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What can L1 classes learn from professional speaking courses

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https://www.arle2019.com/

L1 Literature education: Quintessential or perhaps inconvenient for future engineers?

L1 teachers often encourage their students to read as much as possible, and many good reasons can be given to support this behavior. For instance, having read a lot of fiction during childhood and adolescence should have a positive impact on academic success in higher education (Mol & Bus, 2011). However, research studies that investigated this relationship usually recruited students from social sciences, and it is thus yet unknown if this positive impact of reading can also be retrieved for students from other faculties. In this respect, this paper addresses the following research question: regarding non-social sciences students, what is the impact of a history of reading dxon their academic results? 388 first-year civil engineering students from a major university in Flanders (Belgium) completed tests on word knowledge, activity preference (Stanovich, West, & Harrison, 1995), reading enjoyment (Mol & Jolles, 2011) and print exposure, i.e. having being exposed to fiction, or more specifically an Author Recognition Test (Mol & Bus, 2011) at the beginning of the academic year 2018-2019. It is widely acknowledged that word knowledge is strongly related to reading comprehension (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1997), and as a result a word knowledge test could be employed as a more feasible alternative to the more time-consuming reading comprehension tests. In addition to personal variables (such as age, gender, type of secondary education, first language, special needs), the test scores were linked to the students’ 1st term academic results from February 2019. We will examine the students’ academic results by conducting a GLM Univariate ANCOVA in which we enter word knowledge, reading motivation, and print exposure as the independent variables and the personal variables as covariates. This paper discusses the conclusions from this project and comments on the implications they have on the future of L1 literature education.

References

Cunningham, A. E., & Stanovich, K. (1997). Early reading acquisition and its relation to reading experience and ability 10 years later. Developmental Psychology, 33, 934–945.
Mol, S. E., & Jolles, J. (2014). Reading enjoyment amongst non-leisure readers can affect achievement in secondary school. Frontiers in psychology, 5, 1214.
Mol, S., & Bus, A. (2011). To read or not to read: A meta-analysis of print exposure from infancy to early adulthood. Psychological Bulletin, Mar, 137(2), 267-296. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021890.
Stanovich, K.E., West, R.F. & Harrison, M.R. (1995). Knowledge growth and maintenance across the life span: The role of print exposure. Developmental Psychology, 31, 811–826.

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What can L1 classes learn from professional speaking courses

  1. 1. Jordi Casteleyn Antwerp School of Education
 jordi.casteleyn@uantwerpen.be jordi_casteleyn
 www.slideshare.net/jordi013 What can L1 classes learn 
 from professional speaking courses?
  2. 2. L1 classes in secondary education • Limited research into training and development 
 of L1 public speaking • Limited time to practice this competence Professional speaking courses • Highly popular • Seemingly unlimited time to practice this competence Wurth, Tigelaar, Hulshof, de Jong, & Admiraal, W. (2018)
  3. 3. how to battle public speaking anxiety?
  4. 4. how to battle public speaking anxiety? systematic desensitization 
 which changes the unconscious association between public speaking and anxiety cognitive modification
 which replaces 
 problematic public 
 speaking cognitions 
 with more positive views on public speaking skills training Bodie (2010)
  5. 5. L1 classes in secondary education • Limited research into training and development 
 of L1 public speaking • Limited time to practice this competence Professional speaking courses • Highly popular • Seemingly unlimited time to practice this competence Wurth, Tigelaar, Hulshof, de Jong, & Admiraal, W. (2018)
  6. 6. the techniques of theatre are the techniques of communicating “
  7. 7. Yes, and … Make statements There are no mistakes Only opportunities “
  8. 8. Improv is an art form, not science“
  9. 9. how to battle public speaking stress? systematic desensitization 
 which changes the unconscious association between public speaking and stress cognitive modification
 which replaces 
 problematic public 
 speaking cognitions 
 with more positive views on public speaking skills training Bodie (2010) = improv (theatre)
  10. 10. Research question What is the impact of following an improv course 
 on the public speaking competence 
 and public speaking stress of its participants?
  11. 11. Research procedure • 3 professional improvisational workshops
 10 weeks, 3.5 hours per week • 3 groups (n=33) 
 Ghent 1 (n=14), Antwerp 1 (n=9), & Antwerp 2 (n=10)
 • 4 test moments (week 1, 4, 7 & 10) • Participation on voluntary basis • Each test moment: • Public Speaking Anxiety Questionnaire
 Reliability: t1 (.92), t2 (.86), t3 (.91) and t4 (.96) • Public Speaking Task: 1 min
 • Semi-structured interviews with participants after week 10
 Discussing a video Hook, Smith, & Valentiner (2008) Casteleyn (2018 & in press)
  12. 12. Public Speaking Task Casteleyn (2018 & in press)
  13. 13. http://www.d-pac.be/ Comparative judgement: D-Pac
  14. 14. • 102 representations 
 (i.e. 102 videos of public speaking tasks) • 5 assessors = 5 trainee teachers 
 same quality assessment as conducted 
 by well-experienced university college lecturers
 • 2124 completed comparisons • (on average) 424.8 comparisons per assessor • (on average) 41.65 comparisons per representation
 • Reliability of final ranking: 0.90 Comparative judgement: D-Pac Casteleyn (2018) Lesterhuis, Verhavert, Coertjens, Donche, & De Maeyer (2017)
  15. 15. -6 -4,5 -3 -1,5 0 1,5 3 4,5
  16. 16. Descriptive results public speaking public speaking stress n M (SD) n M (SD) t1 30 .00 (1.58) 29 3.01 (1.12) t2 28 -.06 (1.70) 22 2.94 (.85) t3 23 -.33 (1.45) 19 2.78 (.86) t4 21 .01 (1.74) 18 2.68 (.98) Note • as per usual, inconsistent presence during workshops
 as a result, difference in number of participants per test moment • research assistants forgot to test public public stress in one group at t2, t3 and t4
  17. 17. Statistical analyses • Public speaking competence
 No significant difference between test moments
 F(1,13)=.75, p=.40
 No significant difference between between groups
 F(1,12)=.16, p=.64
 • Public speaking at t1 explains about 80% of variation of public speaking at t2 and t3, but this decreases at t4.
 R Change: t2: .75, t3: .84, t4: .60
  18. 18. Statistical analyses • Public speaking stress
 No significant difference between between groups
 F(1,12)=1.22, p=.29
 Significant difference between test moments, 
 F(1,13)=132.63, p=.00
 more specifically between test moment 2 and 4.
 t(17)=2.99, p=.008
 • Public speaking stress explains about 30% of variation of public speaking at each test moment
 Change R: t1: .36, t2: .35, t3: .20, t4:.36

  19. 19. Qualitative research • “Why did you choose to do this course?” • “What is, according to you, the take home message of this course?” • “Have you had any experience with public speaking before starting this course?”
  20. 20. Qualitative research: Three profiles • Clear increase
 “I’m in the marketing department, and it is useful to get learn some new techniques when you have to give a presentation”
 “meeting new people is difficult”
 “I started this workshop to battle my fear of failure" • No change
 “I have always been interested in doing theatre since I was young, so this is a great opportunity to kick ratio out of life”
 “just having fun” • Unsteady growth
 “quality of speaking depended on the mood I was in”
 “a method to get out of daily life”
 “I have never been good at public speaking”
  21. 21. Limitations • Participation on voluntary basis • Authentic research setting: Absence of participants • Specific focus on public speaking: 
 e.g. no interaction, no preparation • Impact of professional speaking course coach? • No control condition • Time-consuming & difficult to fit into strict schedule of workshops
  22. 22. Conclusions • Public speaking stress is an important factor in the quality of public speaking. • Public speaking stress can be decreased, but it is a slow process, and it does not automatically translate into an increase in the quality of public speaking. • Public speaking competence is slow to change, 
 but professional speaking courses seem to break a pattern. • Initial focus on public speaking by participant seems to help to fully experience the potential impact of a professional speaking course.
  23. 23. Jordi Casteleyn Antwerp School of Education
 jordi.casteleyn@uantwerpen.be jordi_casteleyn
 www.slideshare.net/jordi013 What can L1 classes learn 
 from professional speaking courses?
  24. 24. List of references Bodie, G. (2010). A racing heart, rattling knees, and ruminative thoughts: Defining, explaining, and treating public speaking anxiety. Communication Education, 59(1), 70-105. Casteleyn, J. (2018). Playing with improv (isational) theatre to battle public speaking stress. Research in Drama Education: The Journal of Applied Theatre and Performance, 1-8. Casteleyn, J. (in press). Improving public speaking in secondary education – Exploring the potential of an improvisation training. L1-educational studies in language and literature  Hook, J., Smith, C., Valentiner, D. (2008). A short-form of the personal report of confidence as a speaker. Personality and Individual Differences, 44, 1306-1313. Lesterhuis, M., Verhavert, S., Coertjens, L., Donche, V., & De Maeyer, S. (2017). “Comparative Judgement as a Promising Alternative to Score Competences”. In: Cano, E. & Ion, G. (2017). Innovative Practices for Higher Education Assessment and Measurement. Hershey, PA, USA: IGI Global. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-5225-0531-0.ch007 Wurth, A., Tigelaar, D., Hulshof, H., de Jong, J., & Admiraal, W. (2018). A literature review of feedback and teaching oracy in L1-classes in secondary education. Paper presented at ARLE (The International Association for Research in L1 Education), SIG Literacies & Oracies, Seminar Focus on Oracy. 2018. Leiden, Nederland.

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