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Influence of Temperature on Germination of Various Agrostis Cultivars

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INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON
GERMINATION OF VARIOUS AGROSTIS CULTIVARS
D.E. CARROLL AND J.E. KAMINSKI
THE PENNSYLVANIA STAT...

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CREEPING BENTGRASS (AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA)
• Important Species to
Golf Courses
• Many Maintain
Bentgrass Putting
Greens
• W...

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ABG In CBG

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Influence of Temperature on Germination of Various Agrostis Cultivars

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Winterkill can be a devastating problem for golf course superintendents. In situations of turfgrass loss, it is important to be able to reestablish putting greens as quickly as possible in the spring. In this preliminary study, we investigate variation in germination of bentgrass cultivars at various temperatures. Cultivars that have the ability to germinate quicker and/or at a higher percent at lower temperatures may have a competitive advantage when it comes to the time needed for recovery.

Winterkill can be a devastating problem for golf course superintendents. In situations of turfgrass loss, it is important to be able to reestablish putting greens as quickly as possible in the spring. In this preliminary study, we investigate variation in germination of bentgrass cultivars at various temperatures. Cultivars that have the ability to germinate quicker and/or at a higher percent at lower temperatures may have a competitive advantage when it comes to the time needed for recovery.

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Influence of Temperature on Germination of Various Agrostis Cultivars

  1. 1. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON GERMINATION OF VARIOUS AGROSTIS CULTIVARS D.E. CARROLL AND J.E. KAMINSKI THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. CREEPING BENTGRASS (AGROSTIS STOLONIFERA) • Important Species to Golf Courses • Many Maintain Bentgrass Putting Greens • Widespread Use
  3. 3. ABG In CBG
  4. 4. ANNUAL BLUEGRASS (POA ANNUA L.) • Winter Annual • Common Weed on Golf Courses • Susceptible to Extreme Temperatures
  5. 5. WINTER DAMAGE • Caused by Desiccation, Direct Low Temperature Kill, Anoxia, or Crown Hydration (Aamlid et al., 2009) • Occurs Sporadically Throughout Northeast U.S. • In 2015 80% of Those Surveyed Reported Winter Kill (USGA, 2015) • Superintendents Have a Small Window to Establish New Turf
  6. 6. EARLY SPRING ESTABLISHMENT • Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) Often Seeded into Bare Areas • Little Information is Known About the Influence of Temperature on Germination • Bentgrass Germination at Low Temperatures May Result in Quicker Establishment
  7. 7. OBJECTIVE • Elucidate the Influence of Temperature on Bentgrass Germination
  8. 8. MATERIALS AND METHODS • Bentgrass Cultivars (n = 18) • Water Agar – Average of 60 Seeds Per Plate • Temperatures (n = 4) – 10˚C, 15˚C, 20˚C, 25˚C – 24 Hour Darkness
  9. 9. BENTGRASS CULTIVARS Cultivar Company Species Alpha Simplot Creeping Cobra2 Pickseed Creeping Crystal Bluelinks Tee 2 Green Creeping Focus Pickseed Creeping Mackenzie Seed Res of Oregon Creeping Penn A1 Tee 2 Green Creeping Penn A4 Tee 2 Green Creeping Penncross Tee 2 Green Creeping Pureformance Tee 2 Green Creeping *Agrostis canina – Velvet Bentgrass Cultivar Company Species Pure Distinction Tee 2 Green Creeping Pure Select Tee 2 Green Creeping SR 1150 Seed Res of Oregon Creeping T-1 Simplot Creeping Tyee Seed Res of Oregon Creeping V8 Simplot Creeping Vesper Pickseed Velvet* Villa DLF Int Seeds Velvet* 007 Seed Res of Oregon Creeping
  10. 10. MATERIALS AND METHODS • CRD with 4 Reps • Germinated Seeds Counted and Removed Daily • Incubators Re-Randomized and Study Repeated • Data Analyzed With SAS, MIXED Procedure
  11. 11. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 25˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A CDE BCD AB ABC C-F BCD CDE G DEF BCD C-F EF BCD A-D C-F F BCD PercentGermination
  12. 12. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 25˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A CDE BCD AB ABC C-F BCD CDE G DEF BCD C-F EF BCD A-D C-F F BCD PercentGermination
  13. 13. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 20˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A ABC AB A AB B-EB-E CDE F DE A-DB-EA-E CDE A-D B-E E ABC PercentGermination
  14. 14. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 20˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A ABC AB A AB B-EB-E CDE F DE A-DB-EA-E CDE A-D B-E E ABC PercentGermination
  15. 15. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 15˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A A-DA-D AB ABC CDECDE CDE G DEF ABC CDE BCD EF CDE C-F F A-D PercentGermination
  16. 16. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 15˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A A-DA-D AB ABC CDECDE CDE G DEF ABC CDE BCD EF CDE C-F F A-D PercentGermination
  17. 17. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A D-G C-F A BCD B BC CDE H E-H BC C-FC-F FGH E-H D-G GH D-G PercentGermination
  18. 18. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A D-G C-F A BCD B BC CDE H E-H BC C-FC-F FGH E-H D-G GH D-G PercentGermination
  19. 19. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A D-G C-F A BCD B BC CDE H E-H BC C-FC-F FGH E-H D-G GH D-G PercentGermination
  20. 20. TOTAL PERCENT GERMINATION 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Cultivar A D-G C-F A BCD B BC CDE E-H BC C-FC-F FGH E-H D-G GH D-G H PercentGermination
  21. 21. GERMINATION OF SELECT CULTIVARS 10˚C 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Pure Select Penn A4 Crystal Bluelinks 007 Pureformance Pure Distinction Focus Tyee MacKenzie T-1 Villa E-H PercentGermination Day A A B BC BCD E-H FGH GH H BC
  22. 22. RESULTS • Pure Select = Penn A4 > Crystal Bluelinks =Pure Distinction = 007 = Pureformance Among Highest Total Germination • T-1 = Mackenzie = Focus = Tyee Among Lowest Total Germination • Villa had Poor Germination (<16%) – Fungal Contamination
  23. 23. RESULTS • At 10C, All Cultivars Began to Germinate ~11-12 Days After Incubation • Except for Penn A4, Germination Leveled Off Around 13-14 Days After Incubation • Penn A4 Leveled Off Around Day 15-16
  24. 24. CONCLUSION • Fungus Inhibited Villa • Germination Differences Among Cultivars Existed • Turfgrass Managers Can Use This Information to Select Cultivars for Seeding in Early Spring – Pure Select or Penn A4 • Consider Other Factors in Selection
  25. 25. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS • Students & Staff – Tim Lulis – Patrizia Rollo – Cameron Stephens

Notes de l'éditeur

  • This is a severe situation of ABG on CBG putting green.
    Quality reduced due to lack of uniformity, variation in color among species, and reduced smoothness.

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