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Peter f druc

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Peter f druc

  1. 1. Title of a book The ntsdeep
  2. 2. US ARMY CHART
  3. 3. Introduction The Effective Executive was written as a sort of research report, summarizing the characteristics of the effective executives that he saw over the period of about two decades. The thought arose from the many recruitments of the federal govt. for wartime agencies.
  4. 4. An executive is those knowledge workers, individual professionals, and managers who are expected by virtue of their position or their knowledge to make decisions in the normal course of their work that have significant impact on the performance and results of the whole. Effectiveness is a set of practices; a habit that can be learned.
  5. 5. EFFECTIVE EXECUTIVES Executives tend to have high levels of • Intelligence • Imagination • Knowledge But often lack • Effectiveness Intelligence, Imagination, and Knowledge are essential But only Effectiveness converts them to Results An Executive’s job is to be effective .
  6. 6. Main aspects He concludes that effectiveness is not inherent to a person but is the result of learning to do five things: Manage time Determine what he can contribute. Making use of subordinates' strengths Establish Priorities Concentrate on a few major areas where superior performance will produce outstanding results And making decisions well. The book is a discussion of these with cogent examples.
  7. 7. The first principle is that the effective executive (by which he means not only a CEO but anyone who is responsible for making decisions that in some way affect the organization) must manage his time. The purpose of the executive is to note outside trends and adapt his company to them, but unavoidably he will spend most of his time on internal matters. .
  8. 8. Maxims • No one really knows where their time goes (especially if they think they do) unless they write it down Identifying time wasters Eliminate activities that do not produce any results whatsoever (i.e. time-wasters)
  9. 9. "The next question is 'Which of the activities on my time log could not be done by somebody else just as well, if not better?'" Eliminate the time that you waste yourself. (This is best done by asking someone else) “There is nothing so useless as doing efficiently that which should not be done at all”.
  10. 10. Fixing time-wasters Look for the "recurrent crisis". "A crisis that recurs a second time is a crisis that must not occur again. ... A recurrent crisis should always have been foreseen.  It can therefore either be prevented or reduced to a routine which clerks can manage. The definition of 'routine' is that it makes unskilled people without judgment capable of doing what it took a near-genius to do before; for a routine puts down in systematic, step-by-step form what a very able man learned in surmounting yesterday's crisis.
  11. 11. A well managed plant is boring; an exciting plant is poorly managed. Time waste often results from overstaffing Another common time waster is mal- organization. Its symptom is an excess of meetings People can either meet or work, but they cannot do both at the same time Meetings should never be allowed to become the main demand on an executive’s time Another major time waster is malfunction in information. information that is not updated fast enough or in the wrong form.
  12. 12. Consolidate time We need a fairly large quantum to think about things, and if you need to deal with people, it takes a reasonably large quantum for them to think that they had meaningful interaction with you. Make sure you aren't disturbed during your time. Set deadlines based on the judgement of available discretionary time.
  13. 13. Contribution To ask, 'What can I contribute?' is to look for the unused potential in the job. And what is considered excellent performance in a good many positions is often but a pale shadow of the job's full potential of contribution." (pp. 53-4) Merely playing the job of CEO, expecting wield power and authority are ego boosters, not effectiveness.
  14. 14. Contribution • To produce contribution, need to have • communication: generally the subordinate should tell the superior what he thinks his contribution should be (otherwise he will probably mis-hear it), although the superior may correct it. "The focus on contribution leads to communications sideways and thereby makes teamwork possible." Development: of both self and others. But either way people grow to what is demanded of them.
  15. 15. BUILD ON STRENGTHS Promote people based on what they can do Make staffing decisions to maximize strengths, not minimize weaknesses weaknesses are irrelevant unless they inhibit exercising your strengths
  16. 16. BUILD ON STRENGTHS Four rules for staffing based on strengths Don’t make jobs impossible Do make jobs demanding and big Know employee’s strengths Know that to get strengths, one must put up with weaknesses Logical consequence - It is the duty of the executive to remove ruthlessly anyone who consistently fails to perform with high distinction.
  17. 17. BUILD ON STRENGTHS Effective executive must also maximize his/her own strengths Must ask oneself, “What are the things that I seem to be able to do with relative ease, while they come rather hard to other people?”
  18. 18. PRIORITIZE Sloughing off Yesterday Continuously ask, “If we did not already do this, would we go into it now.” Priorities and Posteriorities Priorities - Decide what you will do Posteriorities - Decide what you will not do
  19. 19. Rules for identifying priorities Pick the future instead of the past Focus on opportunity rather than problems Choose your own direction, rather than climb on the bandwagon Aim high for something that will make a difference rather than for something that is safe and easy to do
  20. 20. First Things First Do one thing at a time Executives ,not pressure should make the decisions We often abandon that which we postpone Achievement does not depend on ability, it depends on the courage to go after the opportunity. Set your priorities by opportunities presented not by the likelihood of quick success. It is just as risky to do something small and new as it is to do something big and new Concentration - the courage to impose decisions on time and events Focus on the completion of the one task now and let the situation decide what is next
  21. 21. Decision Making The specific executive task Effective executives make effective decisions Effective executives concentrate on the important decisions The decision is strategic or generic The decision is based on abstractions at the highest level of conceptual understanding The decision leads to real, effective simple action The decision is based on a few important variables The decision is sound and makes a real impact
  22. 22. Elements of the Decision Is the problem the symptom or the disease Bound the decision Most difficult step Exercise in judgement Even wrong decisions should fill boundary conditions What is right verses what is acceptable postpone the compromise until the end Built in Action most time consuming who needs to know, what action, by who Feedback
  23. 23. Effective Decisions Decision is a judgement Balance between “Almost right” and “Probably Wrong” Right decisions grow out of the clash and conflict of divergent opinions Right decisions grow on the consideration of competing alternatives Events are not facts, so we must have a criterion of relevance
  24. 24. People always start with an opinion Most look for facts that already fit the conclusions that they have reached. Traditional measurements are often not the right measurements Look for different ways to measure success. The right decision demands adequate disagreement. Disagreements is the birth of alternatives Disagreement is needed to stimulate the imagination
  25. 25. Effective Decisions Not going to be pleasant Not going to be popular Not going to be easy Decision making takes as much courage as it does judgement The cry of the coward “Let’s make another study” Decisions on the operating level are adaptations and require no real knowledge.
  26. 26. EFFECTIVE DECISIONS The effective executive does NOT start with the facts, but with opinions The effective executive encourages differences of opinions Don’t foster consensus, but dissension
  27. 27. “Executives are not paid for doing things they like to do. They are paid for getting the right things done - most of all in their specific task, the making of effective decisions.”
  28. 28. Effectiveness Must be Learned Record your time Focus on your contribution Move forward based on your strengths Do first things first Make effective decisions

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