History and philosophy of science

Laguna State Polytechnic University
7 Jun 2014

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History and philosophy of science

  1. By: Genelita S. Garcia
  2.  Appearance of Man started the study of SCIENCE  CENOZOIC ERA (includes Tertiary and Quaternary Periods) (66 million years ago to the present)  Tertiary Period (includes Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene Epochs) (66-1.6 million years ago)  First Ancestor of Man appeared 5.8-5.2 milion years ago oldest human ancestor, Ardipithecus ramidus kadabba, hominid fossil remains at Middle Awash, Ethiopia
  3.  c6500 BC- 1453AD  Sumerian Civilization- Cradle of the World’s earliest known civilization
  4.  Adapted Greek Teachings.
  6.  Middle Ages Timeline Middle Ages encompass one of the most exciting and bloodthirsty periods in English and European History. This comprehensive Middle Ages Timeline of the Medieval period details the major events significant to the lives and events of famous people and the Kings and Queens of England and Europe.
  7.  The Dark Ages is a time period generally thought to have begun in 476 AD when Romulus Augustulus, the last Western emperor, was deposed and the Western Roman Empire fell. This is a matter of some debate , however, as some scholars believe the period began when Alaric sacked Rome in 410 and others contend the period began later in 500 AD. The term once referred to the Middle Ages as a whole, which lasted until 1485 AD when the Renaissance Period began. Scholars of the 19th century restricted the term to the Early Middle Ages, a period which ends about 1000 AD. Today, the phrase "Dark Ages" is rarely used by scholars due to its negative connotations.  The Italian scholar and poet Petrarch first coined the term "Dark Ages" in reference to the period's lack of cultural achievements. To others, this phrase seemed a fitting description of a tumultuous period of history marked by religious struggle between Catholics and other Christians as well as Muslim conquests throughout the fallen empire. Scholars of the time found "dark" to be an appropriate description of the era because it was deeply shrouded in mystery due to a lack of historical documents, literature, art, and music from the period.
  8. Reawakening Period-1450-1600
  9.  A basic definition: Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular scale. This covers both current work and concepts that are more advanced.  In its original sense, 'nanotechnology' refers to the projected ability to construct items from the bottom upusing techniques and tools being developed today to make complete, high performance products.
  10. NATURALISM-The system of thought holding that all phenomena can be explained in terms of natural causes and laws. believed by most philosphers like Thales, Anaximander,Leucippus, Democritus,etc.
  11.  METAPHYSICS- The fundamental nature of reality and the existence and/ or the essence of things. Aristotle, Plato and Socrates
  12. theory that things exist objectively: the theory that things such as universals, moral facts, and theoretical scientific entities exist independently of people's thoughts and perceptions theory of objectively existing world: the theory that there is an objectively existing world, not dependent on our minds, and that people are able to understand aspects of that world through perception theory that statements have truth values: the theory that every declarative statement is either true or false, regardless of whether this can be verified Mostly Greek Philosophers liKe Archimedes Euclid and Ptolemy
  13.  Mysticism is the pursuit of communion with, identity with, or conscious awareness of an ultimate reality, divinity, spiritual truth, or God through direct experience, intuition, instinct or insight. ...  The beliefs, ideas, or thoughts of mystics; A doctrine of direct communication or spiritual intuition of divine truth; A transcendental union of soul or mind with the divine reality or divinity; St Peter Damian and and saint Bernard of Clairvaux
  14.  is any outlook or way of life centered on human need and interest. Sub-categories of this type include Christian Humanism and Modern Humanism.  Christian Humanism is defined by Webster's Third New International Dictionary as "a philosophy advocating the self- fulfillment of man within the framework of Christian principles." This more human- oriented faith is largely a product of the Renaissance and is a part of what made up Renaissance humanism.  Modern Humanism, also called Naturalistic Humanism, Scien- tific Humanism, Ethical Humanism and Democratic Humanism is defined by one of its leading proponents, Corliss Lamont, as "a naturalistic philosophy that rejects all supernaturalism and relies primarily upon reason and science, democracy and human compassion." Modern Humanism has a dual origin, both secular and religious, and these constitute its sub-categories.  Foremost advocate is Galileo
  15. Galileo Gallilei Niccolo Macchiaveli
  16.  the doctrine that knowledge is derived from experience  the application of empirical methods in any art or science  quackery: medical practice and advice based on observation and experience in ignorance of scientific findings In philosophy, "empiricism" is a theory of knowledge that asserts that knowledge arises from sense experience. Empiricism is one of several competing views about how we know "things", part of the branch of philosophy called epistemology, or "the Theory of Knowledge
  17. Isaac Newton Francis Bacon
  18.  a theory that holds that reason alone, unaided by experience, can arrive at basic truth regarding the world. Associated with rationalism is the doctrine of innate ideas and the method of logically deducing truths about the world from "self-evident" premises  the doctrine that knowledge about reality can be obtained by reason alone without recourse to experience  the doctrine that human knowledge can all be encompassed within a single, usually deductive, system
  19. Rene Descartes Blaise Pascal
  20.  Sometimes associated with empiricism, positivism maintains that metaphysical questions are unanswerable and that the only knowledge is scientific knowledge Karl Marx
  21.  Utilitarianism is a moral philosophy, generally operating on the principle that the utility (happiness or satisfaction) of different people can not only be measured but also meaningfully summed over people and that utility comparisons between people are meaningful.  To achieve the goal utilitarian British philosopher Jeremy Bentham described as "the greatest good for the greatest number." Jeremy Bentham John Stuart Mill
  22.  any of a group of philosophical doctrines that share the monistic view that material objects and the external world do not exist in reality independently of the human mind but are variously creations of the mind or constructs of ideas George Hegel Johann Fichte
  23.  the doctrine that the content of a concept consists only in its practical applicability  the doctrine that truth consists not in correspondence with the facts but in successful coherence with experience  action or policy dictated by consideration of the immediate practical consequences rather than by theory or dogma  A practical, matter-of-fact way of approaching or assessing situations or of solving problems. John Dewey William James
  24.  Evolutionism is a world-view, which seeks to explain every aspect of this world in which we live. It encompasses a wide variety of topics, from astronomy to chemistry to biology. At its core, it teaches that there were different stages in the evolution of our universe: Charles Darwin Ernst Haeckel
  25.  Existentialism is a philosophy concerned with finding self and the meaning of life through free will, choice, and personal responsibility. The belief is that people are searching to find out who and what they are throughout life as they make choices based on their experiences, beliefs, and outlook. And personal choices become unique without the necessity of an objective form of truth. An existentialist believes that a person should be forced to choose and be responsible without the help of laws, ethnic rules, or traditions. Karl Jaspers Jean Paul Sartre
  26.  The method of psychological therapy originated by Sigmund Freud in which free association, dream interpretation, and analysis of resistance and transference are used to explore repressed or unconscious impulses, anxieties, and internal conflicts, in order to free psychic energy for mature  The theory of personality developed by Freud that focuses on repression and unconscious forces and includes the concepts of infantile sexuality, resistance, transference, and division of the psyche into the id, ego, and superego. Sigmund Freud
  27. Neorealism or structural realism is a theory of international relations, outlined by Kenneth Waltz in his 1979 book Theory of International Politics. Waltz argues in favor of a systemic approach: the international structure acts as a constraint on state behavior, so that only states whose outcomes fall within an expected range survive. This system is similar to a microeconomic model in which firms set prices and quantity based on the market. Edmund Husseri Bertrand Russel
  28. A philosophy or method of inquiry based on the premise that reality consists of objects and events as they are perceived or understood in human consciousness and not of anything independent of human consciousness. Phenomenology is the study of structures of consciousness as experienced from the first-person point of view. An experience is directed toward an object by virtue of its content or meaning (which represents the object) together with appropriate enabling conditions. Maurice Merleau - Ponty

Notes de l'éditeur

  1. Cuneiform, potters wheel , irrigation system, wheeled vehicle
  2. Hanging Gardens of Babylon, sundial, elaborate irrigation system, calndar
  3. Great Pyramids of Egypt, Papyrus, Hieroglyphics, Embalming, Egyptian Calendar
  4. Minoan castles, system of writing, pottery, irrigation system
  5. Coins, golden chariots, qanat-water management system, system of writing
  6. Alchemy, first gun, numerical system, system of writing
  7. Printing press, gunpwder, compass ,religions, chinese medicine
  8. Cossmetics, numerical system, buddhism and hinuism
  9. Optics, lenses, universities and monasteries
  10. With 15,342 atoms, this parallel-shaft speed reducer gear is one of the largest nanomechanical devices ever modeled in atomic detail