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Biodiversityconcepts in biodiversity and factors influencing aquatic biodiversity
BIODIVERSITY AND FACTORS
NAYANA.P and Jitendra Kumar
DEPT. OF FRM
COLLEGE OF FISHERIES
The word biodiversity comes from a contraction of
► It refers to the degree of variation of species on a certain
► Biodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within
a given ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet.
► Biomes are climatically and geographically defined as
similar climatic conditions on the Earth, such as
communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms , and
are often referred to as ecosystems.
► Biodiversity a sum of all the different species of animals,
plants, fungi, and microbial organisms living on Earth
and the variety of habitats in which they live.
► Biodiversity is the variability among living
organisms from all sources, including
terrestrial, marine and other aquatic
ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are part; this includes diversity
within species, between species and of
► Biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species,
and ecosystems of a region".
► In other words “variation of life at all levels of
► Biodiversity is the variety of life on Earth.
► Biodiversity is generally described at three
levels: genetic diversity, species diversity and
► All life forms that make up biodiversity,
including humans, are ultimately connected to
all other life forms, and to their physical
► No one living element of any ecosystem can
survive independent of the others.
► Connections among living and non-living
elements keep the environment functioning
► Human impact on the environment, therefore,
directly or indirectly affects the function of
other living things.
► Species diversity is the effective number of
different species that are represented in a
collection of individuals.
► This refers to the number of equally-abundant
species needed to obtain the same mean
proportional species abundance
► Species diversity consists of two components,
species richness and species evenness.
► Species richness is a simple count of species.
► species evenness quantifies how equal the
abundances of the species
► It refers to the diversity of a place at the level of
► which refers to variation in species rather than
► Ecosystem diversity can also refer to the variety of
ecosystems present in a biosphere, the variety of
species and ecological processes.
►Some examples of ecosystems that are
rich in diversity are
Large marine ecosystems
Old growth forests
► Genetic diversity refers to the total number of genetic
characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species.
► It is distinguished from genetic variability, which
describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to
► Genetic diversity serves as a way for populations to
adapt to changing environments. Those individuals
are more likely to survive to produce offspring
bearing that allele.
► The population will continue for more generations
because of the success of these individuals.
BIODIVERSITY AND ITS
► Physical environments, even healthy ones, can
support just so many of any species, including
► The carrying capacity for any species changes as the
numbers and actions of other life forms and
► Species can cause changes in environmental
conditions, and vice versa.
► Another way to express limits and carrying capacity
is through the term ecological footprint.
► An ecological footprint is the amount of productive
land and water required to maintain the current
lifestyle of a particular individual.
BIODIVERSITY AND ITS
► Biodiversity has evolutionary, ecological, economic,
social, cultural, and intrinsic values.
► Biologically diverse ecosystems offer a variety of
natural products, including medical ingredients that
enhance human health and standard of living.
► Biodiversity provides ecosystem services: water
purification; clean air, fertile soil, climate regulation,
flood control, as well as pest regulation and disease
► Sustaining biodiversity has economic benefits:
► Biological diversity is key to long term
► Biodiversity is key in sustaining the natural
beauty of National and Provincial Parks
BIODIVERSITY IS IN
► There is growing scientific concern about the
major, rapid decline in biodiversity around the
► The extinction of each additional species and the
loss of variation within species brings the
irreversible loss of unique genetic diversity.
► The scientific community has linked human
activity to the accelerated rate of recent and
Biodiversity is declining
► Habitat loss
► Invasive species
► Population Growth
► Over-consumption (Unsustainable use)
► Climate change
► wetlands is seen as eroding the protection of our
drinking water and leading to further species losses.
► climate change is significantly affecting some
► Increase of at risk species.
► Human impacts on biodiversity have been
accelerating as population growth and
consumption rates have increased.
► industrial actions that may lead to loss of
► The same principle discussed above for
industry applies also to agriculture. The
consumer wants cheap fresh food. The farmer
► Loss of species may mean loss of important
but as yet unknown resources for humans.
CLIMATE CHANGE AND
► Loss of habitat due to climate change is the leading
threat to global biodiversity
► Ecosystems fluctuate around a state of equilibrium.
In the long run, however, ecosystems and their
components always change when climate changes
► Climate change degrades biodiversity
► Stable, biodiverse environments are more capable of
adapting to climatic shifts.
► Stable, biodiverse environments are more capable of
mitigating the production of GHC’s and thus climate
► Reduction in sources of climate change
(excessive fossil fuel use, etc.) will help
► Enhancement/conservation of biodiversity
(forest conservation, reduced chemical
pollution and other factors not directly related
to climate change) will minimize impacts of
► Temperature increase makes certain
environments uninhabitable to previously
► It can be defined as the variety of life and the
ecosystems that make up the freshwater, tidal,
and marine regions of the world and their
► It encompasses freshwater ecosystems,.
► It also consists of marine ecosystems,
► Aquatic biodiversity includes all unique
species, their habitats and interaction between
Importance of Aquatic
► Aquatic biodiversity has enormous economic
and aesthetic value and supporting overall
► Humans have long depended on aquatic
resources for food, medicines, and materials as
well as for recreational and commercial
purposes such as fishing and tourism.
► Aquatic organisms also rely upon the great
diversity of aquatic habitats and resources for
food, materials, and breeding grounds
► Factors including overexploitation of species,
pollution , urbanization and industralization.
► valuable aquatic resources are becoming
increasingly susceptible to both natural and
artificial environmental changes.
► Thus, conservation strategies to protect and
conserve aquatic life are necessary to maintain
the balance of nature and resources for future
Threats to Aquatic Biodiversity
► Human activities are causing species to disappear at an
► Losses of this magnitude impact the entire ecosystem,
depriving valuable resources used to provide food,
medicines, and industrial materials to human beings.
► Runoff from agricultural and urban areas, the invasion
of exotic species, and the creation of dams and water
diversion have been identified as the greatest challenges
to freshwater environments
► Overexploitation of aquatic organisms for
various purposes is the greatest threat to
marine environments .
► Urban development and resource-based
industries, such as mining and forestry that
destroy or reduce natural habitats .
► Air and water pollution, sedimentation and
erosion, and climate change also pose threats
to aquatic biodiversity.
► Hendrik S. and K. Martens (2005). Aquatic
Biodiversity: v. 2: The Diversity of Aquatic
Ecosystems (Developments in
Hydrobiology). Springer Publi.
► Kumar, U. and Asija, M. J. (2009). Biodiversity:
Principle and Conservation. Agrobios (India)
► Ormond, Rupert F. G., John D. Gage, and Martin
V. A. (Editors), 1997. Marine Biodiversity: Patterns
and Processes ,Cambridge University Press, New