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New Literacies, Inquiries, And Technology

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New Literacies, Inquiries, And Technology

  1. 1. New literacies, inquiries, and technology: The Rest of the Story John K. Lee, North Carolina State University Carl A. Young, North Carolina State University American Educational Research Association Conference San Diego, California April, 2009
  2. 2. New forms of literacy in teaching and learning What forms of “reading” What forms of do technologies communication are enable? enabled by technology? learning Information playing living working
  3. 3. New Literacies Project involved 16 seniors in an TPACK undergraduate language arts and social studies teaching methods course conducting personal content-based and new literacies-oriented investigations using a specific approach to inquiry and then considering the technological and pedagogical implications of the knowledge they developed Inquiry
  4. 4. New Literacies • Involves modes of communication and the cognitive, cultural, and social contexts in which communication occurs (New London Group, 1996) • Conditions and contexts for new literacies enable “post-typographic forms of textual practice” (Lankshear & Michele Knobel, 2003, p. 17) • Subject to almost continuous change (Leu, 2000) • “Skills, strategies, and dispositions necessary to successfully use and adapt to the rapidly changing information and communication technologies and contexts that continuously emerge in our world and influence all areas of our personal and professional lives” (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004, p. 1570).
  5. 5. TPACK • Transactional interplay of technological, pedagogical and content knowledge • Involves traditional (specific, stable, and transparent) and digital (protean, unstable, and opaque) technologies (Koehler & Mishra, 2008) • TPACK as wicked problems (Rittal & Webber, 1973) - incomplete, contradictory, and changing conditions (Mishra & Koehler, 2006)
  6. 6. Inquiry • Way of learning that uses real-world resources to investigate authentic problems • Emerges from experiences that are shaped by human curiosity and reflection (Dewey, 1910) • Bruce and Davidson (1996) literacy-based inquiry model centered on student interests including reflection, dialogue, writing, experimentation, observation, drawing, music, etc. • Others pointing out benefits of inquiry-based learning - Applebee (1981), Dewey (1938), Hillocks (1986), Harvey (1998), & Lindfors (1999), Macrorie (1980, 1986, 1988), Short & Harste (1996)
  7. 7. How do pre-service teachers negotiate humanities content, inquiry pedagogies and podcast technologies as they develop specific forms of teacher knowledge?
  8. 8. Participant activities • Conducted an inquiry on a topic relevant for middle grades language arts or social studies using an open-ended inquiry method • Considered the pedagogical and technological implications of their inquiries given their knowledge about new literacies • Reflected on the processes they engaged in their inquiry and their instructional planning
  9. 9. Method DATA ANALYSIS • Participants’ work • Erickson’s (1986) analytical induction method • Observations • Empirical assertions with • Reflections by participants evidence from the data • Examples of how participants developed specialized knowledge • Illustrations of transactional thinking
  10. 10. Method • Constant comparative style of Glaser and Strauss (1967) • Focus on transactional interaction among participants’ • Emergent topics were compared and collapsed into nine coding categories • Data were re-read and coded, emergence of additional topics or new ideas • Nine codes were supplemented with one additional code in the second reading. • Findings were collapsed into three assertions about participants’ pedagogical thinking related to their inquiries
  11. 11. Limitations • Research activities influence perceptions (judgments about the value of podcast and the inquiry approach used) • An inherent part of qualitative research focus on transfer of findings • “Fittingness” or a “degree of congruence between receiving and giving contexts” (Lincoln & Guba, 1985 p.124) • Rich descriptions and participant quotes to enable the transfer of findings
  12. 12. Assertion 1 – Participants engaged in a small- scale new literacy form of text reformulation • New forms of knowledge representation (audio and video) • Participants wrote in multiple forms including inquiry, written text, audio podcast, irony, and biography • Engaged in a new literacy example of text reformulation (Camps & Milian, 1999) • Specifically, reformulating printed text into a dynamic podcast presentation
  13. 13. Dana Struggled to compose an inquiry question Initial text formulation “What were the politics and controversies around this historical event?” Research notes and short memos Second text formulation Narrative essay – simple chronological telling of Third text formulation the events From report to Rest of the Story text - focused First major text on Max Yasgur reformulation Sequencing of irony and the suspension around Fourth text formulation the identity From Rest of the Story text to audio podcast Second reformulated form - required that Dana experiment with text text cadence and sentence structure
  14. 14. Assertion 2 – Pedagogical adaptation served as an overriding context for all thinking about instruction in participants’ work
  15. 15. Assertion 3 – The podcasting form was transparent, but the technical procedures required to produce and publish a podcast were overly cumbersome • The recording process Maxine – Selecting an audio recording process • Text reformulation - written story – Using specific audio recording software as performance (Audacity, etc) – Using an external microphone • Initial reading and recordings – Managing the audio quality using Audacity, over 100 minutes – Editing the recording • File conversion, 60 minutes • The audio file – Sharing, emailing, or transporting audio • Uploading file to iTunes, 2 hours files • What skills translated to other – Converting audio file types – Uploading the audio file to a file server teaching and learning tasks? – Managing the file size • Maxine did not see herself • Creating the podcast teaching students these technical – Setting up an iTunes account – Uploading to iTunes steps - felt empowered to work – Naming files and proving meta information with facilitate students to help for locating audio podcast files them create audio podcasts.
  16. 16. Discussion and Conclusion • Text reformulation evident in this research (writing and oral communication) consistent with the New London Group’s (1996) notion of a multiple communications channels • Shift from producers to distributors • Focus on reworking texts in multiple technologically enabled contexts
  17. 17. John Lee john_lee@ncsu.edu Paper online at www.newlit.org