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Ap sensation perception new 14 15

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Ap sensation perception new 14 15

  1. 1. Sensation
  2. 2. Sensing Our World • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are sensation and perception? 2. What do we mean by bottom-up and top-down processing? 3. How are we affected by selective attention? 2 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, sensation and perception, dual processing and selective attention. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze sensation and perception, dual processing and selective attention, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated sensation and perception, dual processing and selective attention), but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  3. 3. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell e n s a t i o n Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Activation of receptors in various sense organs
  4. 4. Method by which sensations are organized and interpreted e r c e p t i o n
  5. 5. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensation vs. Perception • Bottom-Up Processing • Using small components and building up • Top-Down Processing • Using the larger components and breaking down (guided by experience and expectations) 5 Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtstiy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoetnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be at the rghit pclae.We raed the wrod as a wlohe.
  6. 6. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Bottom-Up Processing • Also called feature analysis. • We use the features on the object itself to build a perception. • Takes longer than top-down but is more accurate.
  7. 7. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Top-Down Processing • We perceive by filling the gaps in what we sense. • I _ant ch_co_ate ic_ cr_am. • Based on our experiences and schemas. • If you see many old men in glasses, you are more apt to process a picture of an old man (even when you may be in error).
  8. 8. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions He’s Back…
  9. 9. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Top Down vs. Bottom Up 9
  10. 10. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processing 10
  11. 11. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processing 11
  12. 12. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processing 12
  13. 13. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processing 13
  14. 14. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Top Down vs. Bottom Up Processing 14
  15. 15. Selective Attention (11 million/40 ratio) Selective attention- the focusing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus. Perceptions about objects change from moment to moment. We can perceive different forms of the Necker cube; however, we can only pay attention to one aspect of the object at a time. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell ACCIDENTS 80% of crashes involve driver distraction Calling on a cell phone- 4x more at risk Talking to a person in the car- 1.6x more at risk Texting- 23x more at risk Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions 15
  16. 16. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions 16 Selective Attention
  17. 17. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Inattentional Blindness • Inattentional blindness-failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere. • Simmons & Chabris (1999) showed that half of the observers failed to see the gorilla-suited assistant in a ball passing game • 50% of people don’t notice • Cocktail Party Effect – Ability to attend to one voice at a party or restaurant 17
  18. 18. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions 18 Awareness Test
  19. 19. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Change Blindness Change blindness-failing to notice changes in the environment This is a form of inattentional blindness in which two-thirds of individuals giving directions failed to notice a change in the individual asking for directions. (Change Deafness also occurs on the phone- 40% of people failed to notice a change in the voice) 19
  20. 20. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Change Blindness
  21. 21. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensation-to-Perception Process 21 Transduction-conversion of one form of energy into another.
  22. 22. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Psychophysics Psychophysics-the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them. 22
  23. 23. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Stroop Effect
  24. 24. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Section 1: Test Your Knowledge Which of the following terms best explains why you didn‘t hear your Mom tell you to take out the trash while you were intensely watching the World Series game on TV? A)Change Blindness B)Selective Attention C)Selective Hearing D)Choice Blindness
  25. 25. Learning Goals: 1. What are sensation and perception? 2. What do we mean by bottom-up and top-down processing? 3. How are we affected by selective attention? 25 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, sensation and perception, dual processing and selective attention. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze sensation and perception, dual processing and selective attention, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated sensation and perception, dual processing and selective attention), but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  26. 26. • Learning Goals: Thresholds – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are absolute and difference thresholds, and do stimuli below the absolute threshold have any influence? 2. What is the function of sensory adaption? 26 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about absolute thresholds and the function of sensory adaptation. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze about absolute thresholds and the function of sensory adaptation, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with absolute thresholds and the function of sensory adaptation, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  27. 27. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensory Thresholds • Absolute Threshold – The minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimuli (50% of the time) – Examples of Absolute Thresholds • Vision: Light from a candle 30 miles away on a dark night • Hearing: Ticking of a watch from 20 feet away • Smell: One drop of perfume in a small apartment • Taste: One teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water • Touch: The wing of a fly on your cheek from .4 inch away 27
  28. 28. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Signal Detection Theory Signal detection theory-predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus, assuming that our individual absolute thresholds vary with our experiences, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue. •Hit or miss in detection of stimuli when we are uncertain •Ability to detect stimuli based on: • Person’s experience • Expectations • Motivation • Level of Fatigue • States that fear increases your sensitivity to even small pain because of the anticipation of pain 28 You Recognize it You Miss it STIMULUS PRESENT Hit Miss STIMULUS NOT PRESENT False Alarm Correct Rejection
  29. 29. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensory Thresholds • Difference Threshold – Minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time – Also called Just Noticeable Differences – Weber’s Law: Two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage in order to be noticed (revised by Fetchner) • In other words- it must be out of proportion • Example: Lights must differ in intensity by 8% • Another way to look at it: 1$ makes a difference to 10$, but not to 1000$. (its proportional) 29
  30. 30. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensory Thresholds
  31. 31. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensory Thresholds • Subliminal Messages – Info processed just below surface of thresholds can influence minor decision making – Drink more Coke” & “Eat more Popcorn” – Conclusion: subliminal adverting does not work direct but much of our information processing occurs automatically, out of sight and off the radar of our conscious mind 31
  32. 32. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Subliminal Messages (disclaimer)
  33. 33. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensory Adaptation • Our diminishing sensitive to unchanging stimulus • Keep things novel, so we pay attention • Examples – you blast your music in the car, but fail to notice how loud it is – Jumping into a pool seems cold at first, but you eventually get comfortable 33
  34. 34. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensory Adaptation
  35. 35. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Section 2: Test Your Knowledge 1. Danny sometimes mistakenly hears his mom call him from the other room of their house. What term would be used to explain this phenomenon? A. Sensory Adaptation B. Weber’s Law C. Selective Hearing D. Signal Detection Theory 2. A person with normal vision being able to see a candle flame 30 miles away on a clear dark night is an example of: A. Difference Threshold B. Signal Detection Theory C. Absolute Threshold D. Sensory Adaptation 35
  36. 36. Learning Goal: 1. What are absolute and difference thresholds, and do stimuli below the absolute threshold have any influence? 2. What is the function of sensory adaption? 36 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about absolute thresholds and the function of sensory adaptation. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze about absolute thresholds and the function of sensory adaptation, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with absolute thresholds and the function of sensory adaptation, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  37. 37. Vision 1 • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What is the energy that we see as visible light? 2. How does the eye transform light energy intro neural messages? 37 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about how we see energy as visible light and how transduction occurs in the eye. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze about how we see energy as visible light and how transduction occurs in the eye and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated about how we see energy as visible light and how transduction occurs in the eye, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  38. 38. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Vision & Energy • Light Characteristics 1. Hue (color) – the dimension of color determined by the wavelength of the light 2. Wavelength – Different wavelengths of light 3. Intensity – Amount of energy in a wave determined by amplitude. It is related to brightness 38
  39. 39. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  40. 40. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  41. 41. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye
  42. 42. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye Cornea = outer covering of the eye.
  43. 43. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye Pupil = the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.
  44. 44. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye Iris = a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening. • The iris dilates/constricts in response to changing light intensity
  45. 45. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye Lens = the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.
  46. 46. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye Retina = the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
  47. 47. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  48. 48. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye Blind Spot = the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a “blind” spot because no receptor cells are located there.
  49. 49. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye Fovea = the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye’s cones cluster.
  50. 50. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Structure of the Eye Optic Nerve = the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.
  51. 51. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Foveal Vision 51
  52. 52. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Crash Course Vision 52
  53. 53. Learning Goal: 1. What is the energy that we see as visible light? 2. How does the eye transform light energy intro neural messages? 53 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about how we see energy as visible light and how transduction occurs in the eye. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze about how we see energy as visible light and how transduction occurs in the eye and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated about how we see energy as visible light and how transduction occurs in the eye, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  54. 54. Vision 2 • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does the brain process visual information? 2. What theories help us understand color vision? 54 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about the theories of color vision In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze the theories of color vision, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated the theories of color vision, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  55. 55. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Parallel Processing in the Brain • Parallel Processing – We process several aspects of stimulus simultaneously – Synchronized Brain Waves • The brain divides a visual scene into subdivisions such as color, depth, form and movement all at once 55
  56. 56. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions • Feature Detectors-nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement. 56 Hubel & Wiesel’s Experiment
  57. 57. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions 57 Hubel & Wiesel’s Experiment
  58. 58. Visual Information Processing CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  59. 59. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Color Vision Theories •Trichromatic (Young-Helmholtz) • Because the retina contains three color sensors (R, B, G) our brain combines information to see various colors • This helps to explain color blindness 59 •Most colorblind people simply lack cone receptor cells for one or more of these primary colors.
  60. 60. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Colorblind Tests
  61. 61. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Color Vision Theories •Opponent Processing •Hering proposed that we process colors in the receptor cells in the retina and thalamus that can be over stimulated to see afterimages • Red - Green • Blue - Yellow • Black- White 61
  62. 62. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Opponent-Process theory The sensory receptors come in pairs. • Red/Green • Yellow/Blue • Black/White • If one color is stimulated, the other is inhibited.
  63. 63. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Afterimages
  64. 64. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions After image
  65. 65. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Illusions This slide is intentionally left blank. Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues
  66. 66. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  67. 67. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  68. 68. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  69. 69. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  70. 70. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Opponent-Process Theory Demo 1
  71. 71. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Opponent-Process Theory Demo 2
  72. 72. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Opponent-Process Theory Demo 3
  73. 73. Trichromats - People who have CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Different Forms of Color Blindness 73 normal color vision. Dichromats - People who are blind to either red-green (most common) or yellow-blue. Monochromats - People who are totally color blind. (Rare)
  74. 74. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Section 4: Test Your Knowledge 1. Where does transduction take place concerning vision? (A) The Pupil (B) The Retina (C) The Thalamus (D) The Occipital Lobe 2. Which theory of color BEST explains color blindness? (A) Opponent Processing (B) Wavelength Theory (C) Place Theory (D) Trichromatic Theory 74
  75. 75. Learning Goal: 1. How does the brain process visual information? 2. What theories help us understand color vision? 75 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about the theories of color vision In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze the theories of color vision, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated the theories of color vision, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  76. 76. Hearing • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How does the ear transform sound energy into neural messages? 2. What theories help us understand pitch perception? 3. How do we locate sounds? 4. What are the common causes of hearing loss, and why does controversy surround cochlear implants? 76 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about hearing, pitch perception, sound localization and common causes of hearing loss. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze about hearing, pitch perception, sound localization and common causes of hearing loss and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated about hearing, pitch perception, sound localization and common causes of hearing loss, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  77. 77. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Stimulus Input: Sound Waves • Audition- the sense or act of hearing
  78. 78. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Psychological Properties of Sound
  79. 79. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Psychological Properties of Sound
  80. 80. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Psychological Properties of Sound Timbre: Richness in the tone of the sound
  81. 81. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Hearing: Parts of the Ear 81 EAR PARTS Outer Ear: Pinna. Collects sounds. Middle Ear: Chamber between eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil, stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea’s oval window. Inner Ear: Innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs. HEARING BY AGE 20,000 Hz- 18 & younger 17,000 Hz- 24 & younger 16,000 Hz- 30 & younger 15,000 Hz- 39 & younger 14,000 Hz- 49 & younger 12,000 Hz- 55 & younger 10,000 Hz- 60 & younger 8,000 Hz- Everyone
  82. 82. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Transduction in the ear • Sound waves hit the eardrum then anvil then hammer then stirrup then oval window. • Everything is just vibrating. • Then the cochlea vibrates. • The cochlea is lined with mucus called basilar membrane. • In basilar membrane there are hair cells. • When hair cells vibrate they turn vibrations into neural impulses which are called organ of Corti. • Sent then to thalamus up auditory nerve. It is all about the vibrations!!!
  83. 83. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear The ear is divided into the outer, middle and inner ear.
  84. 84. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear The sound waves travel down the auditory canal to the eardrum.
  85. 85. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Eardrum = tight membrane that vibrates when struck by sound waves.
  86. 86. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Eardrum
  87. 87. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Bones of the middle ear = the hammer, anvil, stirrup which vibrate with the eardrum.
  88. 88. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Hammer
  89. 89. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Anvil
  90. 90. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Stirrup
  91. 91. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Oval window = where the stirrup connects to the cochlea.
  92. 92. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Cochlea = a coiled, body, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.
  93. 93. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Oval Window
  94. 94. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Cochlea
  95. 95. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Fluid in the cochlea
  96. 96. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Hair cells in the cochlea
  97. 97. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Auditory nerve = nerve which sends the auditory message to the brain via the thalamus.
  98. 98. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Nerve fibers
  99. 99. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Auditory nerve
  100. 100. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions The Ear Neural impulse travels to the auditory cortex in the brain.
  101. 101. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Theories of Hearing • Place Theory – Different pitches are heard at different places in the cochlea’s basilar membrane • Frequency Theory – The rate of sounds matches the rate traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch 101
  102. 102. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sound Localization • We hear from two ears that are located on either side of our head. • One ear will pick up the sound .000027 times faster than the other to help us find the sound. 102
  103. 103. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Hearing Loss • Conduction Hearing Loss – Mechanical damage to tiny bones or eardrum – Can be improved by use of hearing aid • Sensorineural Hearing Loss – Most common type of deafness – Nerve deafness due to damage in cochlea or auditory nerve – Sometimes can be fixed by cochlear implant 103
  104. 104. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Coclear Implant
  105. 105. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Coclear Implant
  106. 106. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Section 5: Test Your Knowledge 1. The general function of the bones in the middle ear is to: (A) Convert the incoming sound from pounds per square inch to decibels. (B) Protect the cochlea (C) Transfer sound information from the tympanic membrane to the oval window (D) Provide information to the vestibular system 1. _____ are the receptor cells for audition and ______ are receptor cells for vision. (A) Olfactory cells; rods & cones (B) Taste buds; hair cells (C) Hair cells; rods & cones (D) Proprioceptors; rods & cones 106
  107. 107. Learning Goal: 1. How does the ear transform sound energy into neural messages? 2. What theories help us understand pitch perception? 3. How do we locate sounds? 4. What are the common causes of hearing loss, and why does controversy surround cochlear implants? 107 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about hearing, pitch perception, sound localization and common causes of hearing loss. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze about hearing, pitch perception, sound localization and common causes of hearing loss and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated about hearing, pitch perception, sound localization and common causes of hearing loss, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  108. 108. Other Senses Part 1: Pain • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How de we sense touch and sense our body’s position and movement? How do we experience pain? 108 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about our body’s position and movement; as well as the sensation of pain. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze about our body’s position and movement; as well as the sensation of painand compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with our body’s position and movement; as well as the sensation of pain, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  109. 109. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Touch • Receptors located in our skin. • Our sense of touch is actually four senses— pressure, warmth, cold, and pain-that combine to produce other sensations, such as “hot.”
  110. 110. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Rubberhand Illusion
  111. 111. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Rubberhand Illusion
  112. 112. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Body Position & Movement • The sense of our body parts’ position and movement is called kinesthesis. (ex. Movement while running without thinking about the body’s movement) • The vestibular sense monitors our balance. Vestibular sense can tell if you are vertical or horizontal. (ex. Spinning in a chair makes you dizzy) 112
  113. 113. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Kinesthetic Sense • Tells us where our body parts are. • Receptors located in our muscles and joints. Without the kinesthetic sense you could not touch the button to make copies of your buttocks.
  114. 114. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Vestibular Sense • Tells us where our body is oriented in space. • Our sense of balance. • Located in our semicircular canals in our ears.
  115. 115. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Touch & Pain •Touch Senses •Warm, Cold, Pressure, Pain •Pain •Tells your body something is wrong •Phantom Sensations • Amputees may experience this because parietal lobe neurons are still dedicated to area of missing limb 115
  116. 116. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Phantom Limb 116
  117. 117. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell What do you think this person feels? Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Fun Facts: Touch Receptors •Touch Senses • Different pathways for warm/cold • Touching cold and pressure spots yields a wet sensation. • Touching warm and cold together yields a hot sensation • Gently stroking of a painful spot produces an itching sensation • Stroking adjacent pressure spots induces a tickle* * Note: You can’t tickle yourself 117
  118. 118. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Gate Control Theory (Melzack & Wall, 1965) • Gate Control Theory • Small nerves in the spinal cord carry pain, large nerves in the spinal cord carry other sensations • Only one type of nerve fiber can go through the gate at a time • Rubbing sore area may reduce pain as interneurons in spinal cord control the “gate of information” • You can also close the pain gate mentally: i.e.- Not feeling pain while concentrating on other things 118
  119. 119. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Controlling Pain
  120. 120. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Mini FRQ Review Jimmy is a contestant on a game show where people must run an oddly-shaped maze with obstacles in a dimly-lit building as fast as they can. Explain how the following terms would affect Jimmy’s performance in running the maze. • Kinesthesis • Retina • Hippocampus 120
  121. 121. Learning Goal: 1. How de we sense touch and sense our body’s position and movement? How do we experience pain? 121 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about our body’s position and movement; as well as the sensation of pain. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze about our body’s position and movement; as well as the sensation of painand compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with our body’s position and movement; as well as the sensation of pain, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  122. 122. Other Senses Part 2 • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do we experience taste? 2. How do we experience smell? 122 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about the experience of taste and smell. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze and compare/contrast the Aspects of the the experience of taste and smell. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated the experience of taste and smell but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  123. 123. Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell (Fresh Chicken) Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Taste as a chemical sense • Basic Chemical Tastes – Also known as gustatory sense – Sweet, Sour, Bitter, Salty, Umami – Taste may be based on survival (bitter food is toxic) – Taste receptors reproduce every two weeks – Taste sensitivity decreases with age 123
  124. 124. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Smell as a Chemical Sense • Chemical Sense or Olfactory Sense • Smell involves the detection of molecules • Scents play an important role in attachment • Smell & Memory • Because smell runs close to the limbic system, it ties closely to memory pathways • We have a hard time describing a smell, but can relate to personal stories • Herz’s Brown University Study 1. Students played an impossible game in a scented room 2. The same students were then given a complex (not impossible task) 3. The same scent was pumped into the experimental room and the students gave up easily 124
  125. 125. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Smell: Age & Gender • Ability to identify smell peaks during early adulthood, but steadily declines after that. Women are better at detecting odors than men 125
  126. 126. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Sensory Interaction • Sensory Interaction • Smell + Texture + Taste = Flavor •Visual Capture • Vision dominates all senses when conflicts appear •McGurk Effect • Hear one syllable while seeing another lipped causes us to interpret a third •Synesthesia • Rare disorder in which people combine senses 126
  127. 127. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Synesthesia
  128. 128. Learning Goal: 1. How do we experience taste? 2. How do we experience smell? 128 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about the experience of taste and smell. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze and compare/contrast the Aspects of the the experience of taste and smell. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated the experience of taste and smell but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  129. 129. Perceptual Organization • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How did the Gestalt psychologists understand perceptual organization? 2. How do figure-ground and grouping principles contribute to our perceptions? 129 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, gestalt and figure ground, and how they influence our perception In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze gestalt and figure ground, and how they influence our perception, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with , gestalt and figure ground, and how they influence our perceptionbut need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  130. 130. Old Lady or Young Woman CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Perception Review The process of selecting, organizing, and interpreting sensory information, which enables us to recognize meaningful objects and events. 130
  131. 131. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions What are we actually seeing according to Gestalt Principles? 131 The Necker Cube Revisited
  132. 132. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Optical Illusions (for fun) 132
  133. 133. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Optical Illusions (for fun) 133 anomalous motion illusion
  134. 134. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Optical Illusions (for fun) 134 anomalous motion illusion
  135. 135. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Optical Illusions (for fun) anomalous motion illusion 135
  136. 136. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Hermann Grid (for fun) 136
  137. 137. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Optical Illusions (for fun) anomalous motion illusion 137
  138. 138. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Optical Illusions (for fun) 138
  139. 139. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Perceptual Organization • When vision competes with our other senses, vision usually wins – a phenomena called visual capture. – Example: When sound comes from behind us at a movie theater, we perceive it as coming from the screen in front of us. – Example: When watching a first person view of a roller coaster, we can get nauseated – Example: The rubber hand illusion • Vision captures our other senses! 139
  140. 140. 3.8 What are perception and perceptual constancies? CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Perceptual Constancy • Size and shape constancy – Are these two objects the same shape? Size? • Brightness constancy • Color constancy
  141. 141. If you are looking at the vase, then the white part is the figure and the black becomes the ground. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Figure Ground Perspective Organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground). 141
  142. 142. Gestalt Psychology: Looking at the WHOLE. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Gestalt Groupings 142 Closure Law of Common Fate law of pragnanz
  143. 143. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Section X: Test Your Knowledge 1. Hold your writing instrument in front of your face and focus past it so that this question is easily read. What is the figure and what is the ground in your vision? – Hold up 3 fingers if you could easily answer this question. – Hold up 2 fingers if you think you got the answer. – Hold up 1 finger if you don’t know. 1. Watching a football game, young Johnny thought that the two halves were actually two different games because they were split between a halftime. Which Gestalt grouping best explains Johnny’s top-down processing error?
  144. 144. Learning Goal: 1. How did the Gestalt psychologists understand perceptual organization? 2. How do figure-ground and grouping principles contribute to our perceptions? 144 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about, gestalt and figure ground, and how they influence our perception In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze gestalt and figure ground, and how they influence our perception, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with , gestalt and figure ground, and how they influence our perceptionbut need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  145. 145. Section 10 Depth Perception • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. How do we see the world in three dimensions? 145 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about how we see the world in three dimensions. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze how we see the world in three dimensions, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated about how we see the world in three dimensions, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  146. 146. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Visual Cliff Study Gibson and Walk (1960) suggested that human infants (crawling age) have depth perception that is learned. Even certain newborn animals show depth perception. 146
  147. 147. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Binocular Cues • Retinal disparity: Images from the two eyes differ, so we are able to better judge distance of two objects. • Used in 3-D motion picture to mimic the offset eyes. 147 TRY THIS Two eyes are better than one: Close one eye an touch two pencil tips together
  148. 148. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Binocular Cues Convergence: Neuromuscular cues. When two eyes move inward (towards the nose) to see near objects and outward (away from the nose) to see faraway objects. The more we have to strain our eyes the closer the image is to our face. 148
  149. 149. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Binocular Cues: Stereogram 149
  150. 150. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Binocular Cues: Stereogram 150
  151. 151. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Monocular Cues • Relative Size: If two objects are similar in size, we perceive the one that casts a smaller retinal image to be farther away. • Interposition: If one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer • Relative Clarity: Hazy objects appear farther away than near objects • Texture Gradient: Fine textures indicate a close object; course textures indicate an object is far away 151
  152. 152. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions More Monocular Cues •Relative Motion (motion parallax): When we are moving, objects that are stable appear to move- objects that are farther away move slower than closer objects •Light & Shadow: Nearby objects reflect more light to our eyes 152 Linear Perspective: Parallel lines converge in the distance
  153. 153. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Monocular Cue Review 153 How many monocular cues can you identify?
  154. 154. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Mini FRQ Review Mr. Burnes’ car breaks down on a long, deserted highway with no cell service. In the distance he sees a gas station, but knows it will be a long walk. Explain how each of the following concepts helps him determine it will be a long walk: – Relative size – Texture Gradient – Linear Perspective 154
  155. 155. Learning Goal: How do we see the world in three dimensions? 155 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about how we see the world in three dimensions. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze how we see the world in three dimensions, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated about how we see the world in three dimensions, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  156. 156. Perceptual • Learning Goals: Interpretation – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What does research on sensory deprivation and restored vision reveal about the effects of experience on perception? 2. How adaptable is our ability to perceive? 3. How do our expectations, contexts and emotions influence our perceptions? 156 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about the components of perceptual interpretation In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze the components of perceptual interpretation, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with components of perceptual interpretatio, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  157. 157. Stroboscopic Motion and Phi Phenomenon • Stroboscopic Motion: 24 still pictures flashing within one second create the illusion of motion (example: flip books and cartoons) • Phi Phenomenon: Lights blinking next to each will create the illusion of motion (neon or scrolling signs) CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions 157
  158. 158. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Shape Constancy Perceiving objects as unchanging even as illumination and retinal images change. Perceptual constancies include constancies of shape and size. Shape Constancy 158
  159. 159. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Size Constancy Stable size perception amid changing size of the stimuli. We know the one car is just farther away, but still the same size. 159
  160. 160. The moon appears larger on the horizon because of context effects make it look farther away like the monster CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Ponzo Illusion Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Size-Distance Relationship The distant monster (below, left) and the top red bar (below, right) appear bigger because of distance cues. 160
  161. 161. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Size-Distance Relationship 161
  162. 162. The Ames room is designed to demonstrate the size-distance illusion. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Ames Room 162
  163. 163. The color and brightness of square A and B are the same. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Lightness Constancy 163
  164. 164. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Color Constancy Objects will change color depending on the CONTEXT of surrounding objects or colors 164 Color Constancy
  165. 165. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Perceptual Adaptation You have the ability to adapt to distortion goggles rather quickly. Usually in a couple of hours to days. Some animals can never adapt. 165
  166. 166. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Testing Perceptual Adaptation 166
  167. 167. Illusions provide good examples in understanding how perception is organized. Studying faulty perception is as important as studying other CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Muller-Lyer Illusion 167 perceptual phenomena.
  168. 168. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Culture and Perception 168
  169. 169. Half the class close your eyes while the other half looks at an image: CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Perceptual Set A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another. What you see in the center picture is influenced by flanking pictures. 169
  170. 170. Other examples of perceptual set. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell (c) Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Perceptual Set 170 (a)Loch ness monster or a tree trunk; (b)Flying saucers or clouds? (c) The face on mars because of perceptual schema
  171. 171. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Eye & Mouth Schemas 171
  172. 172. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Eye & Mouth Schemas 172
  173. 173. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Motivation and Emotion influence Perception • Walking destinations look farther way when fatigued • Hills look steeper when carrying a heavy backpack • Targets seem father away when throwing a heavy object • When you are driving you hate pedestrians, when you are a pedestrian you hate drivers 173 If you are rewarded for seeing a farm animal, you will see a farm animal
  174. 174. Learning Goal: 1. What does research on sensory deprivation and restored vision reveal about the effects of experience on perception? 2. How adaptable is our ability to perceive? 3. How do our expectations, contexts and emotions influence our perceptions? 174 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about the components of perceptual interpretation In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze the components of perceptual interpretation, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with components of perceptual interpretatio, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  175. 175. Human Factors and ESP • Learning Goals: – Students should be able to answer the following: 1. What are human factors? 2. What are the claims of ESP, and what have most research psychologists concluded after putting these claims to the test? 175 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about human factors and the claims of ESP. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze human factors and the claims of ESP, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with human factors and the claims of ESP, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  176. 176. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions What are Human Factors? •Human factors is the study of how to make machines and objects interface better with humans based on perception. •Also know as ergonomics •Examples: • Car Stereo Controls • Oven/Stove Knobs 176
  177. 177. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions More Human Factors 177
  178. 178. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Is There Extrasensory Perception? Perception without sensory input is called extrasensory perception (ESP). A large percentage of scientists do not believe in ESP. 178
  179. 179. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Claims of ESP Paranormal phenomena include astrological predictions, psychic healing, communication with the dead, and out-of-body experiences, but most relevant are telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition. 179
  180. 180. CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions Claims of ESP 1. Telepathy: Mind-to-mind communication. One person sending thoughts and the other receiving them. 2. Clairvoyance: Perception of remote events, such as sensing a friend’s house on fire. 3. Precognition: Perceiving future events, such as a political leader’s death. 180 “Visions of psychics that help the police solve crimes are no more accurate than guesses”
  181. 181. Learning Goal: 1. What are human factors? 2. What are the claims of ESP, and what have most research psychologists concluded after putting these claims to the test? 181 Rating Student Evidence 4.0 Expert I can teach someone else about human factors and the claims of ESP. In addition to 3.0 , I can demonstrate applications and inferences beyond what was taught 3.0 Proficient I can analyze human factors and the claims of ESP, and compare/contrast the Aspects of the learning goal. 2.0 Developing I can identify terms associated with human factors and the claims of ESP, but need to review this concept more. 1.0 Beginning I don’t understand this concept and need help!
  182. 182. Lecture Activities
  183. 183. • Leave the classroom and find real-world examples for at least three of the monocular depth cues listed below. DRAW your examples and be prepared to share. Be back in 5 minutes. 1. Linear perspective 2. Relative size 3. Overlap 4. Aerial perspective 5. Overlap CNS Ignoring Light The Eye Seeing Taste/Smell Sound The Ear Touch/Pain Movement Perception Gestalt Depth cues Illusions
  184. 184. Acknowledgements
  185. 185. • Photos used with permission under the Creative Commons “Attribution 2.0 Generic” license from the internet domain of www.flickr.com • Treelined Check presentation background – username “OiMax” • Vase and tulips – username “Spiralz” • M1 Light Experements: Lightspeed – username “orangeacid” • Clare #6 – username “fotologic” • Bit3-sphere and white space – username “SideLong” • Crab – username “David Davies”
  186. 186. • Dual Perspective – username “Ray (raypuha)” • Optical Illusion ?? – username “C. P. Storm” • Tangled Tree – username “davelynne” • night reading – username “tifotter” • Big lights… - username “Matt Stepping” • Threesome – username “M.ango M.ania” • Hambledon Hill: 360° Panorama – username “johnelamper” • Hibiscus – username “joka2000”

Notes de l'éditeur

  • Sensation is the activation of receptors located in the eyes, ears, skin, nasal cavities, and tongue.
    Sensation is the process by which we detect physical energy from our environment and encode it as neural signals.
    Sensory receptors are specialized forms of neurons that are activated by different stimuli such as light and sound.
  • Perception is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
  • Bottom-up processing is analysis that begins with the sense receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information.
    Perception is the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. Top-down processing is information processing guided by our experience and expectations.
  • The forest has eyes
  • Dalmatian Dog
  • Hidden Cow
  • Hidden Cow
  • Shadow Face
  • Shadow Face
  • Selective attention means that at any moment, awareness focuses on only a limited aspect of all that we experience.
    When talking on the phone while driving, our selective attention shifts back and forth from the road to the phone. The process of shifting attentional gears can entail a fatal delay in coping. One analysis of phone records for the moments before a car crash found cellphone users were four times more at risk.
  • elective attention limits our perception, as many stimuli will pass by unno- ticed. This lack of awareness is evident in studies of inattentional blindness. Forms of this include change blindness, choice blindness, and even choice-blindness blindness. Selective attention even extends to our sleep when we are oblivious to most but not all of what is happening around us.
    he cocktail party effect refers to our ability to attend to only one voice among many.
  • The task of each sense is to receive stimulus energy, transform it into neural signals, and send those neural messages to the brain. In vision, light waves are converted into neural impulses by the retina; after being coded, these impulses travel up the optic nerve to the brain’s visual cortex, where they are interpreted.
  • When the name and the ink colour are different, most people slow down.
    When you try to say the ink colour, you cannot avoid reading the word.
    If the two bits of information conflict, your brain struggles to work out what the correct answer is, and it takes longer.
    This test is very sensitive to subtle changes in brain function.
    Lack of sleep, fatigue, minor brain injury and high altitudes will all increase the time it takes to do the test.
    The test has even been used on Everest expeditions to see how altitudes are affecting different people.
  • In studying the relationship between physical energy and psychological experience, researchers in psychophysics identified an absolute threshold as the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time.
    Signal detection theory predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus, assuming that our individual absolute thresholds vary with our experiences, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
  • Signal detection theory predicts how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus, assuming that our individual absolute thresholds vary with our experiences, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.
  • A difference threshold is the minimum difference between two stimuli that a person can detect 50 percent of the time. In humans, difference thresholds (experienced as a just noticeable difference [jnd]) increase in proportion to the size of the stimulus—a principle known as Weber’s law.
    The priming effect, as shown in experiments, reveals that we can process some information from stimuli too weak to recognize, indicating that much of our information processing occurs automatically, unconsciously. But the effect is too fleeting to enable advertisers to exploit us with subliminal messages.
  • A difference threshold is the minimum difference between two stimuli that a person can detect 50 percent of the time. In humans, difference thresholds (experienced as a just noticeable difference [jnd]) increase in proportion to the size of the stimulus—a principle known as Weber’s law.
    The priming effect, as shown in experiments, reveals that we can process some information from stimuli too weak to recognize, indicating that much of our information processing occurs automatically, unconsciously. But the effect is too fleeting to enable advertisers to exploit us with subliminal messages.
  • A difference threshold is the minimum difference between two stimuli that a person can detect 50 percent of the time. In humans, difference thresholds (experienced as a just noticeable difference [jnd]) increase in proportion to the size of the stimulus—a principle known as Weber’s law.
    The priming effect, as shown in experiments, reveals that we can process some information from stimuli too weak to recognize, indicating that much of our information processing occurs automatically, unconsciously. But the effect is too fleeting to enable advertisers to exploit us with subliminal messages.
  • A difference threshold is the minimum difference between two stimuli that a person can detect 50 percent of the time. In humans, difference thresholds (experienced as a just noticeable difference [jnd]) increase in proportion to the size of the stimulus—a principle known as Weber’s law.
    The priming effect, as shown in experiments, reveals that we can process some information from stimuli too weak to recognize, indicating that much of our information processing occurs automatically, unconsciously. But the effect is too fleeting to enable advertisers to exploit us with subliminal messages.
  • Sensory adaptation refers to diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. Constant, unchanging images on the eye’s inner surface fade and then reappear. The phenomenon of sensory adaptation enables us to focus our attention on informative changes in our environment without being distracted by uninformative background stimulation.
  • Sensory adaptation refers to diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. Constant, unchanging images on the eye’s inner surface fade and then reappear. The phenomenon of sensory adaptation enables us to focus our attention on informative changes in our environment without being distracted by uninformative background stimulation.
  • 1, D
    2, C
  • We all have the ability to convert one sort of energy to another. Our eyes, for example, receive light energy and transduce (transform) it into neural messages that our brain then processes into what we consciously see. The energies we experience as visible light are a thin slice from the broad spectrum of electromagnetic energy. Our sensory experience of light is determined largely by the light energy’s wavelength, which determines the hue of a color, and its intensity, which influences brightness.
  • The retina’s rods and cones (most of which are clustered around the fovea) transform the light energy into neural signals. These signals activate the neighboring bipolar cells, which in turn acti- vate the neighboring ganglion cells, whose axons converge to form the optic nerve that carries information via the thalamus to the brain. Where the optic nerve leaves the eye, there are no receptor cells—creating a blind spot. The cones, which are located mostly in the fovea, enable vision of color and fine detail. The rods enable black-and-white vision, remain sensitive in dim light, and are necessary for peripheral vision.
  • Subdimensions of vision (color, movement, depth, and form) are processed by neural teams work- ing separately and simultaneously, illustrating our brain’s capacity for parallel processing. Other teams collaborate in integrating the results, comparing them with stored information and enabling perceptions. This contrasts sharply with the step-by-step serial processing of most computers and of conscious problem solving. Some people who have lost part of their visual cortex experience blindsight.
  • We process information at progressively more abstract levels. The information from the retina’s 130 million rods and cones is received and transmitted by the million or so ganglion cells whose axons make up the optic nerve. When individual ganglion cells register information in their region of the visual field, they send signals to the occipital lobe’s visual cortex. In the cortex, individual neurons (feature detectors) respond to specific features of a visual stimulus. The visual cortex passes this information along to other areas of the cortex where teams of cells (supercell clusters) respond to more complex patterns.
  • We process information at progressively more abstract levels. The information from the retina’s 130 million rods and cones is received and transmitted by the million or so ganglion cells whose axons make up the optic nerve. When individual ganglion cells register information in their region of the visual field, they send signals to the occipital lobe’s visual cortex. In the cortex, individual neurons (feature detectors) respond to specific features of a visual stimulus. The visual cortex passes this information along to other areas of the cortex where teams of cells (supercell clusters) respond to more complex patterns.
  • The Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory states that the retina has three types of color receptors, each especially sensitive to red, green, or blue. When we stimulate combinations of these cones, we see other colors. For example, when both red- and green-sensitive cones are stimulated, we see yellow.
    Hering’s opponent-process theory states that there are two additional color processes, one respon- sible for red versus green perception and one for yellow versus blue plus a third black versus white process. Subsequent research has confirmed that after leaving the receptor cells, visual informa- tion is analyzed in terms of the opponent colors red and green, blue and yellow, and also black and white. Thus, in the retina and in the thalamus, some neurons are turned “on” by red, but turned “off ” by green. Others are turned on by green but off by red. These opponent processes help explain afterimages.
  • The Young-Helmholtz trichromatic (three-color) theory states that the retina has three types of color receptors, each especially sensitive to red, green, or blue. When we stimulate combinations of these cones, we see other colors. For example, when both red- and green-sensitive cones are stimulated, we see yellow.
    Hering’s opponent-process theory states that there are two additional color processes, one respon- sible for red versus green perception and one for yellow versus blue plus a third black versus white process. Subsequent research has confirmed that after leaving the receptor cells, visual informa- tion is analyzed in terms of the opponent colors red and green, blue and yellow, and also black and white. Thus, in the retina and in the thalamus, some neurons are turned “on” by red, but turned “off ” by green. Others are turned on by green but off by red. These opponent processes help explain afterimages.
  • Opponent-process theory of color perception assumes four primary colors of red, green, blue, and yellow. Colors are arranged in pairs, and when one member of a pair is activated, the other is not.
    Afterimages occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed.
  • Opponent-process theory of color perception assumes four primary colors of red, green, blue, and yellow. Colors are arranged in pairs, and when one member of a pair is activated, the other is not.
    Afterimages occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed.
  • Opponent-process theory of color perception assumes four primary colors of red, green, blue, and yellow. Colors are arranged in pairs, and when one member of a pair is activated, the other is not.
    Afterimages occur when a visual sensation persists for a brief time even after the original stimulus is removed.
  • Sound has three aspects: pitch (frequency), loudness, and timbre (purity).
    Our sense of hearing, the auditory system, is activated by the vibrations of molecules in the air that surrounds us. These vibrations are called sound waves, and like light waves, we respond to three features of sound waves. Pitch corresponds to the frequency of the wave,
  • The visible outer ear channels the sound waves through the auditory canal to the eardrum, a tight membrane that vibrates with the waves. Transmitted via the bones of the middle ear (the hammer, anvil, and stirrup) to the fluid-filled cochlea in the inner ear, these vibrations cause the oval window to vibrate, causing ripples in the basilar membrane, which bends the hair cells that line its surface. This movement triggers neural messages to be sent (via the thalamus) to the temporal lobe’s auditory cortex. Damage to the hair cells accounts for most hearing loss.
  • Place theory presumes that we hear different pitches because different sound waves trigger activity at different places along the cochlea’s basilar membrane. Thus, the brain can determine a sound’s pitch by recognizing the place on the membrane from which it receives neural signals.
    Frequency theory states that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch. The volley principle explains hearing sounds with frequencies above 1000 waves per second.
    Place theory best explains how we sense high-pitched sounds, and frequency theory best explains how we sense low-pitched sounds. Some combination of the two theories explains sounds in between.
  • Sound waves strike one ear sooner and more intensely than the other ear. We localize sounds by
    detecting the minute differences in the intensity and timing of the sounds received by each each
  • Problems with the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea cause conduction hearing loss. If the eardrum is punctured or if the tiny bones of the middle ear lose their ability to vibrate, the ear’s ability to conduct vibrations diminishes. Damage to the cochlea’s hair cell recep- tors or their associated nerves can cause the more common sensorineural hearing loss. Once destroyed, these tissues remain dead. Disease, biological changes linked with aging, or prolonged exposure to ear-splitting noise or music may cause sensorineural hearing loss.
    Those who live with hearing loss face social challenges. Cochlear implants are wired into various sites on the auditory nerve, allowing them to transmit electrical impulses to the brain. They help children to become proficient in oral communication. The latest cochlear implants also can help restore hearing for most adults. Deaf culture advocates object to using the implants on children who were deaf before developing language. They note that deafness is not a disability because sign is a complete language. Some also argue that sensory compensation, which enhances other senses, gives deaf people advantages that the hearing do not have.
  • Conduction hearing impairment is caused by damage to the outer or middle ear structures, whereas nerve hearing impairment is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory pathways in the brain.
  • Conduction hearing impairment is caused by damage to the outer or middle ear structures, whereas nerve hearing impairment is caused by damage to the inner ear or auditory pathways in the brain.
  • Our sense of touch is actually four senses—pressure, warmth, cold, and pain—that combine to produce other sensations, such as “hot.” There is no simple relationship between what we feel and the type of specialized nerve ending found there. Only pressure has identifiable receptors.
  • The rubber-hand illusion illustrates how touch is not only a bottom-up property of our senses but also a top-down product of our brain and expectations.
  • The rubber-hand illusion illustrates how touch is not only a bottom-up property of our senses but also a top-down product of our brain and expectations.
  • Kinesthesis is the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. Sensors in the tendons, joints, bones, and ears as well as skin sensors are continually providing our brain with information. A companion vestibular sense monitors the head’s (and thus the body’s) position and movement. The biological gyroscopes for this sense of equilibrium are in the semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear.
  • Pain is an alarm system that draws our attention to some physical problem. Without the ability to experience pain, people may die before early adulthood. There is no one type of stimulus that trig- gers pain, and there are no special receptors for pain. Instead there are different nociceptors— sensory receptors that detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals. The gate-control theory of pain is that small fibers in the spinal cord open a “gate” to permit pain signals to travel up to the brain, or large fibers close the “gate” to prevent their passage.
    The biopsychosocial approach views pain not only as a product of biological influences, for example, of injured nerves sending impulses to the brain, but also as a result of psychological influences such as our expectations, and social influences such as the presence of others. Pain is con- trolled through a combination of medical and psychological treatments.
  • Pain is an alarm system that draws our attention to some physical problem. Without the ability to experience pain, people may die before early adulthood. There is no one type of stimulus that trig- gers pain, and there are no special receptors for pain. Instead there are different nociceptors— sensory receptors that detect hurtful temperatures, pressure, or chemicals. The gate-control theory of pain is that small fibers in the spinal cord open a “gate” to permit pain signals to travel up to the brain, or large fibers close the “gate” to prevent their passage.
    The biopsychosocial approach views pain not only as a product of biological influences, for example, of injured nerves sending impulses to the brain, but also as a result of psychological influences such as our expectations, and social influences such as the presence of others. Pain is con- trolled through a combination of medical and psychological treatments.
  • Taste, a chemical sense, is a composite of sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami sensations and of the aromas that interact with information from the taste buds. Taste buds on the top and sides of the tongue contain taste receptor cells, which send information to an area of the brain’s temporal lobe. Taste receptors reproduce themselves every week or two. As we grow older, the number of taste buds and taste sensitivity decrease.
  • Smell (olfaction) is also a chemical sense, but without any basic sensations. The 5 million or more olfactory receptor cells, with their approximately 350 different receptor proteins, recognize individual odor molecules, with some odors triggering a combination of receptors. The receptor cells send messages to the olfactory lobe, then to the temporal lobe and to parts of the limbic system. An odor’s ability to spontaneously evoke memories is due in part to the close connections between brain areas that process smell and those involved in memory storage.
  • Sensory interaction refers to the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste. In a few individuals, the senses become joined in a phenomenon called synaesthesia, where one kind of sensation such as hearing sound produces another such as seeing color.
  • Sensory interaction refers to the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste. In a few individuals, the senses become joined in a phenomenon called synaesthesia, where one kind of sensation such as hearing sound produces another such as seeing color.
  • OBJECTIVE 3| Describe Gestalt psychology's contribution to our understanding of perception.
  • Perceptual constancy is necessary to recognize an object. It enables us to see an object as unchanging (having consistent shape, size, lightness, and color) even as illumination and retinal images change.
    Shape constancy is our ability to perceive familiar objects (for example, an opening door) as unchanging in shape, and size constancy is perceiving objects as unchanging in size, despite the changing images they cast on our retinas.
    Color constancy refers to our perceiving familiar objects as having consistent color, even if changing illumination alters the wavelengths reflected by the object. We see color as a result of our brain’s computations of the light reflected by any object relative to its surroundings.
    Size constancy - the tendency to interpret an object as always being the same actual size, regardless of its distance.
    Shape constancy - the tendency to interpret the shape of an object as being constant, even when its shape changes on the retina.
    Brightness constancy – the tendency to perceive the apparent brightness of an object as the same even when the light conditions change.
  • OBJECTIVE 4| Explain the figure-ground relationship and identify principles of perceptual grouping in form perception.
  • OBJECTIVE 5| Explain the importance of depth perception, and discuss the contribution of visual cliff research to our understanding of this ability.
  • OBJECTIVE 6| Describe two binocular cues for perceiving depth, and explain how they help the brain to compute distance.
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  • Psychology
  • OBJECTIVE 7| Explain how monocular cues differ from binocular cues, and describe several monocular cues for perceiving depth.
  • OBJECTIVE 7| Explain how monocular cues differ from binocular cues, and describe several monocular cues for perceiving depth.
  • OBJECTIVE 8| State the basic assumption we make in our perceptions of motion, and explain how these perceptions can be deceiving.
  • OBJECTIVE 9| Explain the importance of perceptual constancy.
  • OBJECTIVE 10| Describe the shape and size constancy, and explain how our expectations about perceived size and distance to some visual illusions.
  • OBJECTIVE 11| Discuss lightness constancy and its similarity to color constancy.
  • OBJECTIVE 13| Explain how the research on distorting goggles increases our understanding of the adaptability of perception.
  • OBJECTIVE 2| Explain how illusions help us understand some of the ways we organize stimuli into meaningful perceptions.
  • OBJECTIVE 14| Define perceptual set, and explain how it influences what we do or do not perceive. Right half the class should close their eyes and the left half of the class should see the saxophonist for about 20 seconds. Then the left half of the class should close the eyes and the right half should see the woman’s face. All of them should then write their responses while watching the middle picture. Responses are compared to show perceptual set.
  • Portrait artists understood the importance of this recognition and therefore centered an eye in their paintings.
  • Portrait artists understood the importance of this recognition and therefore centered an eye in their paintings.
  • OBJECTIVE 17| Identify the three most testable forms of ESP, and explain why most research psychologists remain, skeptical of ESP.

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