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Personality development

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Personality development

  2. 2. It is the totality of the person and not merely external looks, but character, behavioral traits and attitude towards life.
  3. 3. A man is identified by his personality – public image. It is the totality of the person and not merely external looks, but character, behavioral traits and attitude towards life.
  5. 5. Personality development – is the improvement of behavioral traits such as communication skills, interpersonal relationships, attitude towards life and restoring our ethics.
  6. 6. PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT •is enhancing and dressing one’s outer and inner self or the organized pattern of behaviors and attitudes that makes a person distinctive.
  7. 7. • Every one of us has a distinct character that can be developed, polished and refined. • This process includes 1.boosting one’s confidence, 2.improving communication skills, 3.broadening ones knowledge, 4.developing skills, 5.learning fine etiquettes and manners, 6.adding style and grace to the way one looks, talks and walks and 7.overall imbibing oneself with positiveness, liveliness and peacefulness.
  8. 8. RECAP • What is Personality Development? • What are the processes involved in developing one’s personality?
  9. 9. THEORIES
  10. 10. JEAN PIAGET a Swiss psychologist, made the most intensive study of children’s cognitive development. He came up with a series of distinct stages as children mature.
  11. 11. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1. Sensorimotor stage – during this period, infants are busy discovering that relationships between their actions and the consequences of these actions. 2. Preoperational stage – between two to seven years, at this stage, the child learn to use language to represent objects by using words. 3. Concrete Operational stage – seven to twelve years, by now the child can think logically about objects and events. 4. Formal Operational stage – ages twelve years and up, the child now thinks logically and becomes concerned with the hypothetical, the future and ideological problems.
  12. 12. ADAM SFERRA •In Adam Sferra’s Personality Development and Public Relation book, intelligent behavior defines the general capacity of the individual to think reasonably and to act with good judgment. It has five factors:
  13. 13. FACTORS 1. The capacity to learn is determine by heredity and environment. 2. Capacity for abstract thinking is he capacity to think in terms of concepts. 3. Mental alertness is quickness of observation, understanding and action. 4. Sound judgment is the result of wisdom, common sense. 5. General adaptability is the all around ability to fit successfully into the variety of situations.
  14. 14. ERIK ERIKSON • a noted psychologist calls development as a continuous process extending from birth through adulthood.   • He calls them psychosocial stages. They range from the first year of life, second year, third through fifth years, six year to puberty, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and the aging years. • Aging years, beginning 65, brings new problems. • Middle adulthood, ages 40-65, these years constitute the most productive period.
  15. 15. SIGMUND FREUD • Sigmund Freud, developed the psychoanalytic theory that our actions are determined by inner forces and impulses that often operate at an unconscious level. Freud’s Structural Model of Personality • According to Freud, three elements of personality —known as the id, the ego, and the superego— work together to create complex human behaviors.
  16. 16. ID • The id is the only part of personality that is present at birth. • The id acts as the driving force behind personality. • It not only strives to fulfill our most basic urges, many of which are tied directly to survival, it also provides all of the energy necessary to drive personality. • During infancy, before the other components of personality begin to form, children are ruled entirely by the id. • Satisfying basic needs for food, drink, and comfort are of the utmost importance. As we grow older, it would obviously be quite problematic if we acted out to satisfy the needs of the id whenever we felt an urge, need, or desire
  17. 17. EGO • The ego is part of personality that mediates the demands of the id, the superego and reality. The ego prevents us from acting on our basic urges (created by the id), but also works to achieve a balance with our moral and idealistic standards (created by the superego). • While the ego operates in both the preconscious and conscious, it's strong ties to the id means that it also operates in the unconscious. • The ego operates based on the reality principle, which works to satisfy the id's desires in a manner that is realistic and socially appropriate.
  18. 18. SUPEREGO • The superego is the component of personality composed of our internalized ideals that we have acquired from our parents and from society. • The superego works to suppress the urges of the id and tries to make the ego behave morally, rather than realistically. • The ideals that contribute to the formation of the superego include not just the morals and values that we have learned from our parents, but also the ideas about right and wrong that we acquire from society and the culture in which we live.
  19. 19. SUPEREGO • Two components: the ego ideal and the conscience • The ego ideal is made up of all of our rules for good behavior. • The conscience is composed of the rules for which behaviors are considered bad. • When we engage in actions that conform to the ego ideal, we feel good about ourselves or proud of our accomplishments. When we do things that our conscience considers bad, we experience feelings of guilt.
  20. 20. • The primary action of the superego is to entirely suppress any urges or desires of the id that are considered wrong or socially unacceptable. It also tries to force the ego to act morally rather than realistically. Finally, the superego strives for moral perfections, without taking reality into account.
  21. 21. ABRAHAM MASLOW • Abraham Maslow, is a leader in the development of humanistic psychology, classified motives and constructed a hierarchy of needs, ascending from the basic biological needs to the most complex psychological motives.
  22. 22. GOOD PERSONALITY Attributes of a person with “Good personality”? Good physique Pleasing manners Personal and Professional integrity Trustworthiness and reliability • Good control over body and mind
  23. 23. HEALTHY BODY
  24. 24. HEALTHY BODY Nutrition Personal Hygiene Exercising Traditional methods (Yoga) Modern methods (Gym, aerobics, etc.) Walking and jogging Disciplining of daily routines is a must! Mind control is essential for a healthy body.
  25. 25. WHEN IS MIND UNHEALTHY? Agitated mind is unhealthy What agitates human mind? Not getting what one desires Getting what one dislikes Uncontrolled emotions in the mind Continuous accumulation of such likes and dislikes stresses the mind out. Stress agitates the mind • Stressed mind is unhealthy
  26. 26. HEALTHY MIND Stress-free mind is healthy and calm Such calm mind can be controlled more easily • De-stressing the mind is needed: Prevention of accumulation of day-to- day complexes Clearing the stockpile of stored complexities HOW?
  27. 27. CULTIVATING A HEALTHY MIND Documented human experience of the past: Non-reactive observation of oneself mitigates the strength of these complexes Continuous awareness makes this a continuous process: results in clearing the stockpile Different paths for removal of accumulated complexes: Path of service Path of intellectual analysis Path of devotion Path of meditation
  28. 28. SUMMARY Good Personality arises from a healthy body and healthy mind Healthy body needs a healthy mind Healthy mind can be achieved by preventing accumulation of complexes in mind Non-reactive self-observation de- stresses the mind This is possible through several paths: paths of service, intellectual analysis, devotion or meditation
  29. 29. Know your personality Character traits Behavioral traits Attitudinal Change Integrity Interpersonal Skills Positive Attitude Acceptance Communication Skills Win-win situation Discipline Leadership Qualities Keep the end in mind Dedication Stress and Time management Synergies
  30. 30. TYPES OF PERSONALITY Perfectionists Helpers Romantics Achievers Asserters Questioners Adventurers Observers and Peacemakers.
  31. 31. CONT.. Perfectionists – are realistic, conscientious and principled Ex: Narayan Murthy – Infosys. Helpers – are warn, concerned, nurturing and sensitive to other people’s needs Ex: Mother Teresa. Achievers – are eneagetic, optimistic, self assured and goal oriented Ex: Sachin Tendulkar Romantics – have sensitive feelings and are warm and perceptive Ex: M. F. Hussain – great Indian Painter Observers – have a need for knowledge and are introverted, curious, analytical and insightful. Ex: Amartya Sen - Great economist
  32. 32. CONT.. Questioners – are responsible and trustworthy. Ex: Shabana Azmi Adventurers – are energetic, lively and optimistic. They want to contribute to the world Ex: Vijay Mallya - NRI businessman. Asserters – are direct, self-reliant, self confident and protective. Ex: T. N. Seshan - Chief Election Commissioner. Peacemakers – are receptive, good-natured and supportive. They seek union with others and the world around them
  33. 33. IT CAN HELP IN THE FOLLOWING WAYS • To learn the business etiquette of exchanging cards, wishing on first meeting, bowing when you are visiting Japan and the like. • Voice modulation, diction, communication skills, phone etiquette, hygiene, empowerment skills, time management and positive thinking. • To cultivate a friendly, interactive manner. Essentials like giving a speech, voice development and modulation of voice. • It enhances the sense of confidence and self-worth.
  34. 34. PERSONALITY TEST This can identify: Value system Emotional reaction to a critical situation Moods and characteristic behaviour traits. Maturity in handling a crisis. Ability to adjust himself to the stress of day-to-day executive lifestyle. Self-confidence, personal ambition, emotional control and sociability etc.  
  35. 35. BODY LANGUAGE Body language communicates much more than words. Body language signals are called ‘leakages’ because you may try to tell something, but the truth will leak out visually.
  36. 36. AVOID SUCH BODY LANGUAGE • Crossed arms or legs • Carrying books or papers across your chest • Slumped posture • Sitting perched on the edge of the chair • Wringing hands • Tapping foot • Rocking legs • Drumming fingers • Biting nails
  37. 37. CONT.. • Fiddling with the jewelry or hair • Covering your mouth with your hand while talking • Rocking in your chair • Scratching a lot • Clearing your throat too much • Straightening your tie • Playing with watch or cufflinks • Hands in the pocket
  38. 38. LOOKING AGGRESSIVE • Arms folded across the chest • Staring • Pointing • Making a fist • Leaning over someone
  39. 39. BEHAVING RUDELY Working when someone is talking to you Puffing Smirking Whispering Cracking knuckles Grooming yourself’ Standing too close Packing up folders and papers well before the meeting is over Shaking hands too hard or limp handshakes
  40. 40. CONT.. Yawning when the meeting is in progress Looking at your watch repeatedly Blinking a lot Fiddling with rings, watches, earrings and chains Tapping or clicking pens Playing with paper clips Jingling money in pocket Picking at fingernails Twiddling bits of hair Smoking
  41. 41. LEADERSHIP QUALITIES Courage Self-control A keen sense of justice and fairness Definiteness of plans The habit of doing more than being paid for A pleasing personality Sympathy and understanding Mastery of details Willingness to assume full responsibility Co-operation
  42. 42. PERSONAL QUALITIES • accurate • adaptable • astute • can work under pressure • careful • committed • competent • cooperative • courteous
  43. 43. CONT.. • decisive • dedicated • energetic • methodical • meticulous • orderly • organized • positive • practical
  44. 44. CONT.. • extrovert • flexible • friendly • get on well with other people • good communicator • good sense of humour • good time-keeper • hard working • imaginative
  45. 45. CONT.. • independent worker • lively • logical • loyal • self confident • self motivated • sensitive • thorough • thoughtful • vigilant • work well with others
  46. 46. Determinants of personality Biological factors Family & Social factors Cultural factors Situational factors Heredity Brain Physical features 1.Socialisation process (Behaviour from family & social group) 2. Identification process ( Selecting ideal person) 3. Home environment (Brought up) 4.Social Group. 1. Independence- Australia 2. Aggression- North Korea 3. Competition- India 4. Co-operation- Japan 1.Positive behaviour 2.Negative behaviour
  47. 47. TYPE A AND B Type A Personality •Always moving, walking, and eating rapidly. •Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place. •Strive to think or do two or more things at once. •Cannot cope with leisure time. •Are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type B Personality •Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience. •Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. •Play for fun & relaxation, instead of exhibit their superiority at any cost. Can relax without guilt.
  48. 48. BIG 5 IN SHORT… Personality Factors Characters 1. Conscientiousness 2. Agreeableness 3. Neuroticism 4. Openness 5. Extroversion Careful, dependable and self disciplined Courteous, good natured, empathic and caring. Poised, secure and calm. Sensitive, flexible, creative and curious. Outgoing and cautious.
  49. 49. THANK YOU Prof. Sneh Anand, Dr. P.V.M. Rao and Dr. M.R.Ravi National Resource Centre for Value Education in Engineering (NRCVEE), IIT Delhi http://psychology.about.com/od/personalitydevelopment/a/personality-dev.htm