13. 15. Post Andrew Conclusions <ul><li>The research clearly pointed out that new building codes would be required that mandated the protection of windows and doors from wind borne debris. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1994 Dade County and Broward County adopted provisions from the The South Florida Building Code that required glazed openings to be either shuttered, or glazed with Impact resistant framing systems. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2000 Palm Beach County and Martin County followed the lead of Dade County. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Protected Structure
  15. 17. Wind-borne Debris Region <ul><ul><li>Wind-borne Debris means openings must be protected (shutters, plywood or lami) or design for partially enclosed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on highest 3 second wind gust expected in 50 yr period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind-borne debris regions stretch across the entire Eastern seaboard, however enforcement of impact codes outside of Florida and areas of Texas remains extremely limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing enforcement in Carolinas, and legislation ongoing in LA and MS following Katrina and Rita. </li></ul></ul>Windborne debris zone
  16. 18. Florida Wind-borne Debris Region
  17. 19. Partially Enclosed Buildings <ul><li>As long as building shell is standing, it has performed as designed. </li></ul><ul><li>Building contents are not protected and are susceptible to hurricane winds and rain as openings are not required to be protected under this standard. </li></ul>
  18. 20. System Testing Protocol <ul><li>Impact testing </li></ul><ul><li>Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>Air, water and structural </li></ul><ul><li>Three identical units must pass Impact & Cycling </li></ul><ul><li>One unit must go through air, water and structural </li></ul>
  19. 21. Building Regions <ul><li>Large missile test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0-30’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Small missile test </li></ul><ul><ul><li>30’ to 60’ (ASTM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30’ to top (HVHZ) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Code Referenced Missile Testing Standards <ul><li>IBC/IRC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM E 1886 and 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Florida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miami-Dade TAS 201, 202, 203 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM E 1886 and E 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSTD 12 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HVHZ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Miami-Dade TAS 201, 202, 203 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. ASTM E 1996 80 (55) 50 (34) 40 (27) 50 (34) 130 (89) Impact Speed feet/sec (mph) Under 30 ft All wind zones (Enhanced) Under 30 ft All wind zones (Basic) < 130 mph (Enhanced) Under 30 ft < 130 mph (Basic) Skylights < 30 ft < 130 mh (Basic) Above 30 ft All wind zones Typical Use 2 gram steel ball A Small 2 lb. Lumber B 4.5 lb. Lumber C Med 9 lb. Lumber E Large 9 lb. Lumber D Large Missile Missile Level
  22. 24. Large Missile Protocol <ul><li>Used for residential and commercial </li></ul><ul><li>Required: Grade level up to 30 feet </li></ul><ul><li>2 x 4 inch stud used </li></ul><ul><li>Simulates heavy flying objects: roof tile, timbers, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Must survive 2 impacts at 50 feet/per second (34mph) </li></ul>
  23. 25. Large Missile Impact
  24. 26. Small Missile Protocol <ul><li>Three shots of ten: 2 gram steel balls </li></ul><ul><li>130 fps (88 mph) </li></ul><ul><li>Simulates roof gravel </li></ul><ul><li>30’-60’ ASTM </li></ul><ul><li>30’ and up Dade </li></ul>
  25. 27. Cycling Requirements <ul><li>Simulates prolonged and shifting winds </li></ul><ul><li>9000 Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>3500 required for shutters </li></ul>
  26. 28. Determining Design Pressure <ul><li>Fenestration design pressures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind Speed (110, 120, 130, 140, 150 mph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location (corner, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure category (A, B, C, D) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Cyclic Pressure Loading <ul><li>Inward-acting pressure (positive) </li></ul><ul><li>Range Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>0.2P max – 0.5P max 3,500 </li></ul><ul><li>0.0P max – 0.6P max 300 </li></ul><ul><li>0.5P max – 0.8P max 600 </li></ul><ul><li>0.3P max – 1.0P max 100 </li></ul><ul><li>Total: 4,500 </li></ul><ul><li>P max is the design wind pressure from the building code, </li></ul><ul><li>based on an unbreached building envelope </li></ul>
  28. 30. Cyclic Pressure Loading <ul><li>Outward acting pressure (negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Range Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>0.3P max – 1.0P max 50 </li></ul><ul><li>0.5P max – 0.8P max 1,050 </li></ul><ul><li>0.0P max – 0.6P max 50 </li></ul><ul><li>0.2P max -- 0.5P max 3,350 </li></ul><ul><li> Total: 4,500 </li></ul><ul><li>P max is the design wind pressure from the building code, </li></ul><ul><li>based on an unbreached building envelope </li></ul>
  29. 31. Pressure Cycling
  30. 32. System Assessment <ul><li>System Drivers: </li></ul><ul><li>- Glass bite </li></ul><ul><li>Unit Size </li></ul><ul><li>Design Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Shape </li></ul>
  31. 33. Test as a “Total System” <ul><li>The building codes require that the all of the components that make up a “protective glazing system” be tested together : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaskets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural Silicone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Total System” testing ensures that the glazing system will provide the desired level of protection. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Glass Performance
  33. 35. Penetration Failure
  34. 36. Cohesive Silicone Failure
  35. 37. Edge Release
  36. 38. Pass Fail Criteria <ul><li>ASTM 1996 (IBC,FBC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5” Tear where a 3” sphere can’t pass through. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Penetration of missile allowed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must pass 3 identical samples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Miami Dade (HVWZ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5” Tear, no wider than 1/16” . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No penetration of missile. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must pass 3 identical samples </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Product Performance Glass Clad Polycarbonate Ionoplasts and , PET Composites High Perf PVB .090 PVB 10” to 20” 8” to 14” 4” to 8” <5” <13cm 10 to 20cm 10 to 35cm 25 to 50cm
  38. 40. Why Statewide Building Codes? <ul><li>Provides minimum standards for health, safety and public welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Gives consistent requirements statewide </li></ul><ul><li>Prevents or reduces local modifications </li></ul><ul><li>Easier implementation of updated standards </li></ul><ul><li>Helps to bring about enforcement </li></ul>
  39. 41. Code Referenced Missile Testing Standards <ul><li>International Building and Residential Codes (IBC and IRC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM E 1886 and 1996 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Florida </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Miami-Dade TAS 201, 202, 203 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HVHZ mandates this standard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ASTM E 1886 and E 1996 </li></ul></ul>
  40. 42. Hurricane Provisions U.S. Activity
  41. 43. Louisiana <ul><li>State mandated enforcement of 2003 IRC and IBC effective 3/1/2006 for areas in 120 mph and greater. </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted IRC and IBC statewide on January 1, 2007 </li></ul>
  42. 44. Mississippi <ul><li>2003 IBC/IRC signed into law April 2006 for all counties 120 mph or greater except George. </li></ul><ul><li>Working on statewide commercial code for 2009. </li></ul>
  43. 45. Alabama <ul><li>Law in 2006 required code study committee recommend legislation. </li></ul><ul><li>Study published recommending statewide adoption but not enforcement except for areas over 120mph. </li></ul><ul><li>Drafting proposed legislation for introduction in 2007. </li></ul>
  44. 46. <ul><li>Code Approved </li></ul><ul><li>PVB </li></ul><ul><li>High Perf (PET composite, Ionoplasts) </li></ul><ul><li>Glass Clad Polycarbonates </li></ul><ul><li>Laminated poured in placed resins </li></ul>Glazing Products
  45. 47. Passive vs. Active Systems <ul><li>In place 24/7 </li></ul><ul><li>No need to install as storm approaches </li></ul><ul><li>No storage requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Good option for part-time residents </li></ul><ul><li>Provides post-storm protection for building owners </li></ul>
  46. 48. LAG Configurations Single Lite Forced Entry Bomb Blast Hurricane Acoustical Safety Laminated Insulated Same as Single Plus: Energy Conservation Enhanced Acoustical - Can be Double Laminated Multiply Laminated Same as Single Plus: Enhanced Forced Entry Bullet Resistance Enhanced Blast Resistance
  47. 49. Laminated Glass can be … <ul><li>used with Low E coatings </li></ul><ul><li>made with tinted glass </li></ul><ul><li>used in Insulated Glass units </li></ul><ul><li>made with multiple layers of glass </li></ul><ul><li>cut when made with annealed glass </li></ul>
  48. 50. Approved Impact Resistant Glazing Products <ul><li>www.buildingcodeonline.com </li></ul>
  49. 51. Miami Dade Approvals <ul><li>Plastic checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Approved test lab </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering witness and review </li></ul><ul><li>Glass bugging required for testing </li></ul><ul><li>Submit to Dade County Product Control Division for NOA </li></ul>
  50. 52. Firefighter Tutorial <ul><li>http://www.oca.gsa.gov/firefighter/index.php </li></ul>
  51. 53. Additional Benefits of Laminated Glass More attractive than shutter systems Aesthetics Colored and patterned interlayers offer design flexibility Color and Design Passive impact resistance against forced entry Security Doesn’t break into dangerous shards Safety Cuts out most UV rays, Can meet SHGC Solar Cuts perceived noise by 50% Sound
  52. 54. Comfort is Becoming Code <ul><li>Energy becoming very well enforced </li></ul><ul><li>NFRC rating </li></ul><ul><li>IECC becoming common </li></ul>
  53. 55. Solar Heat Gain Coefficient <ul><li>The fraction of incident solar radiation admitted through a window </li></ul><ul><li>SHGC = 0 to 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the SHGC, the less solar heat is transmitted </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to save cooling $$ </li></ul><ul><li>Coatings may be used with laminate or with IG </li></ul>A SHGC of 0.40 or less is recommended in warm climates.
  54. 56. U-Factor <ul><li>Window assembly rating </li></ul><ul><li>The lower the U, the better it insulates against heat loss </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to save energy $$ </li></ul><ul><li>Requires laminated IG </li></ul>A U-factor of 0.75 or less is recommended in warm climates
  55. 57. Energy Resources www.efficientwindows.org www.bcap-energy.org www.energycodes.gov
  56. 58. Thank you Bob Ford Solutia Inc. [email_address] 813-891-6962 More Information www.saflex.com

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