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Project Planning and Development Intro.pptx


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Project Planning and Development Intro.pptx

  1. 1. MPA 209 Project Planning and Development
  2. 2. Understanding Project Terms Project • Project – is a temporary endeavor to create a unique product, service, or information • It is divided into several phases to improve management control and provide links to the ongoing operations of the performing organization • Collectively the project phases are known as the project life cycle
  3. 3. How to write a project plan? • Know exactly what you to do. • Be able to differentiate a portfolio, program, and project • Phases: 1 single phase or multiple phases • Know project methodologies Project Project Phases/ Project Life Cycle • Initiating. • Planning. • Executing. • Monitoring • /controlling. • Closing. Project Management Process • Project processes • Process Group • Process interaction • Customizing Process Interactions • Mapping of Process Management Processes
  4. 4. Portfolio Program Project Multiple programs put together Project portfolio management Multiple projects put together A temporary endeavor to create a unique product or solution. With sub projects Note: Not interchangeable
  5. 5. Project Life cycle – sequential steps of various phases that are unique to your needs/projects Human Life Cycle • Conceiving • Birth • Childhood • Teenage Hood • Adulthood • Death • Business needs • Solution framework • Common disciplines and shared responsibility • Operations Framework • Service delivered IT Project • Serve to define the beginning and the end of the project • Determine the transitional actions at the beginning and the end of the project are included and which are not • Typical sequence defined by most project life cycles: - Requirement to design - Construction to operation - Design to manufacturing
  6. 6. Element of Project Management Process There are five processes that are not quite customizable 1. Initiation – Determine project needs, scale industry ( simple/complex) 2. Planning – No easy tasks. It’s difficult. More detailed than initiation. It answers to what, and why you’re doing it (objective, scope, cost, time, key stakeholders, key milestones) Planning What are we going to do? How are we going to do it? How do we know when the project is done?
  7. 7. Cont. 3 Executing 4 Monitoring and Control 5 Closing - Conclusion of the Project: a) Determine if the project should continue in its next phase; b) To detect and correct errors cost-effectively Note: Not all companies have their own in-house methodology, framework, or terminologies
  8. 8. Project Plan and Development Inputs • Other planning outputs • Historical information • Organizational policies • Constraints • Assumptions Tools and Techniques • Project planning m methodology • Stakeholder skills & knowledge • Project Management Information System (PMS) • Earned Value Management Outputs • Project Plan (s) • Supporting details
  9. 9. I N I T I A T I O N Project Project – is a temporary endeavor to create a unique product, service, or information, or deliver a certain output or outcome, with scope, stakeholders’ schedules, budget, and milestone. Stakeholders Develop a Project Charter Stakeholders are specific people that have stake on the outcome of the project either internal or external to the organization (ie. Project sponsor, Executive Committee, Supplier) Project Charter is a document that kicks off the project. It has scope objectives, risk assumptions, project organizational chart, and statement deliverables, created by PM and sent to all stakeholders who are part of the projects for signatures. Inputs: • Product Description • Strategic Plan • Project Selection Criteria Tools & Techniques • Project Selection Methods • Expert judgment Outputs: • Project Charter • Project Manager identified/Assig ned • Constraints • Assumptions
  10. 10. P L A N N I N G S T E P S Requirement Scope Statement Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Time Management Cost Management Closing Process Why – Product, service, information What – deliverables (Scope) Expenses (Costs) When - Start/End Who – Who does what (Resources) How – How to get there? Defining what the project is all about, critical aspects or focus. Background info, justification (why are we doing it?) Supporting details, what stakeholders wants Break down project deliverables, a hierarchical fashion in manageable sections, chunks L1 Directors L2 Middle management L3 Doers Creating Action plans, bringing accountabilities Project timing Direct, indirect, variables, risk registers, contingencies Cost baseline + management reserves Hand project to the client, final lessons, team members go back to their base, celebrate
  11. 11. P L A N N I N G M A P Start Finish Timelines Deliverables • Brainstorm project process. Review process and look for areas of improvement • Explain the whys of working from start to finish • Sequential steps – linearly step by step of what should be exeuted • How deep of a PM do you create? • High Level – in depth • Middle level – process map Note: The conclusion of a project is marked by a review of both key deliverables and project performance to date Phase-end-review are called -phase exits, stage gates or kill points
  12. 12. Project Deliverable Definition • A project deliverable is a good or service produced by your project that must be delivered at the end of the project. • A deliverable is always going to be within the scope, budget, and timeline that you’ve set for the project. • Your deliverable is going to be something that you have approval for from all your key stakeholders (particularly the sponsor and the steering committee) as to what exactly you are delivering.
  13. 13. Examples of Project Deliverables • Your deliverable will be dependent upon the scope of your project: What exactly you’re meant to do on the project. • Your project scope can encompass so many different things! It really depends on what kind of project you’re doing.
  14. 14. Deliverable Diagram Build a House Structure Design Electrical Inside work Outside Works Scaling Modifying y Finalize design foundation Framing Wiring Plumbing Appliance Cabinets landscaping Security Roofing Sub works • Deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work product such as FS, detail design, or a working prototype • Each phase s marked by the completion of one or more deliverables
  15. 15. Deliverable Diagram Build a House Structure Design Electrical Inside work Outside Works Scaling Modifying y Finalize design foundation Framing Wiring Plumbing Appliance Cabinets landscaping Security Roofing Sub works
  16. 16. Requirements • The requirement is a condition or capability that is required to be present in a product, service of information to satisfy a contract or other formally imposed specification. • Collecting the requirements of what the stakeholders want (interview) • Project charter – fully signed ( in agreement with what is expected of them) • WBS • Action Plan • Risk Plan • Consider the budget, quality, and scheduling • Change Control Documents • Docs for reference • Learn to create key docs file/email/chat windows
  17. 17. Project Sponsor • Sponsor to decide Go or No Go • Steering Committee (Executive Committee)
  18. 18. Project Management Team • Identify stakeholders • Determine their requirements • Manage and influence those requirements to ensure successfully project completion
  19. 19. Stakeholders • Stakeholder registry (internal and external). • Individuals and organizations that are actively involved in the project or whose interests may be positively or negatively affected as a result of project execution or project completion. • May also exert influence over the project and its result, • Key stakeholders: Project Manager, Customers, Performing organizations, Project team members, sponsors, and many others who may have an interest. Note: Managing stakeholder’s expectations may be difficult because most often they have different objectives that may come into conflict
  20. 20. • Customers and Users: Customers are the people or organizations who will approve and manage the project’s product, service, or result. Users, as clear from the name, use the product. • Sellers: Sellers, also known as vendors, are external companies that enter into a contractual agreement to provide services or resources necessary for the project. • Business Partners: They are external organizations that have a special relationship or partnership with the enterprise. • Organizational Groups: Organizational groups are internal stakeholders who are influenced by the actions of the project team. For example, human resources, marketing, sales, legal, finance, operations, manufacturing, etc. • Functional Managers: They are key individuals who play the role of management within an administrative or functional area of the business. For example, human resources, finance, accounting, etc. •Sponsor: A sponsor is a person or group who provides supplies and support for the project and is liable for assisting success. He may be external or internal to the organization. •Other Stakeholders: They are additional stakeholders which include financial institutions, government regulators, subject matter experts, consultants, and others, which have a financial interest in the project, contributing inputs to the project, or have in the outcome of the project. Reference: https://www.invensislearning.com/blog/who-are-project-stakeholders/
  21. 21. Process Mapping • Visual tools that explain way of working from start to finish, explaining all steps in a sequential order of the inputs and the actual activities for the output and in the visual representation. • Easy to understand
  22. 22. Why project mapping? • It is a great way to explain to other people the current state map from start to finish. • Future state. Brainstorm with team members on the new process, and present the sequential ways of working. Review and take a look at the current process. And find areas for improvement. • With great details, project mapping lays all the activities out. • Amazing tool for training documents. • Big challenge is how deep a project mapping to create (too high level, in depth, overwhelming)
  23. 23. Project Charter Understanding project charter • Justification (why of the project) • Background information • Scope statement • Roles/responsibilities ) Sponsor, Steering Committee, Team Members • Schedule • Communication channel • Risks
  24. 24. Project Scope • The most critical aspect of the project. It is the work performed to deliver a product, service or information with the specified features and functions (described in a contract or other formally imposed specification) • Defining project scope (clear not vague) • Defining what the project is all about (Project Charter) • Requirements, justification, assumptions, constraints • Summary of deliverables for greater clarity • Supporting details (overall project timelines) • Standard processes • Get assumptions/risks from a high level ( project and organization related). Reach out to sponsor, executive committee • Quality products at a reasonable cost • Success criteria • Finally, the scope goes to project plan Note: Solicit comment from the sponsor – clarity on the deliverables
  25. 25. Concept of Scope Baseline Scope Statement Work Breakdown Structure WBS Dictionary • From top to below, decomposed deliverables into smaller manageable pieces called things not action • If it’s a hybrid model, go in-depth. How many layers do you want to go? (work packages/work segments) • Can you confidently estimate time, and cost? If you can not, breakdown further
  26. 26. Work Breakdown Structure • Breakdown into manageable chunks, break it down systematically • Creating activities in sequential order (input- actual activities-outputs) • Bridging accountabilities • Amount of work totally understood the scope • Translate into an action plan with the comment section • Action plan as the communication plan • Easy way to handle the project • Correct scope and timing
  27. 27. Boat Making Manufacturing Design Electonics Rigging Testing Scaling Modify/ Adjusty Finalize design Decide or not Procure materials Wiring Plumbing Laminate Electronics Pull Trial Sea Trial Framing hull/deck Assemble Cosmetics Sanding /Painting Segments Note: everything happens after the WBS. Calculate costing using the WBS Scope Creep – extending its boundary – not to stretch its limit. Put boundaries around it
  28. 28. Boat Making Manufacturing Design Electronics Rigging Testing Scaling Modify/ Adjusty Finalize design Decide or not Procure materials Wiring Plumbing Laminate Electronics Pull Trial Sea Trial Framing hull/deck Assemble Cosmetics Sanding /Painting Segments Project A : Engr. Ryan Fernandez Project B : Engr. Louie Valenzuela Project C : Engr. Norwin Rapin REACTOR: William Dovin Vinluan
  29. 29. Time Cost Scope In management literature, this equilateral triangle is also referred as the “Quality triangle” of the project Quality Planning Inputs: • Quality policy • Scope Statement • Product Description • Standards & Regulations • Other Process Outputs Tools & Techniques • Benefits/Cost Analysis • Benchmarking • Flow Charting • Design of experiments • Cost of Quality Outputs • Quality Management Plan • Operational definitions • Checklists • Inputs to other processes In public administration, quality management is communicated as an attitude that stresses customer satisfaction, improves internal processes and empowers employees to make decisions
  30. 30. Project Team Members • Whose in the team • Where are they from • Team confirmation (full/part time) • How much time dedicated (estimate) • Buy in – bring everyone together, behavior expectations, work teamwork tone should be working together. If not address, you can have fires that you have to fight
  31. 31. Some consideration • Need to decide on what vital technical work should be done in each phase • Who should be involved in each phase • Cost and staffing levels are low at the start, higher towards the end, and drop rapidly as the project draws to a conclusion • The probability of project completion has the lowest. Hence, risks and uncertainty are the highest, at the start of the project • The influence on the final characteristics of the project’s product and the final cost of the project is the highest at the start and gets progressively lower as the project continues. Initial phase Intermediate phases 1 or more Final Phase Start Finish Cost & staffing pattern
  32. 32. Project Timing • Estimate how long to complete the difficult project. Breakdown further, putting in sequence • Priority matrix due to budget constraints • Use Gantt Chart – easy to use from start to finish • Optimize, be flexible A Gantt chart is a commonly used graphical depiction of a project schedule. It's a type of bar chart showing the start and finish dates of a project's elements such as resources, planning and dependencies. Project crashing. crash project, the additional cost of resources (resources and additional labor) Fast-tracking – the practice of overlapping phases (starting from one phase before the previous phase deliverables).
  33. 33. Project Risks • Initial risks • Stretch resource • Contingency plan bring to sponsors attention Note: Risk Registers, contingencies estimates are to be included in your Risk Management Planning Inputs • Project Charter • Organization’s Risk Management Policies • Defined roles & responsibilities • Template Organization’s risk management plan • WBS Tools & Techniques • Planning meeting Outputs • Risk Management Plan Project A : Erika Cruz Project B: Christopher Rosario
  34. 34. Budget • Assumptions about budget - Capital cost, operational costs, variable expenses • Can you deliver with the amount of money that you have • Risk Registers, and contingencies estimates are to be included in your budget. 85% 15% 5% 100% Project Budget Contingency Reserve Management Reserve Total Project Budget
  35. 35. Signatories • Secure the approval
  36. 36. Scope objectives Risks assumptions Organizational Chart Statement Deliverables Policies Agreements Project Charter High-Level Requirements Specified Requirements Stakeholder Registry Stakeholders Project Scope Statement Work Breakdown structure Project Charter Project - Performed by people - Constraine d by limited resources - Planned, executed, & controlled
  37. 37. Scope objectives Risks assumptions Organizational Chart Statement Deliverables Policies Agreements Project Charter Project - Performed by people - Constraine d by limited resources - Planned, executed, & controlled Discuss the topic using a specific project Romaine Talucod Julio E. Casilan Jr. Rose Beltran Iris Valerie Cabang Reactor: Devon Dean Alipio
  38. 38. Product Scope “we need to deliver a website based on WordPress (It’s a platform that half on the internet used) with minimum customer software development. This site needs a homepage, blog archive, an article template as it was designed, and a special form to collect emails”.
  39. 39. Project Scope Statement • A project scope statement is a narrative description of a product and project scope. • Justification of the project. • Product scope • Acceptance criteria • Deliverables • Project exclusions • Constraints • Assumptions Project Scope Management • Scope Initiation • Scope Planning • Scope Definition • Scope Verification • Scope Change Control
  40. 40. Project Scope Statement • A project scope statement is a narrative description of a product and project scope. • Justification of the project. • Product scope • Acceptance criteria • Deliverables • Project exclusions • Constraints • Assumptions 1 Ramil Y Ferreol 2 Rojenel T. Gaetos 3 Katya Santos 4 Mary Ann Opetina Discuss one project scope Time Cost Scope Reactor: Madel M. Cruz
  41. 41. Project Justification “I” as a customer need a platform to host my articles on project management and build an audience of loyal readers. It’s a cornerstone of my business”.
  42. 42. Product Deliverables • Homepage with texts, images, and form to collect emails. • Blog archive that lists 10 recent articles with side bar • Blog spot template • A form at the end of each article
  43. 43. Project Exclusions • Websites will be created on WordPress so custom software development is beyond this project • (Explicit exclusion) for the perfect Junior Project Manager Program is out of the scope of the project.
  44. 44. Project Deliverables • Project definitive with start and end and with deliverables at the end of the project. • Understand deliverables at the beginning stages (Initiation/Planning stage). • Do not assume deliverables. Once you assume it you are in trouble • Deliverables should be crystal clear • WBS • Project schedule
  45. 45. WBS End Product 1.1 Deliverable # 1 1.1.1 Work Package 1.2 Deliverable # 2 1.3 Deliverable # 3 1.1.2 Work Package 1.1.3 Work Package 1.1.4 Work Package 1.2.1 Work Package 1.2. 2 Work Package 1.2.3 Work Package 1. 3.1 Work Package 1. 3.2 Work Package 1. 3.1 .1 Work Package 1. 3.1 .2 Work Package
  46. 46. Constraints • Project budget P 230,000.00 • Deadline Sec 25, 2022 • Technology: WordPress
  47. 47. Acceptance Criteria “We agree this is delivered when I can access the pm basics 101.com site on the internet and see the main deliverables”. There should be no defects that prevent using the main functionality doesn’t have a single workaround. Visually and functionally, the site should look and perform as described in specifications and designs. “Client should provide a sign off on the final results
  48. 48. International Project (UNDP) Program med Strategic Planning UNDAP UNDP CPD Analysis for a Program Implementing Programme Projects Joint Programmes SSC Projects Evaluating Prorgamme Programmed Completion & Transition National Priorities and SDGs Strategic Plan Justifying a project Defining a Project Initiating a Project Implementing a Project Closing a Project Major Steps in Lifecycle of UNDP Programme
  49. 49. Internationalization • Projects can span national boundaries. • Must consider 1. Effect of time zone differences 2. National and regional holidays 3. Travel requirements for f2f meetings 4. Logistics of teleconferencing 5. Volatile political differences
  50. 50. Kick-Off Meeting – Establishing the Project Rhythms 1st official meeting (Project Manager; Team Members) to get orientation and timelines of what exactly to do (Project Charter) 1. Opening Remarks from Sr Officials 2. Meeting reminders house keeping time outs 3. Meeting Logistics 4. Team intro – cross department • Sets up expectations – accountability down the road • Charter Review and O & M (Provide copy in advance) • Ways of working – Communication plan (Channel) where to upload docs?
  51. 51. Cont: 5. WBS Creation • High-level and complex break it down into buckets • Version A Project Manager • Version B Team Members contributing Note: need longer hours for inputting; team creating it taking note of vacation/travel sched 6. Layout next step for everybody • Initial tasks to execute • Tasks items in WBS are send to team members. • Guide, lead, make sure that team members are accountable down the road • Bring agility from A-Z
  52. 52. Cont: 7. Closing • Thanks team for attending, reminding them of the WBS status • establish project share points (tasks, expectations, when to do it)
  53. 53. Negotiating • Involves conferring with others to come to terms with them or reach an agreement. • Negotiated directly or with assistance; mediation and arbitration are two types of assisted negotiation/ • Occurs around many issues, at many times at many levels of the projects • Scope, cost, and schedule objectives • Changes to scope, cost, or schedule • Contract terms and conditions • Assignments • Resources
  54. 54. Project Plan Approval • Follow the hierarchy of command and channel of command. • Present to decision-makers. Negotiation for both parties
  55. 55. Effective Meetings Pre-meeting preparation • Documents are in order • Meeting kit preparation Post meeting • Resolutions • Management approval • 2-3 hrs after the meeting info are collected within 24 hrs Actual meeting (F2F or Virtual) • Arrive early, Get everything set up • Admin announcements: Meeting rules, Timeouts, etiquette, Face the window, virtual – cam eye level, mute yourself, use chat or raise hand functionality, keep it professional, check your background, check what you are wearing, Video off when snacking, coffee • Agenda • Share innovative ideas; Brainstorming; create ideas • Avoid updates (email update summary) • Last 10-15 minutes – Summarize all the times all items acted upon review tasks lists, emphasize responsibilities, and due dates associated with the tasks. Do not waste precious time
  56. 56. Project Management • Competing demands for (scope, time, cost, risks, quality). • Stakeholders with different needs • Identified rquirements
  57. 57. Basic Principles to Project Management • Define the job in detail • Get the right people involved • Estimate the time and costs • Break the job down using the 40-hour rule • Establish a change procedure • Agree on acceptance criteria
  58. 58. Relationship to Other Management Disciplines • Functional Departments and supporting disciplines • Technical elements • Management Specialization • Industry groups
  59. 59. Project Planning and Development Part – II Intro
  60. 60. Key General PM Skills 1. Communication skills. Listening to a lot of information. Keep people aware of the foundation, changes, and direction, getting everyone aware of new information. Repeat things over and over, practicing and repeating. 2. Organization skills. Have a macro view, zooming into a particular activity. Activities should impact everybody else. Use SharePoint clickable updates on track. 3. Leadership skills. Using leadership hut. Office politics – competing players, inspire and motivate them, provide guidance (ie. Technical team and digital teams), removing roadblocks, ensuring that team has clear path.
  61. 61. Cont. 4. Problem-solving. Involves a combination of problem definition and decision making • Problem definition: Requires distinguishing between causes and symptoms ( internal or external, technical, managerial, and I interpersonal) • Decision-making – It includes analyzing the problem to identify viable solutions. • Once made, decisions must be implemented
  62. 62. PDCA
  63. 63. Fishbone Diagram
  64. 64. How to Organize at Work 1. Stop multitasking people cant control multitasking. Hence, stop the myth that multi-tasking works. 2. Organize your brain – de-stress your brain, have the right amount of sleep, have min break, and be physically well. 3. Organize your workspace/ 360 degrees circle. Things you don’t need, get rid of it. Avoid clutter. What you need is within your fingertips. Get the habit of checking your emails. Touch it once. Make sure you have 20 things in your inbox. Organiza your email calendar.
  65. 65. Project Success/Failure • Do not avoid conflict. • Address that elephant in the room, if not, it will spiral out of control and will impact the scope, time, and budget • Vague/unrealistic team expectations. Motivate team on the job deliverables and due dates. • Poor communication. Over-communication, check on your team, validate what you’re looking to jobs done. • Non-Project Manager. Understand the basics of project management skills from start initiatives. • Poor Risks Management or no risk management. Risks are part of projects. Have a simple analysis. Ie members have several workloads- apply mitigation and contingency. • If you don’t understand deliverables, the project become loose and muddy.
  66. 66. • Guidance to think big pic, a task list on your tactical approach. Remind why and where they’re doing it. • Focus on time management and prioritization. Whose urgent for? Do not get lost in the needs of all your tasks • Look back, step back, look at everything around you • Prioritization. Must have a clear timetable as you will be bombarded with a lot of “urgent” things. Where is the priority sequence that would get things done? • On the important item, where does if fit in? = negotiation skills. • Make a big difference in your project. Cont.
  67. 67. If you are a new Project Manager • Know your HR policies • Continuous education • Emotional Quotient • Psychology 101 • Look at the companies strategies • Get to know your team, talk to people, get feedback. Start the relationship on the right foot. • Find a mentor. bounce off ideas, situations, • Avail of a mentorship program, business coaches, get 2nd opinions
  68. 68. Cont • Lead by example. Be on time. Show the way, Be the shining representation of the expectations. • Time management techniques. List of things. Do thngs in the morning, book off power but come back later
  69. 69. Organizational System 1. Project-Based Organization • Organizations that derive their revenue primarily from performing projects for others ( architectural firms, engineering firms, consultants, construction contractors, government contractors, NGOs, etc. • Organizations that adopted management by projects 2. Have management systems in place to facilitate project management 3. The project management team should be acutely aware of how the organization’s systems affect the project.
  70. 70. Organizational Culture and Styles • Most organizations have developed unique and describable cultures as reflected in share values, norms, beliefs, expectations, policies and procedures, authority relationships, etc. • There will have a direct influence on the project - a team proposing an unusual or high–risk approach is more likely to secure approval in aggressive /entrepreneurial organizations. - Managers with a highly participative style are apt to encounter problems in a rigidly hierarchical organization.
  71. 71. Cultural Influences • is the “totality of socially transmitted behavior patterns, arts, beliefs, institutions, and all other products of human work and thought”. • Every project must operate within a context of one or more cultural norms ( political, economic, demographic, educational, ethical, ethnic, religious – areas of practice, belief, and attitudes that affect the way that people and organizations interact.
  72. 72. Some nuggets of wisdom • Integrate social justice – ventilate issues thru councils, capacitate them pm how they can represent their interest in a discussion table (playing field), fully support the marginalized, bring in stakeholders decision makers, government listens, responding appropriately and commensurately, need of a society approach, collaboration with GAs, CSOs and private sectors
  73. 73. Building the resilience can be achieved by adopting a development path that is disaster resilience, risk sensitive, eco system based and correlated withy poverty reduction.
  74. 74. Sources • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZKOL-rZ79gs&t=484s • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f2IdKUGl0zE • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lt9_4vzPdlo&t=100s • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H_YmBanroT4