ASTRONOMY (THE UNIVERSE)

John  Lester
John LesterTeacher à Mindanao State University
ASTRONOMY (THE UNIVERSE)
INFORMATION SOURCE:ASTRONOMY BASICS
Official Website:http://space.about.com/od/astronomybasics/
AUTHOR:John P. Millis, Ph.D
The Origin of the Universe

What is Astronomy?
What Is The Solar System?
What are the Different Types of Stars?
The Speed of Light
Heliocentric - Sun Centred - Universe
What Would Happen If The Sun Was Gone?
Star Magnitudes
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrology
Should Dwarf Planets Be Considered Planets?
Laws of Planetary Motion
Thermal Radiation
Composition of the Universe
What is Matter?
What is Hubble's Law?
Thermal Radiation
Planetology
What is the Cosmological Constant?
The Origin of the Universe

In 1959 a survey was conducted of scientists across
America concerning their understanding of the physical
sciences. One particular question asked “What is your
concept of the age of the Universe?” More than two thirds
of the scientists polled responded that there was no origin
of the Universe. They believed that the Universe was
eternal.Then five years later, in 1964, radio astronomers Arno
Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a microwave signal
buried in their data. They attempted to filter out the signal,
assuming that it was merely unwanted noise. However, they
soon realized what the signal actually was; they had
inadvertently
discovered
the
Cosmic
Microwave
Background (CMB). The CMB had been predicted by a
theory that few believed at the time called the Big Bang.
This discovery was the first evidence that the Universe had a
beginning.
The Origin of the Universe

The Universe went from very small, very dense,
and very hot to the cool expanse that we see
today. This theory is now referred to as the Big
Bang, a term first coined by Sir Fred Hoyle during a
British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) radio
broadcast in 1950.Interestingly, there really wasn’t
any sort of explosion (or bang) as the name
suggests, but rather the rapid expansion of space
and time. It is like blowing up a balloon, as you
blow air in, the exterior of the balloon expands
outward.
Big Bang Theory

The Big Bang is the scientific
theory that is most consistent
with observations of the past
and present states of the
universe, and it is widely
accepted within the scientific
community.
Big Bang Model

According to the Big Bang model, the Universe
expanded from an extremely dense and hot state and
continues to expand today. A common analogy
explains that space itself is expanding, carrying
galaxies with it, like spots on an inflating balloon. The
graphic scheme above is an artist's concept illustrating
the expansion of a portion of a flat universe.
Big Bang Theory Timeline:
Still a Lot to Learn
Credit: NASA


1

While much has been discovered about the creation and
evolution of the universe, there are enduring questions
that remain unanswered. Dark matter and dark energy
remain two of the biggest mysteries, but cosmologists
continue to probe the universe in hopes of better
understanding how it all began.

Dark Matter and Energy (Google)
Big Bang Theory Timeline:
The Expanding and Accelerating Universe
Credit: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, and Space Telescope
Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (University of the Basque
Country, Spain), and H. Ford



2In the 1920s, astronomer Edwin Hubble made a revolutionary discovery
about the universe. Using a newly constructed telescope at the Mount
Wilson Observatory in Los Angeles, Hubble observed that the universe is
not static, but rather is expanding.
Decades later, in 1998, the prolific space telescope named after the
famous astronomer, the Hubble Space Telescope, studied very distant
supernovas and found that, a long time ago, the universe was expanding
more slowly than it is today. This discovery was surprising because it
was long thought that the gravity of matter in the universe would slow
its expansion, or even cause it to contract.
Big Bang Theory Timeline:
The Invisible Stuff in the Universe
Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing
Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.



In the 1960s and 1970s, astronomers began thinking that there might be more mass
in the universe than what is visible. Vera Rubin, an astronomer at the Carnegie
Institution of Washington, observed the speeds of stars at various locations in
galaxies.
Basic Newtonian physics implies that stars on the outskirts of a galaxy would orbit
more slowly than stars at the center, but Rubin found no difference in the velocities
of stars farther out. In fact, she found that all stars in a galaxy seem to circle the
center at more or less the same speed.
This mysterious and invisible mass became known as dark matter. Dark matter is
inferred because of the gravitational pull it exerts on regular matter. One hypothesis
states the mysterious stuff could be formed by exotic particles that don't interact
with light or regular matter, which is why it has been so difficult to detect.
Dark matter is thought to make up 23 percent of the universe. In comparison, only 4
percent of the universe is composed of regular matter, which encompasses stars,
planets and people.
Big Bang Theory Timeline:
Birth of Our Solar System
Credit: NASA



Our solar system is estimated to have been born a little after 9 billion years after the
Big Bang, making it about 4.6 billion years old. According to current estimates, the
sun is one of more than 100 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy alone, and orbits
roughly 25,000 light-years from the galactic core.
Many scientists think the sun and the rest of our solar system was formed from a
giant, rotating cloud of gas and dust known as the solar nebula. As gravity caused
the nebula to collapse, it spun faster and flattened into a disk. During this phase,
most of the material was pulled toward the center to form the sun.
Big Bang Theory Timeline:

Let There Be Light



Credit: ESA/ LFI & HFI Consortia

380,000 years after the Big Bang, matter cooled enough
for electrons to combine with nuclei to form neutral
atoms. This phase is known as "recombination," and the
absorption of free electrons caused the universe to
become transparent. The light that was unleashed at
this time is detectable today in the form of radiation
from the cosmic microwave background.
Yet, the era of recombination was followed by a period
of darkness before stars and other bright objects were
formed.
The Big Bang was not an explosion in space, as the theory's name might
suggest. Instead, it was the appearance of space everywhere in the
universe, researchers have said. According to the Big Bang theory, the
universe was born as a very hot, very dense, single point in space.



Cosmologists are unsure what happened before this moment, but with
sophisticated space missions, ground-based telescopes and complicated
calculations, scientists have been working to paint a clearer picture of the
early universe and its formation.
A key part of this comes from observations of the cosmic microwave
background, which contains the afterglow of light and radiation left over
from the Big Bang. This relic of the Big Bang pervades the universe and is
visible to microwave detectors, which allows scientists to piece together
clues of the early universe.
In 2001, NASA launched the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe
(WMAP) mission to study the conditions as they existed in the early
universe by measuring radiation from the cosmic microwave
background. Among other discoveries, WMAP was able to determine the
age of the universe — about 13.7 billion years old.
THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE
Questions, Clarifications and Additional Information

Created By: John Lester Combong
Facebook.com/Jey-Ell Combong
Like us on Facebook:
facebook.com/Pag Dukha Ba Hindi Na Alam Ang Salitang Paknu?
1 sur 15

Contenu connexe

Tendances

Astronomy presentationAstronomy presentation
Astronomy presentationiraisg
25K vues20 diapositives
History of AstronomyHistory of Astronomy
History of AstronomyBob Smullen
59.4K vues80 diapositives

Tendances(20)

Astronomy presentationAstronomy presentation
Astronomy presentation
iraisg25K vues
History of Astronomy-AndieHistory of Astronomy-Andie
History of Astronomy-Andie
Janelle Wilson677 vues
ASTRONOMYASTRONOMY
ASTRONOMY
Fritz Earlin Therese Lapitaje Pondantes2.6K vues
Astronomy lesson thursdayAstronomy lesson thursday
Astronomy lesson thursday
Felix Bunagan2K vues
A. history of astronomyA. history of astronomy
A. history of astronomy
Jan Crisides Corrado4.4K vues
History of AstronomyHistory of Astronomy
History of Astronomy
Bob Smullen59.4K vues
Early AstronomersEarly Astronomers
Early Astronomers
Reni Jane8.8K vues
The History of AstronomyThe History of Astronomy
The History of Astronomy
064263459.1K vues
History Of AstronomyHistory Of Astronomy
History Of Astronomy
ilaria salvadori1.2K vues
The Birth of Modern AstronomyThe Birth of Modern Astronomy
The Birth of Modern Astronomy
Shane Riordan9K vues
Complete Astronomy Unit PPTComplete Astronomy Unit PPT
Complete Astronomy Unit PPT
West Hollow MS Ms. Gill44.4K vues
Basics of  the universeBasics of  the universe
Basics of the universe
Prof. A.Balasubramanian 2.7K vues
History Of Astronomy (Thru Newton)History Of Astronomy (Thru Newton)
History Of Astronomy (Thru Newton)
Oyster River HS1.6K vues
Modern AstronomyModern Astronomy
Modern Astronomy
Rhea Teressa Suba-an1K vues
Copernican revolution modernCopernican revolution modern
Copernican revolution modern
joverba1.7K vues
99 years modern astronomy99 years modern astronomy
99 years modern astronomy
Elaine Espiel1.1K vues
FAMOUS ASTRONOMERS and PLACESFAMOUS ASTRONOMERS and PLACES
FAMOUS ASTRONOMERS and PLACES
Joy Batang Ü2.1K vues
The UniverseThe Universe
The Universe
zainul20028.3K vues

En vedette

The UniverseThe Universe
The UniverseSarah Jones
25.3K vues64 diapositives
THE UNIVERSETHE UNIVERSE
THE UNIVERSEbelmariablanco
18.7K vues50 diapositives
GeologyGeology
GeologyVR M
26.4K vues56 diapositives
Stars, Galaxies, and the UniverseStars, Galaxies, and the Universe
Stars, Galaxies, and the Universemlong24
5.3K vues61 diapositives

En vedette(10)

The UniverseThe Universe
The Universe
Sarah Jones25.3K vues
THE UNIVERSETHE UNIVERSE
THE UNIVERSE
belmariablanco18.7K vues
GeologyGeology
Geology
VR M26.4K vues
Earth's formationEarth's formation
Earth's formation
Antonio Saorín Pérez-muelas8.2K vues
GeologyGeology
Geology
matcol13.3K vues
The universeThe universe
The universe
Shirley Valera15.3K vues
The Big Bang TheoryThe Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang Theory
Bigbangtheory4b23.5K vues
The Big Bang TheoryThe Big Bang Theory
The Big Bang Theory
rose_aries1574.1K vues

Similaire à ASTRONOMY (THE UNIVERSE)(20)

origin of universe & big bang theoryorigin of universe & big bang theory
origin of universe & big bang theory
salim lakade6.3K vues
What Is The Cosmological ArgumentWhat Is The Cosmological Argument
What Is The Cosmological Argument
Candace Garcia2 vues
The Big Bang theoryThe Big Bang theory
The Big Bang theory
Aishwarya Kalpana3.3K vues
Clusters Case StudyClusters Case Study
Clusters Case Study
Tiffany Barber2 vues
Bing BangBing Bang
Bing Bang
guest5ef4b3e549 vues
ThebigbangtheoryThebigbangtheory
Thebigbangtheory
Rahman Ash178 vues
thebigbangtheory-59725464thebigbangtheory-59725464
thebigbangtheory-59725464
Rahman Ash184 vues
the-bigbang-theorythe-bigbang-theory
the-bigbang-theory
Rahman Ash1.7K vues
ThebigbangtheoryThebigbangtheory
Thebigbangtheory
Rahman Ash707 vues
the-bigbang-theory-59725464the-bigbang-theory-59725464
the-bigbang-theory-59725464
Rahman Ash298 vues
ThebigbangtheoryThebigbangtheory
Thebigbangtheory
Rahman Ash148 vues
thebigbangtheory59725464thebigbangtheory59725464
thebigbangtheory59725464
Rahman Ash231 vues
The bigbang theory-59725464The bigbang theory-59725464
The bigbang theory-59725464
Rahman Ash888 vues
Universe revised.pdfUniverse revised.pdf
Universe revised.pdf
DrHafizKosar79 vues
Introduction to big bangIntroduction to big bang
Introduction to big bang
Sabiq Hafidz1.1K vues
Space and beyondSpace and beyond
Space and beyond
Manan Narang997 vues

Plus de John Lester

Kahalagahan ng PnanaliksikKahalagahan ng Pnanaliksik
Kahalagahan ng PnanaliksikJohn Lester
4.4K vues44 diapositives
PananaliksikPananaliksik
PananaliksikJohn Lester
483 vues12 diapositives
Disenyo ng PananaliksikDisenyo ng Pananaliksik
Disenyo ng PananaliksikJohn Lester
12.5K vues41 diapositives

Plus de John Lester(19)

Kahalagahan ng PnanaliksikKahalagahan ng Pnanaliksik
Kahalagahan ng Pnanaliksik
John Lester4.4K vues
PananaliksikPananaliksik
Pananaliksik
John Lester483 vues
Disenyo ng PananaliksikDisenyo ng Pananaliksik
Disenyo ng Pananaliksik
John Lester12.5K vues
Most famous paintings of all timeMost famous paintings of all time
Most famous paintings of all time
John Lester8.6K vues
Teorya ng pinagmulan ng wikaTeorya ng pinagmulan ng wika
Teorya ng pinagmulan ng wika
John Lester22.2K vues
ThesisThesis
Thesis
John Lester602 vues
PARAGRAPH AND ESSAYSPARAGRAPH AND ESSAYS
PARAGRAPH AND ESSAYS
John Lester536 vues
PARAGRAPH EMPHASISPARAGRAPH EMPHASIS
PARAGRAPH EMPHASIS
John Lester7.6K vues
EmphasisEmphasis
Emphasis
John Lester377 vues
THE ASTRONOMY GAMETHE ASTRONOMY GAME
THE ASTRONOMY GAME
John Lester691 vues
ASTRONOMYASTRONOMY
ASTRONOMY
John Lester608 vues
ASTRONOMY ''THE SUN''ASTRONOMY ''THE SUN''
ASTRONOMY ''THE SUN''
John Lester542 vues
ASTRONOMYASTRONOMY
ASTRONOMY
John Lester439 vues
ASTRONOMY (SOLAR SYSTEM)ASTRONOMY (SOLAR SYSTEM)
ASTRONOMY (SOLAR SYSTEM)
John Lester2.4K vues
ASTRONOMYASTRONOMY
ASTRONOMY
John Lester4.5K vues
Leading presentationLeading presentation
Leading presentation
John Lester12.2K vues
7 types of emotion7 types of emotion
7 types of emotion
John Lester846 vues

Dernier(20)

Streaming Quiz 2023.pdfStreaming Quiz 2023.pdf
Streaming Quiz 2023.pdf
Quiz Club NITW77 vues
Scope of Biochemistry.pptxScope of Biochemistry.pptx
Scope of Biochemistry.pptx
shoba shoba104 vues
ME_URBAN_WAR.pptME_URBAN_WAR.ppt
ME_URBAN_WAR.ppt
Norvell (Tex) DeAtkine117 vues
Part of speech in English LanguagePart of speech in English Language
Part of speech in English Language
JamaicaMacarayoBorga56 vues
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE_new.pptxSIMPLE PRESENT TENSE_new.pptx
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE_new.pptx
nisrinamadani2135 vues
class-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptxclass-3   Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
class-3 Derived lipids (steorids).pptx
Dr. Santhosh Kumar. N45 vues
Marilyn And Len Exchanges, EssayMarilyn And Len Exchanges, Essay
Marilyn And Len Exchanges, Essay
Melissa Dudas69 vues
STYP infopack.pdfSTYP infopack.pdf
STYP infopack.pdf
Fundacja Rozwoju Społeczeństwa Przedsiębiorczego125 vues
BYSC infopack.pdfBYSC infopack.pdf
BYSC infopack.pdf
Fundacja Rozwoju Społeczeństwa Przedsiębiorczego129 vues
GSoC 2024GSoC 2024
GSoC 2024
DeveloperStudentClub1041 vues
231112 (WR) v1  ChatGPT OEB 2023.pdf231112 (WR) v1  ChatGPT OEB 2023.pdf
231112 (WR) v1 ChatGPT OEB 2023.pdf
WilfredRubens.com67 vues
ICANNICANN
ICANN
RajaulKarim2053 vues

ASTRONOMY (THE UNIVERSE)

  • 2. INFORMATION SOURCE:ASTRONOMY BASICS Official Website:http://space.about.com/od/astronomybasics/ AUTHOR:John P. Millis, Ph.D
  • 3. The Origin of the Universe What is Astronomy? What Is The Solar System? What are the Different Types of Stars? The Speed of Light Heliocentric - Sun Centred - Universe What Would Happen If The Sun Was Gone? Star Magnitudes Astronomy, Astrophysics and Astrology
  • 4. Should Dwarf Planets Be Considered Planets? Laws of Planetary Motion Thermal Radiation Composition of the Universe What is Matter? What is Hubble's Law? Thermal Radiation Planetology What is the Cosmological Constant?
  • 5. The Origin of the Universe In 1959 a survey was conducted of scientists across America concerning their understanding of the physical sciences. One particular question asked “What is your concept of the age of the Universe?” More than two thirds of the scientists polled responded that there was no origin of the Universe. They believed that the Universe was eternal.Then five years later, in 1964, radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered a microwave signal buried in their data. They attempted to filter out the signal, assuming that it was merely unwanted noise. However, they soon realized what the signal actually was; they had inadvertently discovered the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The CMB had been predicted by a theory that few believed at the time called the Big Bang. This discovery was the first evidence that the Universe had a beginning.
  • 6. The Origin of the Universe The Universe went from very small, very dense, and very hot to the cool expanse that we see today. This theory is now referred to as the Big Bang, a term first coined by Sir Fred Hoyle during a British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) radio broadcast in 1950.Interestingly, there really wasn’t any sort of explosion (or bang) as the name suggests, but rather the rapid expansion of space and time. It is like blowing up a balloon, as you blow air in, the exterior of the balloon expands outward.
  • 7. Big Bang Theory The Big Bang is the scientific theory that is most consistent with observations of the past and present states of the universe, and it is widely accepted within the scientific community.
  • 8. Big Bang Model According to the Big Bang model, the Universe expanded from an extremely dense and hot state and continues to expand today. A common analogy explains that space itself is expanding, carrying galaxies with it, like spots on an inflating balloon. The graphic scheme above is an artist's concept illustrating the expansion of a portion of a flat universe.
  • 9. Big Bang Theory Timeline: Still a Lot to Learn Credit: NASA  1 While much has been discovered about the creation and evolution of the universe, there are enduring questions that remain unanswered. Dark matter and dark energy remain two of the biggest mysteries, but cosmologists continue to probe the universe in hopes of better understanding how it all began. Dark Matter and Energy (Google)
  • 10. Big Bang Theory Timeline: The Expanding and Accelerating Universe Credit: NASA, ESA, D. Coe (NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory/California Institute of Technology, and Space Telescope Science Institute), N. Benitez (Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia, Spain), T. Broadhurst (University of the Basque Country, Spain), and H. Ford  2In the 1920s, astronomer Edwin Hubble made a revolutionary discovery about the universe. Using a newly constructed telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory in Los Angeles, Hubble observed that the universe is not static, but rather is expanding. Decades later, in 1998, the prolific space telescope named after the famous astronomer, the Hubble Space Telescope, studied very distant supernovas and found that, a long time ago, the universe was expanding more slowly than it is today. This discovery was surprising because it was long thought that the gravity of matter in the universe would slow its expansion, or even cause it to contract.
  • 11. Big Bang Theory Timeline: The Invisible Stuff in the Universe Credit: X-ray: NASA/CXC/CfA/M.Markevitch et al.; Optical: NASA/STScI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.; Lensing Map: NASA/STScI; ESO WFI; Magellan/U.Arizona/D.Clowe et al.  In the 1960s and 1970s, astronomers began thinking that there might be more mass in the universe than what is visible. Vera Rubin, an astronomer at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, observed the speeds of stars at various locations in galaxies. Basic Newtonian physics implies that stars on the outskirts of a galaxy would orbit more slowly than stars at the center, but Rubin found no difference in the velocities of stars farther out. In fact, she found that all stars in a galaxy seem to circle the center at more or less the same speed. This mysterious and invisible mass became known as dark matter. Dark matter is inferred because of the gravitational pull it exerts on regular matter. One hypothesis states the mysterious stuff could be formed by exotic particles that don't interact with light or regular matter, which is why it has been so difficult to detect. Dark matter is thought to make up 23 percent of the universe. In comparison, only 4 percent of the universe is composed of regular matter, which encompasses stars, planets and people.
  • 12. Big Bang Theory Timeline: Birth of Our Solar System Credit: NASA  Our solar system is estimated to have been born a little after 9 billion years after the Big Bang, making it about 4.6 billion years old. According to current estimates, the sun is one of more than 100 billion stars in our Milky Way galaxy alone, and orbits roughly 25,000 light-years from the galactic core. Many scientists think the sun and the rest of our solar system was formed from a giant, rotating cloud of gas and dust known as the solar nebula. As gravity caused the nebula to collapse, it spun faster and flattened into a disk. During this phase, most of the material was pulled toward the center to form the sun.
  • 13. Big Bang Theory Timeline: Let There Be Light  Credit: ESA/ LFI & HFI Consortia 380,000 years after the Big Bang, matter cooled enough for electrons to combine with nuclei to form neutral atoms. This phase is known as "recombination," and the absorption of free electrons caused the universe to become transparent. The light that was unleashed at this time is detectable today in the form of radiation from the cosmic microwave background. Yet, the era of recombination was followed by a period of darkness before stars and other bright objects were formed.
  • 14. The Big Bang was not an explosion in space, as the theory's name might suggest. Instead, it was the appearance of space everywhere in the universe, researchers have said. According to the Big Bang theory, the universe was born as a very hot, very dense, single point in space.  Cosmologists are unsure what happened before this moment, but with sophisticated space missions, ground-based telescopes and complicated calculations, scientists have been working to paint a clearer picture of the early universe and its formation. A key part of this comes from observations of the cosmic microwave background, which contains the afterglow of light and radiation left over from the Big Bang. This relic of the Big Bang pervades the universe and is visible to microwave detectors, which allows scientists to piece together clues of the early universe. In 2001, NASA launched the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) mission to study the conditions as they existed in the early universe by measuring radiation from the cosmic microwave background. Among other discoveries, WMAP was able to determine the age of the universe — about 13.7 billion years old.
  • 15. THE ORIGIN OF THE UNIVERSE Questions, Clarifications and Additional Information Created By: John Lester Combong Facebook.com/Jey-Ell Combong Like us on Facebook: facebook.com/Pag Dukha Ba Hindi Na Alam Ang Salitang Paknu?