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College on Campus - American History Chapter 2

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Founding the new nation
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College on Campus - American History Chapter 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2 “When Worlds Collide 1492-1590”
  2. 2. Thomas Harriot and John White were surveyors of Roanoke, North Carolina
  3. 3. Walter Raleigh http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PW0C75nSr6g&list= PLBI0HMhee1QKbLWU8Mvwmh6Jk8XaRGuFJ
  4. 4. John White returned to find Croatoan in scripted on a Roanoke tree. Croatoan were Indians. The lost colony of Roanoke is still a mystery.
  5. 5. William Hogarth’s Gin Lane offers a satiric glimpse of lower class life in London
  6. 6. Poverty in England was another reason for people to go to the New World
  7. 7. Two of the major powers in Europe quickly took the lead in settling the New World. The first, Spain, was very interested in acquiring huge amounts of gold, silver, and other rare valuables. In fact, the only reason they stumbled upon America is because they were en route to the Far East in search of the "fabled wealth of the Indies." What they found turned out to be much more valuable than a shipload of gold. A new continent was discovered-- one with unbelievable potential. Spain was able to take great advantage of its new found wealth, but made some bad decisions that in the long run did not help to solidify their existence in America. The pursuit of riches was not the only motivation for the Spaniards to come to America, though. Some men wanted to create a "profitable agricultural economy" as well as spread the Christian religion. The second, England, was not as intent of finding great cities of gold. At the time of the great discovery, England was in great turmoil over religion. Many people were persecuted because of their beliefs, and this generated much interest in finding a place where they could practice freedom of religion instead of always having to answer to the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church.
  8. 8. Sagres was the location for Prince Henry’s navigation school.
  9. 9. Richard Hakluyt, the elder Reasons for Colonization 1.The glory of God by planting of religion among those infidels. 2.The increase of the force of the Christians. 3.The possibility of the enlarging of the domninions of the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty, and consequently of her honour, revenues, and of her power by this enterprise. 4.An ample vent in time to come of the woollen cloths of England, especially those of the coarsest sorts, to the maintenance of our poor, that else starve or become burdensome to the realm; and vent also of sundry our commodities upon the tract of that firm land, and possibly in other regions from the northern side of that main. 5.A great possibility of further discoveries of other regions from the north part of the same land by sea, and of unspeakable honour and benefit that may rise upon the same by the trades to ensue in Japan, China, and Cathay, etc. 6.By return thence, this realm shall receive (by reason of the situation of the climate, and by reason of the excellent soil) woad, oil, wines, hops, salt, and most or all the commodities that we receive from the best parts of Europe, and we shall receive the same better cheap than now we receive them, as we may use the matter. 7.receiving the same thence, the navy, the human strength of the realm, our merchants and their good, shall not be subject to arrest of ancient enemies and doubtful friends as of late years they have been. 8.If our nation do not make any conquest there but only use traffic and change of commodities, yet, by means the country is not very nighty but divided into petty kingdoms, they shall not dare to offer us any great annoy but such as we may easily revenge with sufficient chastisement to the unarmed people there. 9.Whatever commodities we receive by the Steelyard Merchants, or by our own merchants from Eastland, be it flax, hemp, pitch, tar, masts, clapboard, wainscot, or such-like; the like good[s] may we receive from the north and north- east part of that country near unto Cape Breton, in return for our coarse woollen cloths, flannels, and rugs fit for those colder regions. 10.The passage to and fro is through the main ocean sea, so as we are not in danger of any enemy’s coast. Trade Opportunities
  10. 10. Taino Indians did not like the sight of Christopher Columbus. The combined effects of warfare, famine and demoralization resuled in the collapse of their society. In 1492 there were 300,000 in 1520 there were 30,000.
  11. 11. Christopher Columbus Light house in Hispaniola
  12. 12. Spanish control of the Taino Indians
  13. 13. Cortes invasion of Central America began in 1511 and two years later Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama to the Pacific Ocean.
  14. 14. Cortes marries and Aztec slave Malinche who was his translator.
  15. 15. In 1577 due to the beneficence of Spaniard Juan Solano, O.P., former bishop of Cusco, Peru, The College of San Gregorio served as a model for the transformation of the Dominican stadium at Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome into the College of St. Thomas, forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelica. Valladolid, Spain
  16. 16. Spanish Catholic Priest Antonio de Montesnos and Bartolome Casas try to help the Indian cause.
  17. 17. De las Casas who had participated in the plunder of Cuba Renounced his own wealth and then entered the priest hood and dedicated his life to the protection of the Indians and against the encomienda. De las Casas is the patron saint for Universal Human Rights. His book The Destruction of the Indies blamed the Spanish fro cruelty resulting in million of Indian deaths in effect he accused them of genocide
  18. 18. Dominican College of St. Gregory where Bartholomew de las Casas retired studied and taught.
  19. 19. Virgin soil epidemic
  20. 20. These are the effects of small pox. This disease wiped out 90% of the Central and South American population after Columbus landed. No medicine was able to solve this problem. The Europeans were unaffected since they had an immune system.
  21. 21. The Spanish in North America
  22. 22. Ponce de Leone is eventually killed. Seven years late another Spanish attempt to colonize Florida under the rule of Panfilo de Narvaez.
  23. 23. Panfilo de Narvaez (conquistador) ship was ship wrecked but a small group survived one was Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca who published an account of his adventures and motivated Hernan de Soto to go to America
  24. 24. DeSoto failed to locate another Aztec empire. Moving westward his expedition was twice mauled by powerful native armies and reduced by half. The native Indians of the south were successful in turning back Spanish invaders. But de Soto had introduced epidemic disease which over the next several years drastically depopulated and undermined the Mississippian chiefdoms of the south.
  25. 25. Coronado was an explorer who wanted to find a “City of Gold”. Led by 300 mounted men and infantry and 800 Indian porters, Coronado traveled through Mexico and the United States looking for gold. He was disappointed when he only found buffalo.
  26. 26. Coronado’s map through America going up to Quivira, Kansas
  27. 27. After century when Columbus entered America; there were 250,000European immigrants and 125,000 forced slaves in America. Most were Spanish who lived in more than 200 urban communities. Cities like Santo Domingo, Hispaniola, Havana in Cuba, Mexico City, Tenochtitlan and Lima.
  28. 28. Spanish women came to America as early as Columbus’s second expedition but over the course of the sixteenth century they made up only 10% of population of the immigrants. Most males married with Africa or Indian women. Spanish placed the labels of Mestizos and mulattoes. Indian genes were passed on in mixed ancestry people who quickly became the majority population in the Mainland Spanish American Empire
  29. 29. Northern Explorations and Encounters
  30. 30. Trading fish and furs
  31. 31. Looking for a Northwest Passage to the Indies Cartier explored.
  32. 32. Jacque Cartier
  33. 33. The village of Tadoussac on the St. Lawrence Rive was a great trading center for furs and also a whaling center. Within a few years the French would attempt to monopolize the northern trade by planting colonies along the cost and on the St. Lawrence. The first French colonies in North America were planted farther south by a group of French Protestant religious dissenter know as Huguenots.
  34. 34. Martin Luther attacks the Roman Catholic Church with his 95 Thesis. These were attacks on the Church’s abuse of power with Lay Investiture, Simony and Indulgences.
  35. 35. This is the church were John Calvin promoted Theocracy in Geneva, Switzerland
  36. 36. John Calvin’s Geneva, Switzerland
  37. 37. John Knox comments on Theocracy of Geneva, Switzerland.
  38. 38. Jean Ribault and a group of 150 Huguenots from Normandy landed on Parris Island near Beufort South Carolina and began constructing a fort. Ribault returned to France for supplies where he was caught up in religious wars. The colonists nearly stared and were forced to resort to cannibalism before being rescues by an English Ship
  39. 39. Fort Caroline on the St. John’s River south of present day Jacksonville is where Ribault’s second Huguenot colony was formed.
  40. 40. Building of Ft. Caroline, Huguenot Colony
  41. 41. After founding a settlement south of Fort Caroline at a place called St. Augustine the Spanish built the massive Castillo San Marcos (still standing) as a garrison at St. Augustine to stop French Huguenot expansion.
  42. 42. Social Change in Sixteenth Century England
  43. 43. As prices of goods rose steeply the result of new World inflation English landlords their rents fixed by custom sought ways to increase their incomes. Seeking profits in woolen trade many converted the common pasturage used by tenants into grazing land for sheep dislocating a large number of common lands in England.. England had enclosed lands the way. This law way called the enclosure Act. Deprived of their livelihoods thousands of families left their traditional rural homes and sought employment in English cities. The roads ere crowded with homeless people.
  44. 44. With the Enclosure Act, England went to the sheep industry and away from farming. The slides shaded are was sold to wealthy sheep owners. The landless peasants went to the crowded city or to lands of America
  45. 45. Enclosure Movement England  http ://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l0nM5DU4ADI
  46. 46. At first Henry VIII of England (reigned 1509-47) supported the Catholic Church and opposed the Protestants. But there was great public resentment in England over the vast properties owned by the Church (Hampton Court home of Cardinal Wolsey). When the pope refused to grant Henry an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon daughter of Ferdinand and Isabel of Spain the king exploited this popular mood. Taking up the cause of reform the Church of England started in 1534.
  47. 47. Saint Thomas More wrote the book Utopia explaining the problems of the Enclosure Act. Was an assistant to Henry VIII Tudor. More resigns from office because he cannot support Henry VIII’s divorce. Soon after More is executed. “I die the kings good servant but Gods first”. There is Thomas More courtroom in London Courts.
  48. 48. Sir Humphrey Gilbert and half brother Sir Walter Raleigh attack Irish and made them relocate beyond a frontier line of English settlement along the coast. The English considered the Irish an inferior race and thought of as “savages”.
  49. 49. John Hawkins violated Spanish regulations by transporting a load of African slaves to the Caribbean. The Spanish attacked Hawkins on another of his voyages an event English privateers such as Francis Drake used as an excuse for launching rains on the New World. The Sea Dogs were pirates who plundered Spanish territories 1570.
  50. 50. Martin Frobisher conducted three voyages of exploration of the North Atlantic both Frobisher and Raleigh sailed ships from Plymouth and landed at St. John’s Bay.
  51. 51. The Roanoke enterprise of 1584-1587 failed but did have the book by Harriot’s A Brief and True Report of the New found Land of Virginia
  52. 52. Philip II was outraged at the English attacks on territories reserved by the pope for Catholics. Philip II authorized the destruction of the French colony in Florida
  53. 53. Elizabeth was anti Catholic and went against her brother in law King Philip II of Spain and the Irish. Elizabeth defeats Spain with Spanish Invasion of England.