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Forest this being is: becoming forest stewards in a changing climate

As gardeners, we've been colonized. We plant lonely trees, pines in lines and cookie cutter landscapes. How can we rewild ourselves and our approach to gardening? How can we learn to see forests as beings? How can we become forest stewards in a time of climate change?

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Forest this being is: becoming forest stewards in a changing climate

  1. 1. this being is becoming forest stewards in a changing climate
  2. 2. tree planting 'has mind-blowing potential' to tackle climate crisis ~The Guardian Sean Kilpatrick
  3. 3. Is tree planting really the solution? Michael Owens, Flickr
  4. 4. Despite an obsession with tree planting, we’re still losing forests Source: World Bank
  5. 5. Does the way we see trees prevent us from seeing the forest? Jerdess, Flickr
  6. 6. We see trees as things maximelaterreur
  7. 7. things that give us gifts TreePeople
  8. 8. It’s all about us, not the trees
  9. 9. In the countryside, we plant millions of pines in lines Photo: Sabrina Byrnes 45% of tree planting pledges for single-species plantations
  10. 10. In cities we plant millions of lonely trees .Brianna, Flickr
  11. 11. We may be doing more harm than good Tree-planting programs can do more harm than good, Canadian Geographic
  12. 12. reforestation focuses on trees NOT on forest beings
  13. 13. Of an inanimate being, like a table, we say “What is it?” And we answer “Dopwen yewee. Table it is.” But of apple, we must say “Who is that being?” and reply “Mshimin yawe. Apple that being is.” To speak of those possessed with life and spirit we must say yawe. ~Robin Wall Kimmerer, Braiding Sweetgrass Kina Action, Flickr
  14. 14. How does this being see itself & its situation? gifts
  15. 15. attributes behaviours needs relationships spirit, soul, breath How does this being see itself & its situation? thoughts language gifts
  16. 16. We don’t look at elephants just as commodities or as mechanical and insentient objects [things]. We recognize them as marvelous beings. ...nobody thinks about the inner life of trees, the feelings of these wonderful living beings. ~Peter Wohlleben Photo by James Hammond on Unsplash
  17. 17. beings who thrive in community
  18. 18. What an irony it is that these living beings whose shade we sit in, whose fruit we eat, whose limbs we climb, whose roots we water, to whom most of us rarely give a second thought, are so poorly understood. We need to come, as soon as possible, to a profound understanding and appreciation for trees & forests and they vital role they play, for they are our best allies in the uncertain future that is unfolding. ~Jim Robbins, The Man Who Planted Trees Photo by Malachi Brooks on Unsplash
  19. 19. what, as gardeners, can we do?
  20. 20. How can we heal our relationship with the living beings with whom we share our homes & planet? Photo by Nicolas DC on Unsplash
  21. 21. I live in a typical suburban neighbourhood
  22. 22. In a place originally landscaped with asphalt, grass & cookie cutter foundation plantings
  23. 23. I’ve been wildscaping (with a little help from my friends!) Photo by Yannick Menard on Unsplash
  24. 24. Now I share my home with a forest being
  25. 25. Walnut hickory oak maple forest this being is
  26. 26. A tiny pocket of the Carolinian forest
  27. 27. as gardeners, we’ve been colonized Chelsea Flower Show
  28. 28. Under the tenets of the international design, the diversity of the native landscape is replaced by the monotony of international horticulture. The living elements that tie a place to its region - that give it identity - are subjegated to the ‘utopian’ vision of a perfect and unchanging scene of uniform turf and identical cookie-cutter trees. The plantings in every subdivision, shopping centre and industrial ‘parks’ are selected from a nursery catalogue of best-sellers, mainly exotic species and genetically uniform cultivars and hybrids. ~Gerry Waldron, Trees of the Carolinian Forest
  29. 29. As a gardener, I’m rewilding myself and my approach to gardening Andrew McFarlane, Flickr
  30. 30. As a master gardener, I’m helping others wildscape
  31. 31. As an activist, I’m working to decolonize how our city sees the urban landscape
  32. 32. As an advocate for delicious, nutritious local food, I’m helping plant food forests in public parks
  33. 33. As a citizen scientist, I’m learning about plant beings and how they flourish in relationship
  34. 34. As a lover of trees, I’m helping forest beings migrate Agnes Meyer-Brandis, Office for Tree Migration (OTM)
  35. 35. in light of the climate emergency How might we rewild [decolonize] our approach to gardening?
  36. 36. wildscaping our homes
  37. 37. wildscaping our farms Knepp Wildland
  38. 38. wildscaping our cities Rewilding Vancouver
  39. 39. An Ark [wildscape] is a restored, native ecosystem, a local, small, medium or large rewilding project. It’s a thriving patch of native plants and creatures that have been allowed and supported to re-establish in the earths intelligent, successional process of natural restoration. Over time this becomes a pantry and a habitat for our pollinators and wild creatures who are in desperate need of support. ~Mary Reynolds, ark designer
  40. 40. ...small patches of vanishing habitat are... lifeboats for imperiled biodiversity and human welfare, and we must battle to keep them afloat. Habitat remnants are a key source of seeds of native plants, seed-dispersing animals and native pollinators. ~Williams Laurance, Researcher
  41. 41. From the very beginning of the world, the other species were a lifeboat for the people. Now, we must be theirs. ~Robin Wall Kimmerer
  42. 42. time to restore our forest heritage, not plant more lonely trees ~ Peter Wohlleben
  43. 43. What is our forest heritage? Suzumski Photography, Muskoka Tree
  44. 44. Approximately 80% of Canada’s forests are Boreal Canadian Encyclopedia, Forest Regions
  45. 45. We’re in the Great Lakes-St Lawrence forest region, home to ~50 native tree species & ~25% forest cover maple, red oak, yellow birch, white pine, red pine, hemlock, beech, basswood
  46. 46. Carolinian (Deciduous) forest is home to ~100 native tree species & only 10-12% forest cover maple, oak, birch, blue ash, cedar, hemlock, hickory, black walnut, sassafras, tulip tree, chestnut, black gum, cucumber tree
  47. 47. More endangered & rare species than any other life zone in Canada Greatest wildlife diversity Less than 2% in public ownership 73% agriculture Forest cover 11.3% (from 80%) Forest interior 2% Wetlands 5.1% (from 28.3%) Map: Carolinian Canada Coalition “like Canada’s Amazon”
  48. 48. Getty Images 200 years ago the Mixedwood Plains (Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence + Carolinian) were 90% forest
  49. 49. today 17% remains, most in wetlands Source: Urban Forestry Management Plan, City of KingstonSpencer Wynn, Nature Conservancy of Canada
  50. 50. For healthy ecosystems, we need 50% forest cover International Boreal Conservation Science Panel
  51. 51. Canadian Geographic “climate changes everything”
  52. 52. More very hot days (~2 months of +30) by the end of the century Climate Atlas
  53. 53. Wetter springs, drier summers Climate Atlas
  54. 54. Simulation of jet stream pattern July 22, VentuSky.com, Michael Mann More variability, more extremes, longer durations
  55. 55. 71 million hectares forest 43 million hectares managed Crown forest 1.1 million hectares damaged by weather disturbances 0.45 million hectares damaged by insects & disease 0.18 million hectares burned by forest fires 0.11 million hectares of forest harvested More climate variability means more disturbances (forest disturbances 2009-2013) State of Ontario’s Natural Resources - Forests 2016
  56. 56. More frequent, more severe storms Constable James Hooper, Twitter
  57. 57. More pests like balsam & hemlock woolly adelgids
  58. 58. More flooding due to lack of trees, wetlands Photo: Sonny Subra, Twitter
  59. 59. Some trees (like ashes) are already suffering Photo: Michael Hunter / Wikimedia Commons
  60. 60. “We’re already exceeding the worst case scenario” Trees for 2050, Andrew Bell, Chicago Botanic Garden
  61. 61. Photo: Shawna Greyeyes, Harvard Forest Trees are absolutely experiencing heat, rain, growing, breathing, sweating, eating, doing all of these things that we do. ~Clarisse Hart, Harvard Forest
  62. 62. Oak-Hickory: Low vulnerability Oak-Pine: Medium vulnerability Maple-Beech-Birch: High vulnerability Source: Massachusetts Wildlife Climate Action Tool Some of our forests are highly vulnerable
  63. 63. If the current climate conditions in this ecoregion (7E) [Carolinian] move as predicted, the plants & animals there will have to adapt, move or die ~Environment & Energy Ontario
  64. 64. How can we help forest beings survive & thrive in a changing climate?
  65. 65. We need to let nature heal itself and come back to balance with broadleaf species that are natural to our region, like oaks and beeches, which will help to cool the forests down and can survive climate change without too much harm. ~Peter Wohlleben Denny Müller, Unsplash
  66. 66. assist migration diversify native species think ecosystems
  67. 67. become a citizen scientist to help local knowledge of native species
  68. 68. Learn about the wonderful beings who call our region home
  69. 69. Explore & map your yard, neighbourhood or a local forest being
  70. 70. wild basil (Clinopodium vulgare) Discover native species that garden centres ignore then collect & share their seed
  71. 71. Native sedges are great candidates for wildscaping our yards
  72. 72. Dan Mullen, Flickr Join with nutty people helping nut tree beings Ontario Society of Nut Growers - songonline.ca
  73. 73. RubyT, Flickr Or seedy people (like KASSI) KASSI: Kingston Area Seed System Initiative - seedsgrowfood.org
  74. 74. Miracle Farms, Peter McCabe, Montreal Gazette Or food forest people (Lakeside & Oak Street) lakesidecommunitygarden.org & oakstreetgarden.wordpress.com
  75. 75. Documenting and paying attention to the vast biodiversity around us is something we can all do that truly does help, and it doesn’t drain our spirits, but it feeds them… We’re all teaching and learning from each other and making contributions that are valuable, and it’s one of the most rewarding things in my life. ~Jennifer Rycenga, talking about her experiences with iNaturalist Photo by The Wilson Center
  76. 76. seek out regionally adapted seeds, nuts & plants David Alexander, Flickr
  77. 77. Up to 90% of nursery-grown trees & shrubs are cloned, making them particularly vulnerable Eric, Flickr
  78. 78. Genetically diverse, regionally adapted plants & seeds are more likely to survive freeze-thaw cycles Dogwood Winter, Farmer’s Almanac
  79. 79. Cloned stock mean natives such as spicebush (Lindera benzoin) & viburnums won’t set fruit you need both male & female plants Source: Kirtlandii
  80. 80. Don’t discriminate against female trees - they increase diversity and support wildlife Toronto 96% male Source: Male trees winning the battle of the sexes in Canada
  81. 81. To help migrants thrive, innoculate with host-specific mycorrhizae
  82. 82. Biodiversity: the wondrous, teeming, calamitously threatened variety & variability of life on Earth, sometimes measured by species richness. ~Robert Macfarlane Brody J, Cardinal with tulip tree seed, Flickr
  83. 83. help tree beings migrate
  84. 84. Trees are already migrating North & West!
  85. 85. But cities & highways block migration paths Vancouver Land Bridge
  86. 86. Trees retreating from the Lake Simcoe Watershed White spruce (Picea glauca) Balsam fir (Abies balsamea) Eastern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) Paper birch (Betula papyrifera) Tamarack (Larix laricina) Trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) Source: Tree species in a changing climate
  87. 87. Trees enduring in the Lake Simcoe Watershed American beech (Fagus grandifolia) Black cherry (Prunus serotina) Maple (sugar, red, silver) (Acer saccharum, A. rubrum, A. saccharinum) Oak (red, white, bur) (Quercus rubra, Q. alba, Q. macrocarpa) White pine (Pinus strobus)
  88. 88. Trees advancing in the Lake Simcoe Watershed Hackberry (Celtis occidentalis) Hickories (shagbark, bitternut, pignut) (Carya ovata, C. cordiformis, C. glabra) Southern oaks (swamp white oak, eastern black oak, chinquapin oak, scarlet oak) (Quercus bicolor, Q. velutina, Q. muehllenbergii, Q. coccinea) Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) Blackgum (Nyssa sylvestre) Various other Carolinian species
  89. 89. Photo by Don Montgomery Meet a few Carolinian species
  90. 90. Common species Indicator species sugar maple beech oak basswood birch ash cedar hickory black walnut white pine red, white, rock elm tulip tree sycamore chestnut sassafras flowering dogwood pawpaw red mulberry cucumber tree kentucky coffee tree butternut ohio buckeye black cherry
  91. 91. Adaptable old friends include maple, oak, hickory and beech Guy Schmickle, Flickr
  92. 92. Wonderfully diverse specialized species such as the delicious pawpaw (Asimina triloba) Sarah Wiggins
  93. 93. Fast growing, gorgeous wind resistant Tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) Ruth Raymond,Flickr
  94. 94. American chestnut (Castanea dentata) once dominated the Carolinian forest pwdeacon, iNaturalist
  95. 95. Seeds of the drought resilient Kentucky coffeetree (Gymnocladus dioicus) were spread by dinosaurs
  96. 96. The rare Ohio buckeye (Aesculus glabra) has showy flowers but likes moist soil jem9redwood,iNaturalist
  97. 97. Black cherry (Prunus serotina) has fragrant white flowers, attractive foliage & fruit loved by birds Ben Porchuk, ecologist with Carolinian Canada
  98. 98. Cucumber tree (Magnolia acuminata), our largest native magnolia, is imperiled in Ontario randybodkins, iNaturalist
  99. 99. Butternut (Juglans cinerea) has delicious nuts but is threatened by canker
  100. 100. Birds love the fruit of black tupelo (Nyssa sylvatica), a beautiful tree with stunning fall colour samuelbrinker, iNaturalist
  101. 101. Shagbark hickory (Carya ovata) has outstanding bark & delicious nuts St. Louis Native Plants
  102. 102. Shellbark hickory (Carya laciniosa) is growing at Lemoine Point in an assisted migration trial Walkuere123, Flickr
  103. 103. An old American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) lives in Prince Edward County pantherophis, iNaturalist
  104. 104. Sassafras (Sassafras albidum), a small understory tree, turns brilliant red in fall RonTheG, Flickr
  105. 105. Birds & humans love the fruit of the red mulberry (Morus rubra) wilson59604, iNaturalist
  106. 106. The endangered flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) brightens up the forest understory Jim Mayes, Flickr
  107. 107. Hoptree (Ptelea trifoliata), my favourite understory tree, is host to the giant swallowtail butterfly Dave Rogers, Flickr
  108. 108. Instead of invasive burning bush, plant our native Wahoo (Euonymus atropurpureus) sehnature, iNaturalist
  109. 109. Bees loves the fragrant October blooming flowers of witch hazel (Hamamelis virginiana) Eric Hunt, Flickr
  110. 110. Longer, warmer falls means American persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) may have time to ripen Puddin Tain, Flickr
  111. 111. Carolina silverbell (Halesia carolina) isn’t native to Canada, but is a hardy Carolinian beauty Raleigh Explorers
  112. 112. My all time favourite Carolinian shrub is the fringe tree (Chionanthus virginicus)
  113. 113. Hummingbirds love bottlebrush buckeye (Aesculus parviflora) which colonizes the forest edge David Hebert
  114. 114. Bark of long flowering Carolina allspice (Calycanthus floridus) is similar to cinnamon
  115. 115. think ecosystems don’t plant lonely trees Al Bod, Flickr
  116. 116. Florida Department of Education Trees are community beings
  117. 117. Christopher Shein, The Vegetable Gardener's Guide to Permaculture Centuries ago humans learned to grow food forests in layers that mimic wild forests
  118. 118. Now we’re learning to design urban wildscapes using layered plant communities
  119. 119. Energy enters and exits a forest in equal measure. Each organism serves a function and benefits, one fueled by the waste of another. They form a community, reliant on each other. If the system becomes overly homogenized or a disturbance shifts its balance, it becomes dangerously vulnerable. ~Tom Wessels, Beyond the Forest Photo by Amy Baugess on Unsplash
  120. 120. Instead of mulch tquist24, Flickr
  121. 121. Nurture a biodiverse herbaceous layer Alistar, Wild garlic (Allium tricoccum), Flickr
  122. 122. Maple leaf viburnum
  123. 123. Big leaf aster
  124. 124. Big leaf aster
  125. 125. Thimbleweed
  126. 126. False solomon’s seal & Elm-leaved goldenrod, Peter Gorman, Flickr
  127. 127. Baneberry, Larry Reis, Flickr
  128. 128. Broad-leaved goldenrod
  129. 129. Blue-stemmed goldenrod
  130. 130. Hairy sweet cicely
  131. 131. Foamflower
  132. 132. Fragrant sumac
  133. 133. Hepatica
  134. 134. Pennsylvania & plantain leaved sedges
  135. 135. Orange-fruited horse gentian
  136. 136. Running strawberry-bush
  137. 137. Bluebeard lily (Clintonia borealis)
  138. 138. The greatest value in restoration [wildscaping] may not be in its ability to transform the landscape but in its ability to transform our relationship to our landscape. ~Bill Jordan, Society for Ecological Restoration
  139. 139. 1000 places to see before you die Photo by Yuriy Garnaev on Unsplash
  140. 140. 1000 places to see before you die Photo by Yuriy Garnaev on Unsplash
  141. 141. Photo: Paul Roedding 10 relationships to nurture Lemoine Point Conservation Area | Parrot Bay | Frontenac Park | Cataraqui Conservation Area | Marshlands Conservation Area Carolinian Trail, Pinery Provincial Park | Turkey Point Provincial Park | Bronte Creek Provincial Park | Rondeau Provincial Park | Long Point Provincial Park
  142. 142. grow wild our gardens play a vital ecological role Photo by David Clode on Unsplash
  143. 143. joyce_hostyn@yahoo.com rideau1000islandsmastergardeners.com lakesidecommunitygarden.org rewildmycity.com
  144. 144. resources Stephany Heaven, Flickr
  145. 145. Trees of the Carolinian Forest & Carolinian Canada
  146. 146. Canadian Tree Tours Toronto’s Canadian tree tours
  147. 147. City of Kingston Tree Species List, Urban Forest Management Plan City of Kingston’s tree species list
  148. 148. Source: Choosing the right tree in Peterborough Choosing the right tree in Peterborough
  149. 149. Region of Waterloo shade tree list Source: Shade Tree List, Region of Waterloo
  150. 150. London’s native trees & shrubs for wildlife Native Shrubs and Trees for Wildlife, London Grow Naturally
  151. 151. Credit Valley Conservation native plant lists Selecting Native Plants, Credit Valley Conservation
  152. 152. suppliers Clarissa Wei, Flickr
  153. 153. Native Plant Resource Guide Ontario, Society for Ecological Restoration Sources of Native Planting Stock for the Carolinian Zone (2012)
  154. 154. Guide to Native Plant Nurseries & Seed Suppliers, Credit Valley Conservation

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