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Psychology of user adoption

Despite the fact that some governments are taking behavioral science and its challenges to the model of the rational individual very seriously, most enterprises still haven’t changed the way they deploy technology. No wonder 85% of ECM implementations fail to live up to expectations. Can the insights shared by Kahneman and others shed some insight onto this dilemma? Can we increase success by rethinking our approach to enterprise software deployments based on an improved understanding of how people perceive their environment, are swayed by others, and choose to act?

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Psychology of user adoption

  1. 1. psychology ofuser adoption
  2. 2. it’s oursit’s mine
  3. 3. it’s safer in the library…it’s safer on my machine..
  4. 4. it’s better than Googleit doesn’t work like Google
  5. 5. it helps me serve customers betterI don’t have time
  6. 6. you’re hereyour usersstart here
  7. 7. you want to get them hereyour usersstart here by Kathy Sierra
  8. 8. adoption ischange
  9. 9. changeis a journey
  10. 10. Is it clear how to I have a stake in start? What I can Understand sharing this.. How can I What’s my role? How do? culture. Don’t feel share my ideas on will it affect me? my job is threatened how it can be Does it improve my Successfully by sharing. Can I personalize it improved? work? Do I have support? completing important activities. Works the to match the way I way I expect. Trust it. Confident work & become Why isn’t everyone Have a personal What’s my manager Does it make me more efficient? using it? That would my stuff is safe and mobile phone for saying about it? feel stupid or make it even more secure. keeping in touch frustrate me? Give Feel supported, know useful to me! with family. up if bad experience who to ask if have How else can I What’s are benefits or expectations not a question or run Confidence increases leverage this in my to the organization? met. into a problem. with each success. work? Evangelize. Coach. Use web at home. Do I care?past experience become aware first use decide to learn build experience become proficient championwhat else I’ve used learn about it how do I get started? is this working for me? intermittent use it’s how I do things advocate to others Consult binders of Who else is using it Perceived usability, Good feedback and Clear perception of Extend training to Participate in user procedures. & what are they usefulness, value security increase value. cover additional groups. saying about it? determines confidence. functionality and willingness to move reveal new Poor perception of Adjust configurations Make it addictive to to next stage. opportunities to enterprise apps based Campaign (posters, Learning material or provide additional use and share. on prior experience. town halls, videos) leverage. based on department training and support outlining clear vision Design for good first and role. based on experience. Support champions Store documents in & benefits. Spread impressions – and provide channels email, personal drive, positive stories. visually appealing, fit to help spread WOM. Support through local Reinforce value. and shared drive. to activity, easy to champions familiar Spread positive Design to fit role. use, wow factor. with role, activities, Involve in designing stories, reinforce and department. organizational fit, future versions. Conduct interviews, Leverage social Training, job aids, ensure ongoing surveys, focus groups influence. and support for management support. Capture success to understand quick success. experiences and stories. activities.
  11. 11. … planning means changingminds not making plansArie de Geus
  12. 12. deploying ECM*… planning means changingminds not making plans deploying technology * Enterprise Content Management
  13. 13. from hoarder to sharermine oursunsafe/loss of control safe/have controlonly of value to me of value to otherslack confidence or trust in system have confidence & trust in systemit pays to hoard it pays to share
  14. 14. the adoptionhurdle is here
  15. 15. psychology of user adoption isabout how to changemindshabitsbehaviors
  16. 16. your users you by Paul Brink, flickr
  17. 17. so, what’sgoing on in ourminds?
  18. 18. homo economicus(econs) store as much memory as big blue willpower of Gandhi think like Einstein
  19. 19. system 2, the riderhomo economicus (econs)what does this do?how much does it cost (time, money, effort)?how does it compare?what are the features?
  20. 20. economics is (now) about emotion and psychology* Robert Shiller, Professor of Economics, Yale University
  21. 21. system 1, the elephanthomo behaviorushow does this make me feel?how will it affect me?what are other people doing?does it provide meaning or pleasure?
  22. 22. of change management efforts fail
  23. 23. change management is in need of a transformationthrough an improved understanding ofhow humans interpret theirenvironment and choose to act The Inconvenient Truth About Change Management, McKinsey
  24. 24. 6 things toconsiderwhen it comes to change
  25. 25. 1 our minds are storytelling machines
  26. 26. banana vomit
  27. 27. puppy by umulopulos, flickr
  28. 28. perceiving the world is an active process of meaning-makingthat shapes and biases the rest of our decision-making freakingnews.com
  29. 29. what to do?
  30. 30. it’s MY information (ownership) afraid they won’t it’s it’s What do they not secure if I keep it, only I know where it is, so the THINK MINE! find something MINE! might need it, will MINE! company needs me the wrong docs will person may be lost see it go through it laterinsecure and whatwon’t this tell you about their beliefs? they does don’t trust understand it too hard to I know it won’t get lost or I don’t have I might need it now anyone else my job is in jeopardy use DM destroyed if I keep it time or later (giving-up to preserve it because now I have I don’t have I don’t have time or lack of control) to share my assets time someone will be to clean up I need to irresponsible with I am busy & just give I’m insecure and need the fear of loss have it the info if I share is it mandatory to me more disk space, feeling of power of being of status I’ll deal with it later share? if not, I won’t “the one with the info” I’ll lose control no one else may need it what if I need to I’ll be What do they of…? hoarder needs it someday do use it again? What they laughed at FEEL overwhelmed & not important now it might get lost. won’t be able to find it SAY (resistance to using & W.I.P. not completed. I’m what emotions & learning new tech) quotes & defining words? not done yet. Judged by attitudes? protective others. I might need If I share it, it won’t be it’s my work suspicious threatened this one day mine & others will get to I am going to save use it for FREE need the security everything to cover loss of control I know where blanket my bleepvulnerable (may everything is anxiousnot be needed) What do they create other it’s confidential stonewall info oh, but I have gone back DO?I need hoarders worried to my <stuff> 10 years &controlfind out how different groups of users perceive the world… keep everything to it’s been useful insecure easy to find actions & behaviors? feel in control stuff in boxes/file the info needs cabinetswhat stories are they telling themselves? to be controlled carry everything on big inbox (everything kept since save all to desktop keeps multiple a stick or laptop no time to check if it can be copies/iterations deleted)
  31. 31. consider the story you’re telling with your approach
  32. 32. 2 frames shape attitudes and behavior
  33. 33. Knowledge CenterMaintenance Center Content Server
  34. 34. don’t think of an elephant
  35. 35. by digitalART2, flickr
  36. 36. don’t spill your milk
  37. 37. by LIZANNE
  38. 38. we view things relative to the things around them
  39. 39. changing the frame changes the perception of value
  40. 40. highlighting, decoys, and downplaying are framingtechniques that guide people to a specific choice
  41. 41. You cant transfer funds Let me walk you throughuntil you go through these these steps to authorize steps to authorize the the account. account. 83% higher quality 73% lower effort
  42. 42. large packages, plates, and serving bowls increase howmuch a person serves and consumes by 15% to 45%
  43. 43. we’re more likely to make a decision or take an action if it’sconsistent with our identity
  44. 44. tax relief war on terror death taxmost Americans vote their identity, not their beliefs Dont Think of an Elephant! Know Your Values and Frame the Debate by George Lakoff
  45. 45. what to do?framingrelativityprimingreference pointanchor
  46. 46. think about how you can frame your change story
  47. 47. identify the reference points users are starting from
  48. 48. think of a way to disrupt the frame to make it seem illogicalor provoke a ‘serious shock to the system’
  49. 49. tastes like chickenmap to something familiar by Hamed Saber, flickr
  50. 50. take baby steps, build new habits towards a new identity How Habits Work (and How They Change) by Charles Dhigg
  51. 51. most effective weight loss technique?
  52. 52. shape the environment
  53. 53. 3 we take mental shortcuts when making decisions
  54. 54. when asked a cognitively demanding question involvinguncertainty, we answer an easier question instead Illustration Mick Brownfield, for the Guardian
  55. 55. WYSIATI(what you see is all there is)
  56. 56. our thinking is influenced by what is personally relevant,recent, or salient
  57. 57. governments are more likely to allocate resources in a waythat fits with peoples fears rather than in response to themost likely danger
  58. 58. Target question Heuristic questionHow happy are you with your life these What is my mood right now?days?How much would you contribute to save How much emotion do I feel when I think ofan endangered species? dying dolphins?How popular will the president be six How popular is the president right now?months from now?How should financial advisors who prey How much anger do I feel when I think ofon the elderly be punished? financial predators?This woman is running for the primary. Does this women look like a political winner?How far will she go in politics? Daniel Kahneman, Thinking Fast and Slow
  59. 59. Should we customize the UI? How hard will it be to upgrade?
  60. 60. is it a good story? measure of success for System 1 is thecoherence of the story our brain creates
  61. 61. what to do?attribute substitutionconfirmation biasavailability biassaliencemental shotgun
  62. 62. increase fear of a bad outcome by reminding people of arelated situation in which things went wrong by hindesite, flickr
  63. 63. increase confidence by reminding people of a similarsituation in which everything worked out for the best by Dano, flickr
  64. 64. not much seamless RM custom interfaces easy sells smash hits behavior change Enterprise Connect workflow with (just like drives) notifications rough spots long haulsseek out easy sells and smash hits a lot low high payoff (degree of what’s in it for me)
  65. 65. deliberately seek disconfirming evidence
  66. 66. ask people to write their idea or position before discussing
  67. 67. climb the ladder of inference to question your assumptions
  68. 68. 4 we’re not good at knowing what we want & why we do things
  69. 69. the one we pick when we don’t have to the one we pick when explain ourselves we have to justify our reasonspeople think they know why they like the things they like andwhy they feel the way they feel
  70. 70. what we think we’re going to choose what we actually choosewe overly discount the future, valuing immediate rewards
  71. 71. how happy we think we’ll be how happy we actually aresomeone else’s experience trumps our own prediction by MSVG and The U.S. Army, flickr
  72. 72. The real problem is Archie Bunker, he needs to be a little softer, more nurturing, more of a caring father.having to our preferences cause us to move away frommore innovative or radical ideas
  73. 73. what to do?seductive nowmental hypothesisintrospection illusion
  74. 74. can you show me how you went can you show about trying to find it? did you know that if me how you you add it to your save? favorites, you can search sucks drag & drop… it’s slow there are too many clicksif they’re complaining about something specific ask for arecent example or, better yet, ask them to show you
  75. 75. avoid asking “what do you want” or “why do you like this”…instead co-design, prototype, test, and pivot
  76. 76. Why? Why? Why? Why? Why?don’t accept surface explanations… look to the real root ofwhy people do things (like hoard) by aloshbennett, flickr
  77. 77. 5 we stick with what we know
  78. 78. we place more value on objects we own
  79. 79. we attach a story to objects… “an experience I will alwaysremember” or “something to tell kids about”
  80. 80. $50 million $4.6 million profit impact over next for each month we delay year actionwe focus on losses much more than gains
  81. 81. 9x email problem
  82. 82. we have a strong status quo bias and often fail to takeproactive action to change the default
  83. 83. % consenting to be organ donorsopt-inopt-outneutral
  84. 84.  reserve my seat for 2 Euro default change increased revenue by $40 million annually
  85. 85. …information on efficient use didn’t reduce water consumption, but whenresidents received a home visit and asked to commit to reduce use, ¾ of themmade the commitment… water consumption dropped by more than 50% by MelvinSchlubman, flickr
  86. 86. when we choose for ourselves, we are far more committedto the outcome (by a factor of almost 5 to 1)
  87. 87. what to do?loss aversionendowment effectstatus quo biasdefaultscommitments
  88. 88. start people off on the right foot
  89. 89. pay careful attention to defaults
  90. 90. make loss visible
  91. 91. XP users? You’re out of luck. There’s no IE 9 for XP.make it harder to stick with the old than to switch to the new
  92. 92. use commitments to help people overcome procrastinationand start shifting their story
  93. 93. include ‘runway lights’ such as job aidsthat guide people in the right direction
  94. 94. use sensemaking to increase people’s sense of control &autonomy
  95. 95. 6 we’re shaped by our social ties and environment
  96. 96. the brain experiences the workplace firstand foremost as a social systemDavid Rock
  97. 97. mirror neurons allow us to understand actions, intentions,and social meaning of other people’s behaviors andemotions The Empathic Civilization, Jeremy Rifkin
  98. 98. the human brain is a social organ… organizational changeprovokes sensations of physical discomfort
  99. 99. emotions and behaviors are contagious
  100. 100. anticipated judgments are a more powerful motive than NewYear resolutions in improving decision making
  101. 101. we care about performance, possessions, and well-beingrelative to others
  102. 102. if a change lowers social status it triggers a threat response
  103. 103. we care not only about outcomes, but about how they cameto be (fairness)
  104. 104. social proof and authority increases trust
  105. 105. threatened with info abouttaxes go to good works punishment for like education, police noncomplianceoffered help if they were 90% of Minnesotans confused or uncertain already complied, in full,about how to fill out the with their obligations under forms, the tax law only one which had an effect on taxpayer compliance
  106. 106. what to do?social statussocial proofscarcityrelatednessfairnessperceived authority
  107. 107. build a network of influencers by Dave Gray, flickr
  108. 108. target influenceable people
  109. 109. watch out for status threats
  110. 110. biggest uploadertrigger friendly competitions
  111. 111. Ninety-five per cent of people turn up to their appointments on timeleverage social proof along with commitments
  112. 112. provide feedback loops
  113. 113. spread positive gossip by Dano, flickr
  114. 114. Final thoughts
  115. 115. The framing of a problemis often far more essential than its solution Albert Einstein
  116. 116. the adoptionhurdle is here
  117. 117. your goal is to shiftmindshabitsbehaviors
  118. 118. When introducing information management orcollaboration how would you shift hoarders to sharers?mine oursunsafe/loss of control safe/have controlonly of value to me of value to otherslack confidence or trust in system have confidence & trust in systemit pays to hoard it pays to share
  119. 119. learn everything you can about how the brain works
  120. 120. add persuasivedesign tools to yourchange toolkit design with intent toolkitmental notes
  121. 121. Brainstorm how you could address obstacle or using pattern or card opportunity to achieve desired change concept from MAO Model
  122. 122. Brainstorm how you could address obstacle or lens, pattern, opportunity using card to achieve desired change concept from MAO Model using mental notes
  123. 123. Brainstorm how you could address obstacle or lens, pattern, opportunity using card to achieve desired change concept from MAO Model using design with intent toolkit
  124. 124. it’s time to change our approach tochange
  125. 125. People don’t resistchange… theyresist beingchanged.Edward Schein
  126. 126. keep in touch@joyce_hostyn (twitter)knowledge.opentext.com/go/adoption (Adoption Community)jhostyn@opentext.com (email)www.joycehostyn.com/blog (blog)