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  1. 1. STS Biology - Unit 8 Illinois Renewable Resource Corn and Soybeans Plants
  2. 2. I. Plant Kingdom <ul><li>A. Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Autotrophic - photosynthetic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Multicellular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Eukaryotic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Without plants, there would be no animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used for food, homes, other products (medicines, coffee) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>B. Aquatic vs. Land Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Aquatic plants = algae </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No true roots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No seeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No waterproofing of leaf-like structures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No need for rigid stems </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Land Plants <ul><li>Need to be protected from drying out and methods to transport materials </li></ul><ul><li>Early land plants were non-vascular and live in very moist environments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosses and liverworts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vascular plants have transport tissue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem – thick, dead tissue which moves water UP from roots to leaves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem – living tissue, transports FOOD (sugar) in both directions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ferns were the first vascular plants </li></ul>
  4. 4. I. Plant Kingdom <ul><li>B. Aquatic vs. Land Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Land plants = corn, soybeans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need protection from drying out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leaves with waxy coatings, photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stems for support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seeds that can be dormant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Roots to absorb water, nutrients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vascular tissue – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem – thick, dead, transports water up from roots </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phloem – living, transports sugar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Seed Plants Cycads, ginkos, pines, spruce Extinct Monocot Dicot Seed Ferns 1 st seed plants Gymnosperms “ naked” seed Conifer: gametes in cones, not fruits Angiosperms Flowering plants Oaks, corn, tulips Seed(s) contained in fruits Male cone Female cone
  6. 6. I. Plant Kingdom <ul><li>D. Advantages of Seed Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Can live on land (more sun for photosynthesis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Seeds to nourish and protect embryo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Do not need water to reproduce; need pollinators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Have roots, stems and leaves for efficient water and nutrient transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Vascular system to move water / nutrients greater distance </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. II. Plant Morphology <ul><li>A. Seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Types </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monocots = one cotyledon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dicots = two cotyledons </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Parts of Seeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cotyledons - seed leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo - new plant </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypo cotyl = part of plant below cotyledons, becomes the lower stem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epi cotyl = part of plant above cotyledons, becomes upper stem and leaves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Radicle = becomes roots </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 10. II. Plant Morphology <ul><li>B. Comparing Monocots and Dicots </li></ul>Vascular bundles scattered Vascular bundles in a ring Stem Arranged in 3’s Arranged in 4’s or 5’s Flowers parallel Branched Leaves fibrous Taproot Roots 1 cotyledon 2 cotyledons Seeds Monocot Dicot Plant Part
  9. 11. Monocots & Dicots UP 50
  10. 12. II. Plant Morphology <ul><li>C. Leaves - food production, photosynthesis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Epidermis = single layer of cells, covered by waxy cuticle, prevents water loss </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stomata = openings in the lower epidermis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Guard cells = open and close the stoma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Mesophyll = specialized layer of leaf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contains many chloroplasts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Palisade layer = tall, closely packed cells – site of most photosynthesis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spongy layer = loosely packed cells, many air spaces to allow CO 2 into the leaf and oxygen (O 2 ) of of the leaf </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Leaf Structure
  12. 14. Stomates
  13. 17. Roots <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorb water and nutrients from soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food storage (ie: carrots) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anchoring the plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Xylem and phloem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epidermis – thin layer that absorbs water and nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortex – food storage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meristematic Tissue – only site of mitosis, found at tips of roots and shoots </li></ul></ul>
  14. 18. Vascular Bundles in Roots <ul><li>Dicot roots have xylem in an “X” in the center of the root </li></ul><ul><li>Monocot roots have vascular bundles in a circular pattern </li></ul>Dicot Root Monocot Root
  15. 19. XYLEM PHLOEM
  16. 20. Stems <ul><li>Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support plant, hold leaves up to the sun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport food and water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arrangement of vascular bundles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dicots – arranged in a ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monocots – scattered throughout </li></ul></ul>
  17. 21. Stems Dicot Stem Monocot Stem
  18. 22. Stem Modifications <ul><li>Rhizomes “creep” horizontally in or along the ground </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ferns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tubers are underground swollen stems for food storage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potatoes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulbs – underground stem surrounded by leaves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onions, tulips </li></ul></ul>
  19. 23. Flowers <ul><li>Reproductive structures of angiosperms </li></ul><ul><li>Sepals are the outermost layer which encloses a bud and protects the developing flower </li></ul><ul><li>Petals are just inside sepals, fragrance and color attracts pollinators </li></ul><ul><li>The receptacle is where sepals, petals, and sex organs attach </li></ul>
  20. 24. Flowers (cont.) <ul><li>Sta men - male sex organ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anthers produce pollen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filaments hold the anther up for pollinators or wind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pistil (aka carpel) – female sex organ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The stigma is the sticky end where pollen lands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The style is the “neck” which connects the stigma to the ovary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The ovary contains ovules, when mature the ovary becomes a fruit </li></ul></ul>
  21. 26. Flower Anatomy Filament Stamen Anther Pistil Style Stigma Petal Ovary Ovule Receptacle Sepal
  22. 27. Pollination <ul><li>Pollen transfers from anther to stigma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-pollination – pollen fertilizes the ovule of the same plant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-pollination – pollen fertilizes ovules of another plant, thus increasing genetic variation </li></ul></ul>
  23. 28. Cross Pollination Methods <ul><li>Wind Pollination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient, high pollen production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowers (if present) are small and not colorful </li></ul></ul>
  24. 29. Cross Pollination Methods <ul><li>Vector pollination uses animals to carry pollen between plants </li></ul><ul><li>More efficient, less pollen produced </li></ul><ul><li>Plants attract pollinators by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Colorful petals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fragrance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nectar production </li></ul></ul>
  25. 30. Coevolution <ul><li>Two species evolve in response to changes in one another </li></ul>
  26. 31. Bee Pollination
  27. 32. Butterfly Pollination
  28. 33. Bat Pollination
  29. 34. Moth Pollination
  30. 35. Seed Dispersal <ul><li>Wind scatters seeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maple trees, dandelions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal dispersal occurs when barbs stick to animal fur </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Burdock plant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animals eat and digest fruits, seeds are excreted </li></ul>
  31. 36. Fertilization <ul><li>Pollen lands on stigma </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen tube grows into the style </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm and egg unite forming and zygote </li></ul>
  32. 37. Double Fertilization <ul><li>Two sperm enter the ovary </li></ul><ul><li>The 1 st sperm fertilizes the egg resulting in a zygote (2N) </li></ul><ul><li>The 2 nd sperm fertilizes the polar nuclei forming the endosperm (3N) </li></ul>http://bcs.whfreeman.com/thelifewire/content/chp39/3902001.html
  33. 38. Corn Facts… <ul><li>Corn is the most widely produced feed grain in the United States, accounting for more than 90 percent of total value and production of feed grains. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 80 million acres of land were planted to corn in 2003, with the majority of the crop grown in the Heartland region. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the crop is used as the main energy ingredient in livestock feed. </li></ul><ul><li>Corn is also processed into a multitude of food and industrial products including starch, sweeteners, corn oil, beverage and industrial alcohol, and fuel ethanol . </li></ul><ul><li>The United States is a major player in the world corn trade market, with approximately 20 percent of the corn crop exported to other countries. </li></ul><ul><li>ERS analyzes events in the domestic and global corn markets that influence supply, demand, trade, and prices. </li></ul>
  34. 39. Soybean Facts… <ul><li>The United States is the world's leading producer and exporter of soybeans, and soybeans are second highest in value among U.S.-produced crops. </li></ul><ul><li>ERS economists provide current market analysis, research, and data on production, consumption, prices, and international trade for soybeans, other oilseeds, and their byproducts. </li></ul>
  35. 40. <ul><li>Area Planted and Harvested by State and United States, 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>Corn : Soybeans </li></ul><ul><li>:Planted : Harvested : Planted : Harvested </li></ul><ul><li>------------------------------------------------------------- 1,000 Acres </li></ul><ul><li>IL : 11,700 11,550 9,900 9,850 </li></ul><ul><li>IN: 5,700 5,500 5,500 5,430 </li></ul><ul><li>IA: 12,700 12,300 10,200 10,150 </li></ul><ul><li>KS: 3,100 2,750 2,800 2,700 </li></ul><ul><li>MI: 2,200 1,950 2,000 1,990 </li></ul><ul><li>MN: 7,500 6,900 7,300 7,200 </li></ul><ul><li>MO: 2,950 2,850 5,000 4,940 </li></ul><ul><li>NE: 8,300 7,900 4,800 4,750 </li></ul><ul><li>ND: 1,800 1,500 3,750 3,670 </li></ul><ul><li>OH: 3,350 3,100 4,450 4,420 </li></ul><ul><li>PA: 1,400 900 400 395 </li></ul><ul><li>SD: 4,650 4,100 4,150 4,090 </li></ul><ul><li>TX: 1,800 1,600 290 275 </li></ul><ul><li>WI: 3,650 2,750 1,600 1,550 </li></ul><ul><li>US: 80,968 73,311 75,065 73,990 </li></ul><ul><li>----------------------------------- Updated from the June 2004 &quot;Acreage&quot; report. USDA </li></ul>
  36. 41. corn products corn bran corn flour corn germ corn gluten corn gluten meal corn grits corn meal corn oil corn protein corn starch corn straw corn syrup masa sweetcorn soybean products miso natto soy protein soy sauce soybean meal soybean oil soybeans soymilk tempeh tofu Products
  37. 42. Ethanol Production Capacity Ranked by State (Largest to Smallest Production Capacity as of December 2004) Sources:  Renewable Fuels Association , Washington, DC.  Nebraska Energy Office, Lincoln, NE. This table was updated on December 6, 2004.  Typically, there is one month between updates. Rank State Ethanol Production Capacity (Million Gallons Per Year) 1 Iowa 1,171.5 2 Illinois 816.0 3 Minnesota 533.1 4 Nebraska 515.0 5 South Dakota 422.0 6 Wisconsin 212.0 7 Kansas 144.5 8 Missouri 100.0 9 Indiana 95.0 10 Tennessee 65.0 11 Michigan 45.0 12 North Dakota 33.5 13 Texas 30.0 14 Kentucky 24.0 15 New Mexico 15.0 16 California 6.4 17 Wyoming 5.0 18 Idaho 4.0 18 Ohio 4.0 19 Colorado 1.5 20 Washington 0.7 United States Total 4,243.2
  38. 43. Total Energy Consumption Ranked by State 2000 (Highest to Lowest Rank) Sources:  State Energy Data Report.   Energy Information Administration, Office of Energy Markets and End Use, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC.  Nebraska Energy Office, Lincoln, NE. This table was updated on March 24, 2004.   Typically, there are two years between updates.       Rank State Energy Consumption (Trillion Btu) 1 Texas 11,588.6 2 California 8,518.7 3 Pennsylvania 4,779.9 4 New York 4,620.0 5 Illinois 4,417.9 6 Ohio 4,001.8 7 Louisiana 3,965.2 8 Florida 3,943.8 9 Michigan 3,121.9 10 Indiana 2,777.6 11 Georgia 2,769.9 12 New Jersey 2,706.6 13 North Carolina 2,501.9 14 Virginia 2,303.6 15 Washington 2,173.8 16 Tennessee 2,025.9 17 Alabama 1,977.3 18 Kentucky 1,868.2 19 Wisconsin 1,799.7 20 Massachusetts 1,722.8 51 Vermont 164.6 United States Total 98,216.2
  39. 44. Corn and Soybean Info… <ul><li>Corn and soybeans are the #1 and #2 most commonly grown crop plants in Illinois. </li></ul><ul><li>Illinois is currently #2 in the United States in corn and soybean production. </li></ul><ul><li>Corn is a monocot, soybeans are a dicot. </li></ul><ul><li>Soybeans are legumes and form a dense underground network of roots and Rhizobium, fixing nitrogen and adding organic matter to the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Corn is a heavy nitrogen feeder, soybeans add nitrogen to the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Corn is a source of mostly carbohydrates, soybeans mostly oil and protein. </li></ul>UP p. 8
  40. 45. Corn and Soybean Info… <ul><li>Corn needs a lot of fertilizer and pesticides, soybeans, no fertilizer and only few pesticides. </li></ul><ul><li>Soybeans can lose 33% of their leaves before yield decreases. Corn yields are reduced with much less damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Although the price of a bushel of soybeans is near double that of corn, there may be 3 times as many bushels of corn per acre harvested. </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers often soak soybeans seeds in Rhizobium before planting (called inoculating seed) </li></ul><ul><li>Corn, Soybean, Soybean Meal, and Soybean Oil futures are traded at the Chicago Board of Trade. </li></ul><ul><li>37% of all jobs in the Chicago area are related to agriculture. </li></ul>UP p. 8
  41. 46. Agriculture <ul><li>Problem – humans are using up valuable farm land for homes, business… </li></ul><ul><li>Corn and soybeans are renewable resources (they can be recreated in our lifetime) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We can use these to make… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethanol, plastics, foods, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Important – these are also biodegradeable </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  42. 47. <ul><li>Symbiotic relationship between Rhizobium Bacteria and legumes (bean plants) </li></ul><ul><li>Mutualistic: </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria get home and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Soybeans get nitrogen (fertilizer) </li></ul>Nitrogen Cycle
  43. 48. Nitrogen Fixation
  44. 49. Agriculture <ul><li>Crop Rotation – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corn plants use up the nitrogen in the soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If farmers keep corn crops on same field year after year ( monoculture ) then they will have to fertilize (add nitrogen) the soil to produce a good yield. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But…if farmers plant crops on different fields (rotate crops) it would be cheaper. …WHY? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soybeans (with the help of Rhizobium) replenish available nitrogen in the soil. </li></ul></ul>