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# Ultrasonic Blood Flow Meter

Transit time & Doppler type

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### Ultrasonic Blood Flow Meter

1. 1. Ultrasonic Blood Flow Meters • A beam of ultrasonic energy is used to measure the velocity of flowing blood. . Lead zirconate titanate is a crystal that has the highest conversion efficiency. • Two types: • Transit time flow meters • Doppler type.
2. 2. Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flow Meters Ultrasonic Transducer Ultrasonic Transducer
3. 3. Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flow Meters • Where • t - transit time • D - Distance between the transducers • c - Sound velocity • u - blood flow velocity
4. 4. Transit-Time Ultrasonic Flow Meters • The pulsed beam is directed through a blood vessel at a shallow angle and its transit time is measured. • The transit time is shortened when the blood flows in the same direction as the transmitted energy • The transit time is lengthened otherwise.
5. 5. Doppler Type Ultrasonic Flow Meters
6. 6. Doppler type Ultrasonic Flow Meters • Based on the Doppler principle • A transducer sends an ultrasonic beam with a frequency F into the flowing blood. • A small part of the transmitted energy is scattered back and is received by a second transducer arranged opposite the first one. • The reflected signal has a different frequency F + FD or F – FD due to Doppler effect.
7. 7. Doppler Frequency equation • Where • fd = Doppler frequency shift • f0 = source frequency • u = target velocity • c = velocity of sound
8. 8. Doppler type Ultrasonic Flow Meters… • The Doppler component FD is directly proportional to the velocity of the flowing blood. • A fraction of the transmitted ultrasonic energy reaches the second transducer directly with the frequency being unchanged.
9. 9. Doppler Type Ultrasonic Flow Meters
10. 10. Doppler type Ultrasonic Flow Meters… • After amplification of the composite signal, the Doppler frequency can be obtained at the output of the detector as the difference between the direct and the scattered signal components. • For normal blood velocities, the Doppler signal is typically in the low audio frequency range.