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Study Skills

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How to Study Effectively
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Study Skills

  1. 1. Learning Center <ul><li>Face-to-face and online tutoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Only tutor lab on campus to provide tutoring in all subjects areas offered at the University. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual and group tutoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Test preparation in the CLAST Exam, GRE, and the Florida Teacher Certification Exam. </li></ul><ul><li>Located in Building 52, Room 151. Phone: 474-3176 </li></ul><ul><li>Open Monday - Thursday 8:00 a.m. - 8:00 p.m. and Fridays 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. </li></ul>www.uwf.edu/learningcenter email [email_address]
  2. 2. Information Processing Jenae Burkart
  3. 3. Active Learning Memory Techniques Note Taking Reading Critical Thinking Participating Learning Style Information Processing
  4. 4. Information Processing
  5. 5. Information Processing
  6. 6. Information Processing
  7. 7. Memory Loss Environment Sensory Register Working Memory (short term memory) Long Term Memory Retrieval 90% 81% 72% 63%
  8. 8. Keys to Memory <ul><li>You remember approx: </li></ul><ul><li>10% of what you read </li></ul><ul><li>20% of what you hear </li></ul><ul><li>30% of what you see </li></ul><ul><li>50% of what you hear and see together </li></ul><ul><li>70% of what you say </li></ul><ul><li>90% of what you do </li></ul>
  9. 9. Memory Quiz Question <ul><li>This is Jenny… </li></ul>
  10. 10. Retention Utilize multiple parts of the brain.
  11. 11. Retention Utilize multiple parts of the brain. Information is easier to retrieve when it is stored in multiple parts of the brain.
  12. 12. Mnemonics <ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Word </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jingles/Rap </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Memory Quiz Question <ul><li>Mitochondria is the power house of a cell. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Facts for Auditory Learners You learn from hearing information through audio tapes, your own voice, or lectures. <ul><li>Use your own voice to assist in the learning process. </li></ul><ul><li>Read your notes or your textbook aloud to help you. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to sit near the front of the room. It will be easier for you to hear your instructor. </li></ul><ul><li>When studying new information, create rhyming jingles. </li></ul><ul><li>Read out loud and restate main ideas to yourself as you read material. </li></ul><ul><li>When reading or studying difficult material, summarize in your own words what you have just read. </li></ul><ul><li>When working with math, learn by saying the problems aloud. Then explain the concepts to yourself aloud. </li></ul><ul><li>Read an essay or paragraph you have written into a tape recorder and then play it back. Then, revise your paper. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Facts for Visual Learners You learn best by seeing information through print, graphics, videos, or charts. <ul><li>Make lists, write notes, and draw pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the textbook before attending your lecture class. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to visualize how the information looks like on your page. </li></ul><ul><li>Preview your chapters by reading the headings, subheadings, and outlines before reading the chapter. Underline and/or highlight them. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a diagram or picture. Make a list. Use mapping. Make a chart to help you retain information. </li></ul><ul><li>For vocabulary, use sight words, flashcards, and other visual aides. </li></ul><ul><li>In math, write the problem, visualize the problem, and make mind pictures or tally marks on scratch paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Recopy notes. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a computer so that you can see the words you are thinking. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Facts for Kinesthetic Learners Y ou learn best by doing. The more you are involved with the material, the easier it is for you to learn.   <ul><li>When possible, perform projects and experiments. </li></ul><ul><li>Write information down on paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Walk or ride a stationary bike as you learn or review material </li></ul><ul><li>Take notes and go back over them. Make special marks for important material/s that you will need to review. </li></ul><ul><li>When working on difficult or confusing material, answer practice questions in writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Tap your finger or move your foot as you listen to a lecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a chart or diagram to help with difficult material. </li></ul><ul><li>Make and use study cards </li></ul><ul><li>In math, use objects, such as toothpicks or blocks, to solve problems. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Review Questions <ul><li>What is Jenny’s phone number? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Review Questions <ul><li>What is mitochondria? </li></ul>
  19. 19. Review Questions <ul><li>What is mitochondria? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ways to Process Information into Long Term Memory <ul><li>Attention </li></ul><ul><li>Interest </li></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Build background </li></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Recitation </li></ul><ul><li>Notetaking </li></ul><ul><li>Review </li></ul><ul><li>Overlearning </li></ul><ul><li>Sleeping over it </li></ul>
  21. 21. Connect Information <ul><li>Connection </li></ul><ul><li>Scaffolding (add a step) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build upon what you already know. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>X+1=3 and x 2 +1=3 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Tips on Retention Study with others Tell or teach someone else 867-5309 867-5309 867-5309 Repeat information * Relate info to what you already know
  23. 23. Information Processing Problems <ul><li>Forgetting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t Need or defensive forgetting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Too much information to process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blocking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning information incorrectly </li></ul><ul><li>Changing Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Interference: Ex 1 2 </li></ul>
  24. 24. Weekly Flow Chart for Studying Pre-read Text And develop questions Go to class Review and edit notes same day as lecture Read text selectively Take notes Ask yourself questions Ask questions of instructor Do homework Outline major concepts Ask questions in class Review and integrate
  25. 25. Review Questions <ul><li>What is Jenny’s phone number? </li></ul>
  26. 26. THE END
  27. 27. Note Taking
  28. 28. Take Charge of Lectures <ul><li>Commit to class </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate </li></ul><ul><li>Capture key Ideas and listen actively </li></ul><ul><li>Connect ideas </li></ul>
  29. 29. Model of Efficient Information Processing <ul><li>Commit yourself to do your best work. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentrate to eliminate distractions and focus on the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Connect new ideas to what you already know. </li></ul><ul><li>Capture critical information. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Commit to the Work Involved <ul><li>Be psychologically ready to learn. </li></ul><ul><li>Arrive a few minutes early and review your notes and previous reading assignment. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify areas that are difficult to understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop questions that will help you clarify challenging aspects of the material. </li></ul><ul><li>Be on time: instructors often review during the first few minutes of class. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Capture Key Ideas and Listen Actively <ul><li>Identify key words, themes, and main points </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize organization patterns in the lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Relate details to the main point </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for clues </li></ul>
  32. 32. Identify Key Words, Themes and Main Points <ul><li>Often these are the ideas that the instructor repeats, highlights, or illustrates with examples. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually courses have their own set of unique and topic-specific terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Be sure to listen for new words and phrases and learn their meaning in the context of the information being presented. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to identify the broader picture or context to which the material relates — even if your instructor doesn’t specifically present it to you. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Listen for Clues <ul><li>Note when a topic comes up more than once. </li></ul><ul><li>Transition speech signals the change of topics or emergence of new key points: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ compare and contrast” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ specific dates” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ in addition” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ this will be on the next exam” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lists usually signify important material that is easy to test. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructors are most likely to test on ideas they consider exciting, so listen for special enthusiasm. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Connect Ideas <ul><li>Paraphrase what you hear </li></ul><ul><li>Relate key ideas to what you already know </li></ul><ul><li>Make a note of unknown words </li></ul><ul><li>Get involved </li></ul>
  35. 35. Develop Your Style <ul><li>Successful students take good notes. </li></ul><ul><li>A successful note-taking strategy reflects: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the complexity of the course content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the lecturer’s style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>your own learning preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use any strategy that will help the key ideas stand out for you. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t take down every word in a lecture. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Choose the Right Note-Taking Method <ul><li>The Cornell System </li></ul><ul><li>Outlining </li></ul><ul><li>Summary Method </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Maps </li></ul><ul><li>Fishbone Diagram </li></ul>
  37. 37. The Cornell System <ul><li>Divide your notepaper by drawing a vertical line 2 inches from the left margin. </li></ul><ul><li>On the right side, take your notes from class. </li></ul><ul><li>On the left side, write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>key words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These will make your work easier to review later </li></ul><ul><li>Test yourself by identifying the lecture material on the right , prompted by your comments on the left. </li></ul>
  38. 38. The Cornell Method <ul><li>The Cornell Method </li></ul><ul><li>Divide your notepaper by drawing a vertical line 2 inches from the left margin. </li></ul><ul><li>On the right side, take your notes from class. </li></ul><ul><li>On the left side, write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>key words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>examples </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These will make your work easier to review later </li></ul><ul><li>Test yourself by identifying the lecture material on the right , prompted by your comments on the left. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to Prepare for lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>sleep </li></ul><ul><li>eat properly </li></ul><ul><li>read ahead </li></ul><ul><li>practice connections </li></ul><ul><li>The Cornell Method </li></ul><ul><li>Ways to Prepare for lecture: </li></ul><ul><li>* This one is hard </li></ul><ul><li>for me </li></ul>
  39. 39. Outlining <ul><li>This is easy to do with a well-organized lecture, otherwise you may have to work a little harder. </li></ul><ul><li>Use headings and subheadings followed by course material. </li></ul><ul><li>Your results will be neat, easy to follow notes, providing a clear picture of the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Outline Method </li></ul><ul><li>Use headings and sub- </li></ul><ul><li>headings </li></ul><ul><li>a. letters </li></ul><ul><li>2. numbers </li></ul><ul><li>* figures </li></ul><ul><li>B. Can be difficult with fast </li></ul><ul><li>talking professors </li></ul><ul><li>C. Good for organizing notes </li></ul><ul><li>for studying for test </li></ul>
  40. 40. Summary Method <ul><li>Monitor the lecture for critical ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Pause to create your own summary of what has been presented. </li></ul><ul><li>This method will force you to determine what is important and how information is related to the topics presented. </li></ul><ul><li>This is an especially effective method for dealing with a disorganized lecture. </li></ul>Summary Method Just write… listen for outstanding points or topics. Can always go back and organize later. Or use this method to summarize previous notes and readings into one summary.
  41. 41. The Concept Map Provide visual cues about how ideas are related. It is very effective to do after class in order to rewrite your lecture notes in a more visual format. Good listeners in lecture Get rest Avoid distraction Take notes Sit near front Summarize Eat Breakfast Legible Regular sleep
  42. 42. Fishbone Diagram <ul><li>The problem or outcome is printed in the head of the “fish”. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the primary factors and connect them like ribs to the backbone of the fish </li></ul><ul><li>Elaborate each rib with the details related to each primary factor. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Master Note-Taking Strategies <ul><li>Identify the Session Clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce to Key Ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Take Notes from All Relevant Input </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t Erase Mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Use Abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Review Your Notes Often </li></ul><ul><li>Tape Lectures </li></ul><ul><li>Organize Your Materials for Easy Retrieval </li></ul><ul><li>Request Feedback About Your Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate Your Note-Taking Strategy </li></ul>
  44. 44. Other Note-Taking Tips <ul><li>Use shorthand. </li></ul><ul><li>Write your notes in your own words. </li></ul><ul><li>Put a star by things that you don’t understand. </li></ul><ul><li>Think and record information in pictures. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain yourself later. </li></ul><ul><li>Periodically evaluate the quality of your notes. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Short-Term Memory: Listening and Forgetting <ul><li>Most forgetting takes place 24 hours after you see or hear something! </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t review after class, you might have forgotten up to 70% of the material. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Tips <ul><li>Read ahead in text before class. </li></ul><ul><li>Take notes on text before class and write down questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Re-read notes from previous class. </li></ul><ul><li>Be ready for the message. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to main concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen for new ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat mentally. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Sort, organize and categorize as you take notes. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Questions???

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Commit to class: the work, being there, and being psychologically ready. Concentrate and listen. Capture key ideas by identifying key words and themes, relating details to the main point, working on your sixth sense, saving your energy by not writing down what you already know, and listening for clues that signal the significance of a certain topic. Connect ideas by paraphrasing what you hear, relating key ideas to what you already know, looking up unknown words, and anticipating what direction the class will take.
  • Figure 5.4. The Cornell method separates your records of the class from you impressions about the records.
  • A concept map provides visual cues about how ideas are related.