Platonic Myths Distribution of talents Love Love Protagoras , 320 -322d Symposium , 189d-193 a Symposium , 203a-204a Prometeo The Androgyne Eros’ birth Human condition The judgement of the souls Punishments and rewards The choosing of a destiny Gorgias , 523a - 524a Phaedo , 113d -114c Republic , X 617d-621b The final sentence Punishments distribution Er, the Armenian The destiny of the souls Knowledge as memory The ascension to the truth The ascension to the beautiful Meno , 81a - e Phaedro , 246a - 249a Republic , VII, 514d - 517a Symposium , 210a - 212c The reminiscence The Cave The mystery of love Liberation and spiritual ascension SUBJECT DIALOGUE MYTH TOPIC
The Highest Form The Form of the Good (often interpreted as Plato's God), is the ultimate object of knowledge and it sheds light on all other forms. Plato compares The Form of the Good to the sun, which sheds its light on things in the perceptual world and makes them visible.
Modes of Being Modes of Knowing (metaphysics) (epistemology) Higher Forms Mathematical Forms Understanding Reason Sensible World Intelligible world sensible things images of things (paintings, sculpture) perception imagination Opinion True Knowledge Plato’s Analogy of the Dividing Line
Table, Justice, Beauty, Circle, Woman a table, a just action, a beautiful sunrise, a circle, Britney Spears objective (exists independently of my mind) subjective (dependent upon my perception) known by intellect/reason perceived by senses one essence (archetype) many instances (copies; imitation) absolute and perfect particular and imperfect being (eternal and unchanging) becoming (ever changing) transcendent (beyond space and time) immanent (within space and time) reality (is real) appearance (seems real) World of the Forms Sensible World
Allegory of the Cave In the perceptual world, the objects we see around us bear only a dim resemblance to the ultimately real forms of Plato's intelligible world. It is as if we are seeing shadows of cut-out shapes on the walls of a cave—mere representations of the reality outside the cave, illuminated by the sun.
Plato’s Legacy Plato’s metaphysics, particularly the dualism between the intelligible and the perceptual influenced later Neoplatonic thinkers such as Plotinus and religious theologians such as Saint Paul and Saint Augustine. Jewish-Christian-Islamic doctrine agrees with Plato’s metaphysics: Spirit is absolutely distinct and infinitely superior to the physical world of “flesh.”
Plato’s The Republic Dialogue which outlines the ideal society based on justice and reason The Ideal state is authoritarian and aristocratic Divided into three classes: artisans (labor and produce) soldiers (physical power) philosopher-kings (wisdom) Women are educated with men Allegory of the cave (Book 7) Theory of perfect state (Book 10) 1763 Plato Republic This edition was the first to be published in English, and was translated by Harry Spens, DD. (1713-87).