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FoundationFoundation is the base ingredient of ais the base ingredient of a
salad. Leafy greens such as romaine,salad. Leafy greens such as romaine,
bibb, Boston, or iceberg lettuce oftenbibb, Boston, or iceberg lettuce often
serve as a salad’s foundation.serve as a salad’s foundation.
Used whole or cut into a chiffonade, theUsed whole or cut into a chiffonade, the
lettuce leaves provide a base for otherlettuce leaves provide a base for other
salad ingredients. Specially preparedsalad ingredients. Specially prepared
vegetables or fruits, such as a juliennevegetables or fruits, such as a julienne
of red pepper or a poached and slicedof red pepper or a poached and sliced
pear, sometimes function as a salad’spear, sometimes function as a salad’s
BodyBody -- main ingredients of a saladmain ingredients of a salad
make up its body. The bodymake up its body. The body
creates the salad’s identity andcreates the salad’s identity and
often gives the salad its name.often gives the salad its name.
Garden-fresh vegetables, forGarden-fresh vegetables, for
example, form the body of aexample, form the body of a
garden salad. The body of a proteingarden salad. The body of a protein
salad might be meat, poultry, fish,salad might be meat, poultry, fish,
or legumes.or legumes.
GarnishGarnish - contributes to a salad’s visual
appeal and very often to its flavor. A garnish
should be colorful, edible, and the same
temperature as the salad itself.
Most important, the garnish should be simple
so that it does not overpower the
presentation of the salad.
Common salad garnishes include herbs, hard-
cooked eggs, olives, fruits, cheese, and nuts.
Some salads, such as fruit salads, do not
require a garnish or dressing.
DressingDressing - is a sauce that complements
a salad’s flavor and sometimes binds the
salad ingredients together. Salad
dressings fall into three groups:
VinaigrettesVinaigrettes - Temporary emulsion.- Temporary emulsion.
Cream-style or fattyCream-style or fatty – Permanent– Permanent
SimpleSimple - oil and vinegar, flavored oils.- oil and vinegar, flavored oils.
EMULSION –– A mixture of two unmixable ingredients.A mixture of two unmixable ingredients.
EmulsificationEmulsification is another method of thickening sauces.is another method of thickening sauces.
Emulsions are made by mixing two or more liquid ingredientsEmulsions are made by mixing two or more liquid ingredients
that normally do not combine, with the aid of an emulsifyingthat normally do not combine, with the aid of an emulsifying
Three kinds of EmulsionThree kinds of Emulsion
PermanentPermanent -- A permanent emulsion usually lasts several daysA permanent emulsion usually lasts several days
or more.or more.
Ex: MayonaiseEx: Mayonaise
Semi-permanent -- A semi-permanent emulsion lasts aA semi-permanent emulsion lasts a
shorter period of time than a permanent emulsion, usuallyshorter period of time than a permanent emulsion, usually
several hours.several hours.
Ex: HollandaiseEx: Hollandaise
Temporary -- A temporary emulsion lasts the shortest periodA temporary emulsion lasts the shortest period
of time, usually only several minutes. A temporary emulsion isof time, usually only several minutes. A temporary emulsion is
classified as such because it doesclassified as such because it does notnot contain an emulsifyingcontain an emulsifying
Ex: VinaigretteEx: Vinaigrette
Vinaigrette DressingsVinaigrette Dressings (Temporary)
is a temporary emulsion of oil and vinegar.is a temporary emulsion of oil and vinegar.
The mixture is temporary because oil andThe mixture is temporary because oil and
vinegar have a natural tendency to separatevinegar have a natural tendency to separate..
Cream-style or fattyCream-style or fatty –– (Permanent)(Permanent)
Is a permanent emulsion of creamy dressingIs a permanent emulsion of creamy dressing
such as; mayonnaise, yoghurt, cream orsuch as; mayonnaise, yoghurt, cream or
cheese base.cheese base.
Salad DressingSalad Dressing
Simple DressingsSimple Dressings - The simplest salad- The simplest salad
dressings are not emulsions or blendeddressings are not emulsions or blended
mixtures. They are simple liquids thatmixtures. They are simple liquids that
contribute moisture and flavor to salads.contribute moisture and flavor to salads.
Lemon juiceLemon juice -- on its own, freshly squeezedon its own, freshly squeezed
lemon juice is an acidic dressing that gives alemon juice is an acidic dressing that gives a
tang to salad.tang to salad.
Olive oilOlive oil - more flavorful than vegetable oils,- more flavorful than vegetable oils,
olive oil is a fruity, aromatic dressing whenolive oil is a fruity, aromatic dressing when
used alone on a salad.used alone on a salad.
Flavored vinegarsFlavored vinegars -- vinegars flavored with fruit,vinegars flavored with fruit,
herbs, or garlic are popular dressings becauseherbs, or garlic are popular dressings because
they add vivid flavor to salads but no fat.they add vivid flavor to salads but no fat.
Salad GreensSalad Greens
A variety of greens are available for use in salads.A variety of greens are available for use in salads.
Although all are leafy vegetables, not all are green.Although all are leafy vegetables, not all are green.
More tender greens such as arugula and butterheadMore tender greens such as arugula and butterhead
are preferred over greens such as collards andare preferred over greens such as collards and
chard that require cooking to make them morechard that require cooking to make them more
Baby varieties of sturdier greens not usually used inBaby varieties of sturdier greens not usually used in
salads, such as beet greens and mustard greens,salads, such as beet greens and mustard greens,
also make excellent additions.also make excellent additions.
Salad greens can be classified into two generalSalad greens can be classified into two general
mild greens and flavor-adding greens.mild greens and flavor-adding greens.
flavor-adding greens can be either spicy orflavor-adding greens can be either spicy or
Types of Salad Greens
Traditional Greens:Traditional Greens: Have a mildHave a mild
flavor; can be used by themselves orflavor; can be used by themselves or
combined with other greens.combined with other greens.
Flavor-Adding Greens:Flavor-Adding Greens: Classified asClassified as
greens although they may be red,greens although they may be red,
yellow, brown, or white.yellow, brown, or white.
Herbs & Other Specialty Items
Radicchio:Radicchio: A cabbage like plantA cabbage like plant
with a slightly bitter, red leaf;with a slightly bitter, red leaf;
adds color and flavor to freshadds color and flavor to fresh
Mesclun:Mesclun: A popular mix of babyA popular mix of baby
leaves of lettuces and other moreleaves of lettuces and other more
flavorful greens.flavorful greens.
Edible Flowers:Edible Flowers: Add unusualAdd unusual
flavors, dashes of bright color,flavors, dashes of bright color,
and interesting textures to salads.and interesting textures to salads.
Salad GreensSalad Greens
OAK LEAFOAK LEAF LOLLO ROSSOLOLLO ROSSO
GREEN ICEGREEN ICE
ROMAINE OR COS LETTUCEROMAINE OR COS LETTUCE
A dressing is both a sauce and a
seasoning. As such, it should complement
the flavors and textures of the salad
ingredients, not dominate them.
1.1. Separate the leaves andSeparate the leaves and
submerge them in cold watersubmerge them in cold water
several times to rinse off all dirtseveral times to rinse off all dirt
and grit.and grit.
2.2. Lift greens out of the water andLift greens out of the water and
dry the leaves thoroughly withdry the leaves thoroughly with
paper towels.paper towels.
3.3. Cut or tear the greens into bite-Cut or tear the greens into bite-
size pieces.size pieces.
Storing GreensStoring Greens
Keep greens in their originalKeep greens in their original
Store greens 3 to 4 degreesStore greens 3 to 4 degrees
above freezing.above freezing.
Keep greens away fromKeep greens away from
ripening fruits.ripening fruits.
TYPES OF SALADTYPES OF SALAD
Green SaladsGreen Salads – leafy greens– leafy greens
Side SaladsSide Salads - made from vegetables,- made from vegetables,
potatoes, grains, pastas, legumes.potatoes, grains, pastas, legumes.
Composed SaladsComposed Salads –– are made byare made by
carefully arranging items on a plate,carefully arranging items on a plate,
rather than tossing them together.rather than tossing them together.
Desserts SaladsDesserts Salads - salads served as- salads served as
dessert are often sweet and usuallydessert are often sweet and usually
contain fruits, nuts, and/or gelatin.contain fruits, nuts, and/or gelatin.
Dressings for dessert salads mayDressings for dessert salads may
incorporate cream or liqueur.incorporate cream or liqueur.
TYPE OF SALADSTYPE OF SALADS
(By Serving)(By Serving)
Appetizer SaladAppetizer Salad – Served as the first dish– Served as the first dish
of the course or before the entrée.of the course or before the entrée.
Accompaniment SaladAccompaniment Salad – Served with the– Served with the
main dish or entrée. Usually made from,main dish or entrée. Usually made from,
pasta, legumes and potatoes.pasta, legumes and potatoes.
Main-course SaladMain-course Salad – Served as a main– Served as a main
Separate Course SaladSeparate Course Salad – Served after the– Served after the
main dish.main dish.
Dessert SaladDessert Salad – Served as a dessert– Served as a dessert
usually contains fruit and syrup.usually contains fruit and syrup.
TYPES OF SALADTYPES OF SALAD
(By method of preparation)(By method of preparation)
Simple Salad / Green SaladsSimple Salad / Green Salads – leafy– leafy
Composed SaladsComposed Salads –– are made by carefullyare made by carefully
arranging items on a plate, rather thanarranging items on a plate, rather than
tossing them together.tossing them together.
Tossed SaladTossed Salad – The salad that the chef– The salad that the chef
would combine all ingredients in the bowlwould combine all ingredients in the bowl
with the dressing.with the dressing.