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International Criminal Court: Jurisdiction and Issues

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An overview of the ICC, its jurisdiction, and the challenges and issues.

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International Criminal Court: Jurisdiction and Issues

  1. 1. Individual Criminal Liability in International LawThe Rome Statute and the International Criminal Court
  2. 2. Agenda Overview – What are the history and mission of the ICC? Jurisdiction – What crimes are under the jurisdiction of the ICC? Exercise of Jurisdiction – How are cases brought to the ICC, not domestic courts? Issues – Does the ICC infringe on state sovereignty?
  3. 3. International Criminal Tribunals and the ICC Ad hoc courts of limited jurisdiction − Nuremberg and Tokyo tribunals − International Criminal Tribunal on Rwanda − International Criminal Tribunal on the Former Yugoslavia − Sierra Leone, Timor-Leste, Cambodia... ICC − Expansion in time: A permanent court − Expansion in space: Not limited to regions
  4. 4. Overview of the ICC Entered into force July 1, 2002 121 parties Court of last resort
  5. 5. Crimes
  6. 6. Crimes Serious Crimes
  7. 7. CrimesSeriousCrimes International Crimes
  8. 8. CrimesSeriousCrimes Inter- national Crimes Genocide
  9. 9. CrimesSeriousCrimes Inter- national Crimes Crimes Against Humanity
  10. 10. CrimesSeriousCrimes Inter- national Crimes War Crimes
  11. 11. CrimesSeriousCrimes Inter- national Crimes Crimes of Aggression
  12. 12. CrimesSeriousCrimes Inter- national The Crimes Crimes Crime of Against Genocide Humanity Crimes ofWar Crimes Aggression
  13. 13. Genocide Objective element – Action: Killing, etc. (Art. 6 (a) to (e)) Subjective element – Intention: Intent to destroy national, ethnical, racial, religious group
  14. 14. Crimes Against Humanity Objective element – Action: Murder, etc. (Art. 7 (a) to (k)) – Condition: Part of widespread/systematic attack Subjective element – Knowledge of the attack
  15. 15. War Crimes Objective element – Action: Grave Geneva breaches, etc. (Art. 8 (2)) – Condition: In particular when part of policy/plan Subjective element
  16. 16. Crime of Aggression Stay tuned! (Art. 5 (2))
  17. 17. Other Limits on Jurisdiction Temporal jurisdiction – Crimes committed after entry into force (11 (1)) Admissibility (Art. 17) – Investigation or prosecution by a state • Unless unable or unwilling • Last resort
  18. 18. Exercise of Jurisdiction
  19. 19. ICC Case Checklist Is the crime under ICC jurisdiction? Art. 5 Art. 11 Is there temporal jurisdiction? Art. 13 Was the case properly referred? Art. 17Is the domestic court unable or unwilling to prosecute? ICC trial
  20. 20. Exercise of Jurisdiction and State Sovereignty Of the 3 forms of case referral, which is least problematic when it comes to sovereignty? Is it justifiable for the Security Council to refer cases to the ICC, even situations in non-ICC states? Is it justifiable for the ICC prosecutor to initiate cases? Why or why not?
  21. 21. Criticism of the ICC Lack of oversight, checks & balances Selectivity Sovereignty concerns Makes peace process more difficult
  22. 22. Thinking about the ICC What checks are there on the ICC’s power? Is the ICC biased against Africa? Does the ICC infringe on sovereignty? Is the ICC doing its job deterring int’l crimes?