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Earth and Life Science - Minerals and Its Properties

  2. INTRODUCTORY QUESTION: ◦Do you know what is a mineral? ◦What is/are the thing/s you associate with a mineral? ◦Do you know where they came from?
  3. MINERALS ◦It is a naturally-occurring chemical compound that occurs naturally in its pure form ◦It is a homogenous solid and has a stable temperature of at least 25˚C ◦It has a definite chemical composition. Thus, it has definite chemical constituents ◦It has an ordered crystalline structure
  4. WHERE DOES MINERALS COME FROM? ◦It comes from the cooled and crystallized version of an igneous rock that consists of various minerals ◦Mineral deposits can only be extracted where they can be found
  6. 1. Color ◦It is usually determined either by the mineral’s composition or its crystalline structure ◦It is usually caused by electromagnetic radiation interacting with the electrons
  7. 1. Color ◦Idiochromatic Minerals ◦It is the so-called “self-colored” minerals due to its composition Examples: Azurite (blue) and Malachite (Green)
  8. 1. Color ◦Allochromatic Minerals ◦It is the so-called “other-colored” minerals due to traces of its impurity or caused by the defects of its structure ◦The color is an unpredictable property
  9. 2. Streak ◦It is the color of the mineral in powdered form. The difference of their colors resulted from the presence of smooth surfaces of compact crystals that sometimes reflect light differently in comparison to powdered mass ◦Most of the time, the powdered color is also the color of its original form
  10. 3. Luster ◦It is the behaviour of light as it is reflected by the surface of a mineral ◦Metallic Minerals – it reflects light similar to a polished metals and a good conductor of heat and electricity ◦Non-Metallic Minerals – it is characterized by a not shiny surface and can yield new products while undergoing melting
  11. 4. Diaphaneity ◦It is the ability of the mineral to allow light pass through it ◦It may depend on the mineral’s thickness
  12. 5. Hardness ◦It is the resistance of a mineral from scratching ◦In determining hardness, it is tested by scratching the surfaced with a measurable amount of force
  13. Friedrich Moh’s Scale of Mineral Hardness
  14. 6. Cleavage ◦It is the tendency of a mineral to break along particular directions ◦When force is applied, it tends to separation on regions where the bonding is relatively weaker ◦It can be seen as a series of parallel lines marking the planar surface
  15. 7. Magnetism ◦It is the tendency of a mineral to be attracted by a magnet that can be caused by the movement of electrons in their crystalline structure ◦It is mostly used in identify whether one is a mineral or not