Ce diaporama a bien été signalé.
Nous utilisons votre profil LinkedIn et vos données d’activité pour vous proposer des publicités personnalisées et pertinentes. Vous pouvez changer vos préférences de publicités à tout moment.

Food forests: fruit & nut tree guilds

Rip out your lawn and replace it with a food forest. How to design a nut or fruit tree guild. Includes planting palettes for a black walnut guild, native plant guild, asian inspired guild, medicinal guild, medieval guild, ornamental guild, apple guild, pear guild and apple guilds.

  • Soyez le premier à commenter

  • Soyez le premier à aimer ceci

Food forests: fruit & nut tree guilds

  1. 1. Food forests: fruit & nut tree guilds
  2. 2. Conventional orchards are a constant battle against how a fruit tree wants to grow
  3. 3. Permaculture orchards include diverse layers of fruit trees, berry bushes & perennials
  4. 4. Food forests mimic wild forests & are ideal for home gardeners for diverse, regular harvests
  5. 5. Barbara Eckstein
  6. 6. When everybody is going the wrong way, are you brave enough to go the true way? A man can transform the world's agriculture from what he learns from an apple tree. ~Akinori Kimura, What I Learn From The Apple Trees
  7. 7. BRAZILIAN THINGS/CC BY-SA 4.0 We imagine the Amazon as untouched forest
  8. 8. Kuhikugu is a complex network of over 20 cities. Silnei L Andrade Many present Amazon forests, while seemingly natural, are domesticated… The Indians were in the process of terraforming the Amazon when Columbus showed up and ruined everything. ~Charles C. Mann
  9. 9. Maya Milpa cycle is one example of indigenous food forests cultivated for centuries
  10. 10. The big shift ...in horticulture over the next decade is a shift from thinking about plants as individual objects to thinking about plants as social networks - that is, communities of compatible [beings] interwoven in dense mosaics. ~Thomas Rainer
  11. 11. Whether you’re designing a meadow or a food forest, think in layers
  12. 12. Because trees, like people, are social beings
  13. 13. But get to know the extroverts & introverts Guy Henderieckx, Flickr
  14. 14. We’re planting a food forest at Lakeside Community garden
  15. 15. Individual fruit tree guilds, each adopted by a caring human, will weave together into a food forest
  16. 16. Stefan Sobkowiak’s permaculture orchard near Montreal is one of our inspirations
  17. 17. If you plant that way [polyculture], it becomes so much easier… so much more interesting and, overall, less work… Take a step toward nature and nature will always take ten steps towards you. ~Stefan Sobkowiak
  18. 18. The farmer sees themself as part of nature and connected to all that is. He does not want to control nature, but assist the living forces at work in the biosphere for many billions of years. He knows he does not grow the plants: the whole program of life of a plant is contained in the seed. Through their work, the farmer simply endeavors to promote its development. ~Ferme du Bec Hellouin in France
  19. 19. Start with woodchips “I am creating the very kind of soil that a tree wants to grow in.” ~Michael Phillips
  20. 20. canopy understory shrubs living mulches carpet the ground vines roots & tubers & bulbs fruits nuts berries leaves roots tubers bulbs sprouts shoots flower buds pods petals hips seeds Design with layers feeders (nitrogen fixers) protectors (insectaries) miners (minerals) edible (people or wildlife) biodiversity (resilience) enlivening beauty Think multiple gifts diversify edibles architectural mounding ferny grassy combine shapes erect spreading cascading perennial | annual | biennial | ruderallife expectancy Design the guild
  21. 21. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) Oak (Quercus spp.) Hickory (Carya spp.) Sugar maple (Acer saccharum) American basswood (Tilia americana) American beech (Fagus grandifolia) Chestnut (Castanea spp.) Heartnut (Juglans ailantifolia var. cordiformis) Ultra Northern Pecan (Carya illinoensis) Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) Walnuts, Butternuts, & Buartnuts (Juglans spp.) Trazel (Corylus spp. avellana x colurna) Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra) Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia) Non-native Choose your canopy trees
  22. 22. An example: Black walnut (Juglans nigra) guild
  23. 23. Choose the nitrogen fixers that will feed the forest like blue false indigo, which butterflies also adore
  24. 24. Red clover (Trifolium pratense) White clover (Trifolium repens) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Buffaloberry (Shepherdia canadensis) Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) New Jersey Tea (Ceanothus americanus) Honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) Kentucky coffee tree (Gymnocladus dioicus) Lupin (Lupine spp.) Leadplant (Amorpha canescens) Blue false indigo (Baptisia australis) Groundnut (Apios americana) White prairie clover (Dalea candida ) American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) False Indigo (Amorpha fruticosa) Goji berry (Lycium barbarum) Pointy leaved tick trefoil (Desmodium Glutinosum) Showy tick trefoil (Desmodium Canadense) Hognut (Amphicarpaea bracteata) Alder (Alnus spp.) Yellowwood (Cladrastis kentukea) Sea berry (Hippophae spp.) Catalpa (Catalpa speciosa) Siberian pea shrub (Caragana arborescens) VinesGround covers Shrubs & small trees Trees Choose the nitrogen fixers that will feed your forest
  25. 25. Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia)
  26. 26. Janet Gingold, iNaturalist Layer in an edible understory like the delicious pawpaw native to the Carolinian Forest
  27. 27. Medlar (Mespilus germanica) Spicebush (Lindera benzoin) Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia) Hazelnut (Corylus Americana) Serviceberry (Amelanchier canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) American cranberry (Viburnum trilobum) Wild plum (Prunus americana) Raisin Tree (Hovenia dulcis) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Sumac (Rhus spp.) Elderberry (Sambucus species) Fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum simulans & Z. schinifolium) Choose your understory layer
  28. 28. Mulberry (Morus rubra) Elderberry (Sambucus species) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
  29. 29. Add shrubs for harvest, nitrogen or biodiversity like Fringe tree just because I adore it, it gets along well with black walnuts & if you’re keen you can process the berries like olives
  30. 30. Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) Wild black currant (Ribes americanum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Wild raisin (Viburnum cassinoides) Wild gooseberry (Ribes hirtellum) Jostaberry (Ribes nidigrolaria) Haskap (Lonicera caerulea) Blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum) Aronia berries (Aronia melanocarpa) Quince (Cydonia oblonga) Goji Berry (Lycium chinense) Summersweet (Clethra alnifolia) Shrubby St. John’s Wort (Hypericum kalmianum) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus.)
  31. 31. Mulberry (Morus rubra) Elderberry (Sambucus species) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
  32. 32. Earl Leatherberry, Flickr Create a dense herbaceous layer of perennial crops, mulch crops & insect attractors like this local woodland native Virginia waterleaf (Shawnee salad)
  33. 33. Siberian purslane (Claytonia sibirica) Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) Miner’s lettuce (Claytonia perfoliata) Sea kale (Crambe maritima) Garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa ‘Profusion’) Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) Wild arugula (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) Waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Lovage (Levisticum officinale) Ground cherry (Physalis pubescens) Good king henry (Chenopodium bonus-henricus) French Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Radicchio (Cichorium intybus) Egyptian walking onions (Allium cepa x proliferum) Apple mint (Mentha suaveolens) Broad-leaved toothwort (Cardamine diphylla) Salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor) Create a living mulch with a herbaceous layer of perennial crops
  34. 34. Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Hosta (Hosta spp.) False Solomon's Seal (Maianthemum racemosum) Mallow (Malva spp.) Spikenard (Aralia cordata) Honewort (Cryptotaenia canadensis) Bugleweed (Ajuga reptans) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Balloon flower (Platycodon grandiflorus) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Chinese Artichoke (Stachys affinis) Angelica, Korean (Angelica gigas) Showy stonecrop (Sedum spectabile) Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
  35. 35. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) Bocking 14 Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum 'Bocking 14') Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) Garlic chives (Allium tuberosum) Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus ‘Sativa’) Epazote (Dysphania ambrosioides) Borage (Borago officinalis) Garlic (Allium spp.) Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum spp.) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Dill (Anethum graveolens) Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum spp.) Catnip (Nepeta spp.) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Lavender (Lavandula spp.) Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
  36. 36. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
  37. 37. Add plants that attract pollinators & deter pests like this local native dog’s tooth violet with edible leaves & bulbs
  38. 38. Carrot (Apiaceae) family Daisy (Asteraceae) family Mustard (Brassicaceae) family Plants with small flowers in clusters attract the most beneficial insects like this naturalized cow parsley (which is too much of an extrovert for your garden)
  39. 39. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum) Bocking 14 Comfrey (Symphytum x uplandicum 'Bocking 14') Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) Garlic chives (Allium tuberosum) Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus ‘Sativa’) Epazote (Dysphania ambrosioides) Borage (Borago officinalis) Garlic (Allium spp.) Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum spp.) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Dill (Anethum graveolens) Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum spp.) Catnip (Nepeta spp.) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Lavender (Lavandula spp.) Basil (Ocimum basilicum) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata)
  40. 40. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
  41. 41. Marshall Drummond BSc, Flickr Carpet the ground with plants that keep the soil cool & maximize biodiversity like self-seeding miner’s lettuce, an old favourite making a comeback
  42. 42. Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Violets (Viola spp.) False Solomon's Seal (Maianthemum racemosum) Cow Parsnip (Heracleum maximum) American Yew (Taxus canadensis) Ostrich fern (Matteuccia struthiopteris) Barren strawberry (Waldsteinia fragarioides) Canada windflower (Anemone canadensis) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Plains coreopsis (Coreopsis tinctoria) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia triloba) Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum muticum) False strawberry (Potentilla indica) Goat’s beard (Aruncus dioicus) Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Broad-leaved toothwort (Cardamine diphylla) Carpet the ground to maximize biodiversity & keep the soil covered & cool
  43. 43. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia triloba) Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
  44. 44. Include vines that grow up to layer in more edibles, nitrogen fixers & biodiversity like five flavour berry or Schisandra vine
  45. 45. Malabar spinach (Basella alba) Nasturtium vine (Tropaeolum spp.) Montreal melon (Cucumis melo ‘Montreal Market') Coral honeysuckle (Lonicera sempervirens) Groundnut (Apios americana) Wild or domestic grape (Vitis spp.) Virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana) Five flavour berry (Schisandra chinensis) Caucasian spinach (Hablitzia tamnoides) Mouse melon (Melothria scabra) Scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus) Fava beans (Vicia faba) Climbing Hydrangea (Hydrangea petiolaris) Zucchini Tromboncino (Cucurbita moschata ‘Tromboncino’) American wisteria (Wisteria frutescens) Hardy kiwi (Actinidia arguta) Hops (Humulus lupulus) Bitter melon (Momordica charantia) Include vines that grow up to layer in more edibles, nitrogen fixers & biodiversity
  46. 46. Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Brown-eyed susan (Rudbeckia triloba) Columbine (Aquilegia canadensis) Virgin’s bower (Clematis virginiana) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba)
  47. 47. Diego Chiu, Flickr Grow down for edible roots, shoots & to build organic matter like Chinese leeks (garlic chives) that also deter pests & attract pollinators
  48. 48. Trout lily (Erythronium americanum) Golden garlic (Allium moly) Skirret (Sium sisarum) Groundnut (Apios americana) Salsify (Tragopogon Porrifolius) Sunchoke (Helianthus tuberosus) Cattail (Typha latifolia) Garlic (Allium spp.) Wild Leek (Allium tricoccum) Marsh Woundwort (Stachys palustris) American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Chinese artichoke (Stachys affinis) Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Spring beauty (Claytonia virginica) Daikon (Raphanus sativus Longipinnatus) Arrowhead (Sagittaria latifolia.) Water lily (Nymphaea odorata) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Grow down for edible roots& to build organic matter
  49. 49. Planting palettes for nut or fruit tree guilds
  50. 50. Wild roses (Rosa spp.) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Snowberry (Symphoricarpos) Pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Spotted beebalm (Monarda punctata) Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Walnut Grove Black Walnut (Juglans nigra)
  51. 51. Hostas Crabapple (Malus spp.) Redbud (Cercis canadensis) Rose of sharon (Hibiscus syriacus) Rugosa rose (Rosa rugosa) Thyme (Thymus spp.) Showy stonecrop (Hylotelephium spectabile) Solomon’s seal (Polygonatum biflorum) Daylilies (Hemerocallis spp.) Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Nannyberry (Viburnum lentago) Linden (Tilia cordata) Eat your ornamentals
  52. 52. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) New Jersey Tea (Ceanothus americanus) Bayberry (Myrica pensylvanica ) American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) Currant (Ribes spp.) Nodding Wild Onion (Allium cernuum) Anise Hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) Eastern waterleaf (Hydrophyllum virginianum) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) False Solomon's Seal (Maianthemum racemosum) Mountain Mint (Pycnanthemum spp.) Broad-leaved toothwort (Cardamine diphylla) Groundnut (Apios americana) American cranberry (Viburnum trilobum) Coneflower (Echinacea) Mulberry (Morus rubra) Native bounty
  53. 53. Lovage (Levisticum officinale) Wild Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota) Anise hyssop (Agastache foeniculum) Wild Blue Indigo, (Baptisia australis) Rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum) Bronze fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) Sweet cicely (Myrrhis odorata) Strawberry (Fragaria spp.) Violets (Viola spp.) ‘Sweet Sixteen’ Oregano (Origanum spp.) Golden garlic (Allium moly) Apple (Malus spp.) ‘Connell red’ Apple Guild
  54. 54. & Shinko) Garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa ‘Profusion’) Lupin (Lupine spp.) Coneflower (Echinacea) Goumi (Elaeagnus multiflora) Horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) Dill (Anethum spp.) Sweet woodruff (Galium odoratum) Nasturtiums (Tropaeolum) ‘Yonashi’ Mountain mint (Pycnanthemum spp.) Garlic (Allium spp.) Kiwi (Actinidia arguta) Pear orchard Asian pear (Pyrus pyrifolia ‘Kenko’)
  55. 55. Witch Hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum) Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Sage (Salvia officinalis) Wild ginger (Asarum canadense) Motherwort (Leonurus cardiaca) Hairy sweet cicely (Osmorhiza claytonii) Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) Lungwort (Pycnanthemum spp.) Wild Bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) Stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum) Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) Fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus) Nature’s Pharmacy Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba)
  56. 56. Skirret (Sium sisarum) Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) Chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus) Good king henry (Chenopodium bonus-henricus) Betony (Stachys officinalis) Parsnip (Pastinaca sativa) Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) Thyme (Pycnanthemum spp.) Fava beans (Vicia faba) Mandrake (Mandragora officinarum) Salad burnet (Sanguisorba minor) Grapevines (Vitis spp.) Lavender (Lavandula spp.) Medieval Potager Medlar (Mespilus germanica) Hamburg Parsley (Petroselinum crispum tuberosum)
  57. 57. Yellowhorn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia) Cornelian Cherry (Cornus mas) Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Garlic chives (Allium tuberosum ) Angelica, Korean (Angelica gigas) Sichuan pepper (Zanthoxylum simulans) Gojiberry (Lycium spp.) Chinese Artichoke (Stachys affinis) Japanese Plum Yew (Cephalotaxus harringtonia ) Five flavour berry (Schisandra chinensis) Asian inspired Chinese cedar (Toona sinensis) Perilla (Perilla spp.) joyce_hostyn@yahoo.com | www.rewildmycity.com
  58. 58. False Indigo (Amorpha fruticosa) Wild gooseberry (Ribes hirtellum) Hazelnut (Corylus americana) Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides spp.) Aronia (Aronia spp.) Wild Leek (Allium tricoccum) American pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) Angelica (Angelica atropurpurea) Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) Wild grape (Vitis riparia) Black Raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) Witherod/Wild raisin (Viburnum cassinoides) Pagoda dogwood (Cornus alternifolia) Wild plum (Prunus americana) Prickly Wild Rose (Rosa acicularis) Edible Fence (Hedgerow)
  59. 59. joyce_hostyn@yahoo.com rideau1000islandsmastergardeners.com lakesidecommunitygarden.org

×