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Citizenship and Equal
       Justice
              Chapter 14
Section 1
A Nation of
Immigrants
Learning Goal
• 13.12a.1 Define citizenship, process of
  naturalization, and the controversies
  surrounding this issue throughout America’s
  history
Classifying Aliens
• Resident alien: a person from a foreign nation
  who has established permanent residence in the
  U.S. (They may stay in the U.S. as long as they
  wish without becoming a citizen.
• Non-resident alien: a person from a foreign
  nation who expects to stay for a short specified
  period of time. (A foreign journalist who is
  coving a story)
Classifying Aliens
• Enemy Alien: Is a person of a nation with
  which the U.S. is at war. Legal enemy aliens are
  protected under the laws of the U.S., but often
  come under attach by U.S. citizens.
• Refugees: People fleeing to escape persecution
  or danger.
• Illegal Alien: A person who comes to the U.S.
  without legal documentation such as a passport,
  visa, or entry permits.
Aliens’ Rights
• Aliens are protected
  by the Constitution.
• They have the same
  rights as a citizen.
• Supreme Court
  ruled that illegal
  aliens kids have the
  right to an
  education in the
  U.S. (Case in Texas)
Aliens Rights is it Right
• How do you feel about aliens, legal and illegal
  having the same rights as you?
• Should this be changed? Why or why not?
Immigration Policy
• Congress has the
  power to control
  immigration
  policies, via
  Constitution.
• Laws starting in the
  1880’s restricted
  immigration in to
  the United States.
1882-1924 Immigration
• This was the beginning of the immigration
  restrictions.
• Restrictions included: Handicapped people,
  poor people, and the big one was the Chinese.
• The Chinese Exclusion Act stopped Chinese
  from entering in the U.S and the ones that were
  already here where not allowed citizenship.
Immigration Policy
Inspection Process
                This photo was taken when
                Chinese immigrated to the
                United States {San
                Francisco}. Sometime
                between 1850-1882 when
                the Exclusion Act didn't
                exist. At the time,
                Immigration was not illegal.
                In the photo they are going
                through inspection and the
                immigration "process". They
                went to Angel's Island
                because it was very
                isolated, and they formed
                their own community there.
1882-1924 Immigration
• During this period Americans feared for their
  jobs.
• New cultures came to the U.S.
• Old immigrants came from England, Ireland and
  Germany.
• New immigrants were from Asia and Eastern
  Europe. (why did they fear this?)
1882-1924 Immigration
• Even with the new road blocks immigration
  soared. 25 million immigrants entered the
  United States during this time period.
1924-1965: National Quotas
• Because of the major influx of immigrants,
  Congress took a more aggressive approach.
• Johnson Act: This act lowered the # of
  immigrants that would be allowed into the U.S.
  165,000 per a year. It was also put into place to
  favor western and northern European
  immigrants.
• During the next 40 years immigration dropped
  sharply.
Other Immigration Acts
• Immigration Act of 1965: Got rid of the
  quota system. It split the would into the
  categories, Eastern Hemisphere and Western
  Hemisphere.
• EH has a ceiling of 120,000 immigrants.
• WH had a ceiling of 170,000 immigrants.
• Low preference was given to people from
  communist countries. WHY?
Other Immigration Reforms
• Control Act of 1986: Along with reforming
  immigration, this act provided a way for illegal
  immigrants to gain citizenship.
• Immigration Act of 1990: This was an extension
  of the 1965 act that was designed to once again
  take the countries origin into account.
• It also allowed higher educated and highly
  skilled immigrants into the country.
The Basis of
Citizenship
Section 2
II. The Basis of Citizenship
• Certain citizens of the United States
  by birth were also made citizens by
  Congress. When Congress admitted
  Texas as a state in 1845, it also made
  all the people of Texas citizens of the
  U.S.
A. National Citizenship
1. Citizens of the United States have rights,
  responsibilities, and duties.
2. The Founders assumed the states would decide
  who was a citizen.
3. Citizenship came to have both a national and a
  state dimension.
4. The Dred Scott (1857) ruling that African
  Americans were not U.S. citizens led to the
  adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, which
  defined citizenship at both the state and national
  levels.
B. Citizenship by Birth
1. Citizens by the “law of the soil” are born in the
  U.S. or its territories.
2. Children born to a parent who is a U.S. citizen
  are also citizens by the “law of blood,”
  including children born in another country of
  American parents.
• National Citizenship-
• The 14th Amendment-It is clear and forceful about the
  basis of citizenship: It guaranteed that people of all races
  born in the U.S. and subject to its government are citizens,
  making state citizenship and automatic result of national
  citizenship.
• Citizenship by the “Law of the Soil”(Jus Soli) a Latin
  phrase that means that citizenship is granted automatically
  to anyone born in the U.S.
• Citizenship by Birth to an American Parent- Jus
  sanguinis which means law of blood. The rules governing
  this can be tricky-If an individual is born in a foreign
  country and both parents are U.S. citizens, the child is a
  citizen, provided one requirement is met. One of the
  parents must have been a legal resident of the U.S. or its
  possessions at some point in his or her life.
C. Citizenship by Naturalization
1. Naturalized citizens have most of the rights and
  privileges of native-born citizens.
2. Congress has established qualifications for
  naturalization:
a) Applicants must be of good moral character and
  have entered the U.S. legally.
b) Applicants must read, write, and speak English.
c) Applicants must show basic knowledge of
  American history and government and support
  the principles of American government.
Collective Naturalization
 This form of naturalization is less common
 than individual naturalization. This has
 most often happened when the United
 States has acquired new territory and the
 inhabitants are given citizenship.
Naturalization is the legal process by
 which a person becomes a citizen of
 another country at some time after birth.
D. The Steps to Citizenship
1. An applicant must file a petition requesting
 citizenship, be at least 18 years old, have been
 a lawfully admitted resident alien for 30
 months out of the previous 5 years, and have
 resided in the state for at least 3 months.
2. At a final hearing, a federal judge administers
 the oath of allegiance to the
 new citizens.
• Children under 18
 ▫ have a green card
 ▫ become citizens the day the parent is
   sworn in
 ▫ $460 fee




• shortcut for members of the military.
Who should take Citizenship classes?
A student who has had their resident alien card (green
     card) for at least 4 years.

                                              Check their
                                              green card
                                              for the date


                                              on the front
                                              or the back
                                              of the card.
What happened after
October 1, 2008?
All citizenship applicants who filed
 their N-400 on or after October
 1, 2008 will take the new test.
What Happens in the
Interview?
Current test
The USCIS officer …
1. asks applicant about
   information on the
   application form (N-
   400)
2. asks 10 questions
   about US history and
   government from the
   list of 96 questions
3. gives applicant a one
   sentence dictation
                           Interview lasts about 15-20 minutes
When do you become a
Citizen?
At the
Swearing-in
Ceremony
Usually 2-3
months
after the
citizenship
interview
Early History

Why did the Pilgrims come to America? For religious freedom.


What was the name of the Pilgrim’s      The Mayflower.
ship?

Who helped the Pilgrims in America?     Native Americans.


What holiday was celebrated for the     Thanksgiving Day.
first time by the American Colonists?

Name the first 13 colonies.             1. New Hampshire      8. Pennsylvania
                                        2. New York          9. Virginia
                                        3. New Jersey        10. Georgia
                                        4. Maryland         11. Connecticut
                                        5. Massachusetts     12. Delaware
                                        6. North Carolina   13. Rhode Island
                                        7. South Carolina
E. Losing Citizenship
1. Only the federal government can take away
  citizenship.
2. A person may lose citizenship voluntarily or
  involuntarily.
Losing Citizenship

Expatriation
It is the legal process by which a loss of
 citizenship occurs.
Expatriation is a voluntary act.
The Supreme Court has held that the Constitution
 prohibits automatic expatriation, so an
 individual cannot have his or her citizenship
 taken away for breaking a law.
Losing Citizenship
Denaturalization
• The process by which citizens can lose
  their citizenship involuntarily.
• This process can only occur by court order
  and only after it has been shown that the
  person became a citizen by fraud or
  deception
Punishment for a Crime
  A person may loose citizenship when convicted of certain
  federal crimes that involve extreme disloyalty. These
  crimes include treason, participation in rebellion, and
  attempts to overthrow the government by violent means.




           Complex legal problems?
          3 misdemeanors = 1 felony
             And it’s retroactive!

        Go to an immigration lawyer to
                clarify problems.
Red flags
F. The Responsibilities of Citizens
1. Responsible citizens need to know about the
  laws that govern society.
2. Responsible citizens participate in political
  life.
Why become a citizen?
• People’s lives are more secure here if they
  are citizens.
• You can’t be deported.
• You can vote.
• It’s easier and faster to bring family
  members to the U.S.
• You can work for the federal government.
• You can obtain a U.S. passport.
Summarizer
• Summarize the steps to becoming a citizen in the
  United States
The Rights of the
Accused
Section 3
III. The Rights of the Accused
• Prior to the Court ruling on Mapp v. Ohio,
  which banned the use of illegally obtained
  evidence at criminal trials in state courts, the
  exclusionary rule had applied only to federal
  courts.
A. Searches and Seizures
 1. The Constitution and the Bill of Rights protect
   the rights of accused persons.
 2. The Fourth Amendment offers protection
   from unreasonable searches and seizures, but
   the courts have dealt with this issue on a case-
   by-case basis.
 3. Today most police searches are conducted
   with a court warrant.
A. Searches and Seizures continued
4. The 1914 exclusionary rule restricts the use of
  illegally obtained evidence.
5. Supreme Court rulings in 1985 and 1987 limited
  the warrant requirement for legally stopped cars
  and for students and their property in school.
6. In 1967 the Supreme Court reversed an earlier
  ruling permitting wiretapping. In 1968 Congress
  passed a statute requiring a court order before
  using wiretapping to obtain evidence.
B. Guarantee of Counsel

  1. The Sixth Amendment guarantees a defendant
    the right to an attorney.
  2. In federal cases, courts generally provide an
    attorney for defendants who
   cannot afford one.
  3. State courts must also provide attorneys for
    defendants.
C. Self-incrimination
1. The Fifth Amendment protects witnesses before
  grand juries and congressional investigating
  committees.
2. The Fifth Amendment also protects defendants
  against forced confessions.
3. The Escobedo (1964) and Miranda (1966)
  decisions expanded the protections of persons
  arrested as suspects in a criminal case.
D. Double Jeopardy
1. The Fifth Amendment protects accused
  persons from double jeopardy, or being tried
  twice for the same crime; a person may be
  tried more than once for the same act,
  however, when a crime violates both a federal
  and a state law.
2. It is not double jeopardy if a single act
  involves more than one crime; a defendant
  may be tried for each offense. In case of a hung
  jury, a second trial is not double jeopardy.
E. Cruel and Unusual Punishment
1. The Eighth Amendment forbids cruel and
  unusual punishment.
2. Use of the death penalty is an ongoing
  controversy under this amendment.
Equal Protection of
the Law
Section 4
Learning Goal
• 13.12a.4 Analyze the reciprocity between rights
  and responsibilities. Examine how enjoyment of
  one’s rights entails respect for the rights of
  others
IV. Equal Protection of the Law
• In 1957, President Dwight Eisenhower sent
  federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to
  enforce court-ordered desegregation of
  Central High School. He took this action even
  though he did not believe the Supreme Court’s
  ruling in Brown v. Board of Education could
  effectively end segregation. As he told an
  adviser, “I am convinced that the Supreme
  Court decision set back progress in the South
  at least fifteen years.”
A. Meaning of Equal Protection
1. Both the Fourteenth Amendment and the Fifth
  Amendment require that all people are entitled to equal
  rights and equal protection of the law.
2. The Supreme Court has developed guidelines for deciding
  when state laws may violate the equal protection clause.
3. According to the rational basis test, the Court will uphold
  state laws that distinguish among different groups of
  people if the state shows good reason for those
  classifications.
A. Meaning of Equal Protection
 continued


4. Classifications in state laws based on race or
  national origin are a suspect classification; the
  state must show some compelling public
  interest to justify them.
5. State laws that violate fundamental rights—the
  right to vote and First Amendment rights—are
  unconstitutional.
B. Proving Intent to Discriminate
1. Discriminatory laws classify people solely
  because of their race, gender, ethnic group,
  age, physical disability, or religion.
2. To prove a state or local government guilty of
  discrimination, one must prove the state’s
  intent to discriminate.
C. The Struggle for Equal Rights
1. For nearly a century after the Fourteenth
  Amendment was adopted, the courts upheld
  discrimination and segregation against African
  Americans.
2. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court
  used the “separate but equal”doctrine to justify
  segregation in the United States.
3. In Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Court
  overruled the “separate but equal” doctrine and
  touched off a long struggle to desegregate public
  schools.
C. The Struggle for Equal Rights continued


  4. Civil rights workers peacefully broke laws
    supporting racial segregation; protesters who
    were arrested and convicted then appealed,
    challenging the constitutionality of these laws
    in the courts.
  5. Influenced by the civil rights movement led by
    Martin Luther King, Jr., Congress passed major
    civil rights legislation to ensure voting rights
    and equal job opportunities such as the Civil
    Rights Act of 1964.
V. Challenges for Civil Liberties
• In 1996 a majority of voters in California
  approved a proposition to end the state’s
  affirmative action program. When supporters of
  affirmative action asked the Supreme Court to
  prevent California from ending its program, the
  Court declined to hear the case.
Challenges for Civil
Liberties
Section 5
A. Affirmative Action
1. In the 1960s the government began programs
  that gave a preference to minorities, women,
  or the physically challenged in hiring and
  promotions, government contracts, admission
  to schools and training programs, and other
  areas.
2. Most affirmative-action programs are
  required by federal government regulations or
  court decisions; others are voluntary efforts.
A. Affirmative Action continued
3. One of the most important applications of
  affirmative action is in higher education; in Bakke
  (1978) and other cases, the Supreme Court has
  held that although a strict quota system is
  unconstitutional, a state university can consider
  race along with other factors when admitting
  students.
4. Outside of higher education, the constitutional
  status of affirmative action is unclear; the Court
  has struck down as many programs as it has
  upheld.
B. Discrimination Against Women
1. New challenges against discrimination toward
  women have been raised.
2. The Supreme Court held that past laws
  discriminating against women did not violate
  the equal protection clause.
3. In its ruling in Reed (1971), however, the
  Court held a state law was unconstitutional
  because it discriminated against women.
B. Discrimination Against Women
continued
 4. Since the Reed case, the Court has allowed
   some laws based on gender classification but
   has declared others unconstitutional.
 5. Congress has passed many laws protecting
   women from discrimination.
C. Citizens’ Right to Know
1. The 1966 Freedom of Information Act
  requires federal agencies to grant
people access to public records upon request,
  with some security exceptions.
2. The Sunshine Act of 1976 requires federal
  agencies, boards, and commissions to hold
  meetings open to the public or to provide a
  complete record of the meeting.
D. Citizens’ Right to Privacy
1. The Constitution does not specifically mention
  privacy, but the Supreme Court ruled in Griswold
  v. Connecticut (1965) that personal privacy is one
  of the rights protected by the Constitution.
2. Widespread use of the Internet challenges the
  right to privacy because of such issues as online
  surveillance by the government and the
  availability of personal information on Web sites
  to hackers.
D. Citizens’ Right to Privacy
3. War and other national emergencies create
  tension between the need to maintain individual
  rights and the need to protect the nation’s
  security.
4. The USA Patriot Act, passed in response to the
  September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, greatly
  increased the federal government’s power to
  detain, investigate, and prosecute people
  suspected of terrorism; questions continue to
  arise over whether the Act poses a threat to civil
  liberties.
Summarizer
• Why do people criticize affirmative action
  programs for minorities and women as a form of
  reverse discrimination?
Chapter 17
Elections and Voting
Section 1

Election Campaigns
Learning Goal
• 13.12a.2 Describe the opportunities that citizens
  have to participate in the political process (e.g.
  voting, campaigning, lobbying, demonstrating,
  petitioning, picketing, running for political
  office)
Electing the President
• Serious candidates for
  president begin
  organizing over a year
  before the election to
  compete in spring
  primaries.
• After the nominating
  convention, the candidate
  runs an intensive
  campaign from early
  September until the
  November election.
Electing the President
• To win presidential election, a
  candidate must receive a majority of
  the electoral votes so candidates
  compete hardest in high-population
  states.
• The candidate must decide on the
  kind of strategy most likely to achieve
  victory.
Electing the President
• A strong
  organization,
  headed by an
  experienced
  campaign manager,
  is essential in
  running a
  presidential
  campaign.
Electing the President
                              • Television and the
                                Internet are important
                                tools for presidential
                                candidates. Television
                                conveys the candidate’s
                                image, while Web Sites
                                can be used to raise
                                money and inform the
                                public about the
http://youtu.be/q_txrgE7pwY     candidate.
Discussion Question
•Describe the image
 that Barack Obama
 portrays in the ad.
Financing Campaigns
• Running for office is very expensive. For
  example, presidential and concessional
  candidates spent a total of $3billion dollars in
  the 2002 elections.
• In the 1970’s, a new campaign financing system
  was set up based on public disclosure of
  spending, public funding or presidential
  elections, and limiting or prohibiting the
  contributions of certain groups.
Financing Campaigns
• Created in 1974, the
  Federal Election
  Commission (FEC) is
  an independent
  agency that
  administers federal
  election laws and
  keeps records of
  campaign
  contributions.
Financing Campaigns
• The majority of campaign funding comes from
  private sources, including individual citizens,
  party organizations, corporations, and special-
  interest groups.
• Political Action Committees, or PAC’s are
  established by interest groups to support
  candidates, but they are limited in the donations
  they can make.
Financing Campaigns
• Two methods are used to get around
  campaign spending limits:
 ▫ Soft-money donations – contributions
   given directly to the political party
 ▫ Issue-advocacy advertisements –
   support an issue rather than a particular
   candidate.
Financing Campaigns
• The Bipartisan Campaign Reform
  Act, passed in 2002 bands soft-
  money donations to Political Parties.
• The FEC regulates campaigns online.
  All campaign Web sites that cost
  $250 or more must be registered with
  the FEC.
Discussion Question
•What reforms, or
 changes, of the campaign
 finance laws would you
 like to see enacted.
 Why?
Chapter 17
Elections and Voting
Section 2

Expanding Voting Rights
Early Limitations on Voting
• Before the American Revolution, women and
  African Americans, white males who did not own
  property and persons who were not members of
  dominant religious groups were excluded from
  voting.
• During the early 1800s, states gradually
  abolished property and religious requirements
  for voting, and by the mid-1800s, the nation had
  achieved universal white male suffrage.
Discussion Question
•Analyze this statement:
 “Voting is not just a
 right, it is a
 responsibility.”
Woman’s Suffrage
• By 1914 woman
  had won the right
  to vote in 11 states.
• The Nineteenth
  Amendment
  ratified after World
  War I, granted
  women in all states
  the right to vote.
African American Suffrage
               • Enslaved African
                 Americans were not
                 allowed to vote, and free
                 African Americans could
                 vote in only a few states,
                 until 1870.
               • The Fifteenth
                 Amendment, passed after
                 the Civil War, granted the
                 vote to African Americas
                 in both state and national
                 elections.
African American Suffrage
• The Fifteenth Amendment did not result in full
  voting rights for African Americans. Southern states
  set up restrictive voting qualifications.
• Some southern states used literacy tests to
  disqualify African Americans from voting. The
  Voting Rights Act of 1965 and 1970 outlawed these
  tests.
• Poll taxes, or money payments required before
  voting, and grandfather clauses, excusing white
  voters from paying the tax, were devices used to
  discourage African Americans from voting
African American Suffrage
• The Twenty-fourth
  Amendment banned poll
  taxes.
• The Voting Rights Act of 1965
  and later voting rights laws
  brought the federal
  government directly into the
  electoral process in the states,
  ending official discrimination
  against African Americans and
  increasing their political
  strength and participation in
  the government.
Discussion Question
•If the Fifteenth
 Amendment was supposed
 to give African Americans
 the right to vote, why was
 the Voting Rights Act of
 1965 necessary?
Twenty-sixth Amendment
• This amendment lowered the
  voting age to 18 throughout the
  nation.
• The amendment helped satisfy
  those young people who could be
  drafted into the military but could
  not vote.
Chapter 17
Elections and Voting
Section 3

Influences on Voters
Personal Background of
Voters
• Voters’ ages may affect their views and
  determine their voting decisions.
• Education, religion, and racial or ethnic
  background affect voters’ attitudes, but voters do
  not always vote in keeping with their
  backgrounds.
• Cross-pressured voters, those caught between
  conflicting elements in their lives, may vote
  based on the issues and candidates.
Discussion Question
•In your opinion, what
 has the largest influence
 on a voters decision?
 Explain.
Loyalty to Political Parties
• Because the majority of
  American voters consider
  themselves either
  Republicans or
  Democrats, most vote for
  their party’s candidates.
• Not all party members
  vote for all their party’s
  candidates. Some are
  strong party voters and
  others are weak party
  voters.
Loyalty to Political Parties
• Independent voters, who have
  increased in numbers do not
  belong to either major party
  but are an important element
  in presidential elections.
Issues in Election Campaigns
               • Many current voters are
                 better informed than past
                 voters because they are
                 better educated, current
                 issues have a greater
                 impact on their personal
                 lives, and television news
                 imparts information on
                 issues. Still most voters
                 are not fully informed on
                 campaign issues.
Issues in Election Campaigns
• The 1980 presidential
  election demonstrated
  the importance of issues.
  The high rate of inflation,
  the high cost of living,
  and the high rate of
  unemployment were
  issues debated by the
  candidates that clearly
  helped Reagan win the
  election.
Discussion Question
•What were some of the
 big topics that affected
 the Presidential
 Election?
The Candidates Image
• Americans want
  someone they
  can trust as a
  national leader.
• Voters often
  select candidates
  for the image
  they project.
Discussion Question
•Do the campaigns focus
 too much on image in a
 positive or negative
 light?
Propaganda
• Political Parties and candidates use ideas,
  information, and rumors to influence voters with
  propaganda techniques.
• Name calling, testimonials, bandwagon,
  transfer, plain folks, and card stacking help to
  win votes.
Propaganda
Profile of Regular Voters
• Regular voters have
  positive attitudes toward
  government and
  citizenship.
• Generally, regular voters
  have more education and
  a higher than average
  income. Middle aged
  citizens have the highest
  voter turnout.
Profile of Nonvoters
               • They may not meet
                 citizenship, residency,
                 and registration
                 requirements.
               • The percentage of
                 voters among those
                 who are eligible has
                 declined.
Discussion Question
•What steps do you think
 might be effective in
 increasing voter turnout?

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14. citizenship and equal justice and 17.elections and voting

  • 1. Citizenship and Equal Justice Chapter 14 Section 1 A Nation of Immigrants
  • 2. Learning Goal • 13.12a.1 Define citizenship, process of naturalization, and the controversies surrounding this issue throughout America’s history
  • 3. Classifying Aliens • Resident alien: a person from a foreign nation who has established permanent residence in the U.S. (They may stay in the U.S. as long as they wish without becoming a citizen. • Non-resident alien: a person from a foreign nation who expects to stay for a short specified period of time. (A foreign journalist who is coving a story)
  • 4. Classifying Aliens • Enemy Alien: Is a person of a nation with which the U.S. is at war. Legal enemy aliens are protected under the laws of the U.S., but often come under attach by U.S. citizens. • Refugees: People fleeing to escape persecution or danger. • Illegal Alien: A person who comes to the U.S. without legal documentation such as a passport, visa, or entry permits.
  • 5. Aliens’ Rights • Aliens are protected by the Constitution. • They have the same rights as a citizen. • Supreme Court ruled that illegal aliens kids have the right to an education in the U.S. (Case in Texas)
  • 6. Aliens Rights is it Right • How do you feel about aliens, legal and illegal having the same rights as you? • Should this be changed? Why or why not?
  • 7. Immigration Policy • Congress has the power to control immigration policies, via Constitution. • Laws starting in the 1880’s restricted immigration in to the United States.
  • 8. 1882-1924 Immigration • This was the beginning of the immigration restrictions. • Restrictions included: Handicapped people, poor people, and the big one was the Chinese. • The Chinese Exclusion Act stopped Chinese from entering in the U.S and the ones that were already here where not allowed citizenship.
  • 10. Inspection Process This photo was taken when Chinese immigrated to the United States {San Francisco}. Sometime between 1850-1882 when the Exclusion Act didn't exist. At the time, Immigration was not illegal. In the photo they are going through inspection and the immigration "process". They went to Angel's Island because it was very isolated, and they formed their own community there.
  • 11. 1882-1924 Immigration • During this period Americans feared for their jobs. • New cultures came to the U.S. • Old immigrants came from England, Ireland and Germany. • New immigrants were from Asia and Eastern Europe. (why did they fear this?)
  • 12. 1882-1924 Immigration • Even with the new road blocks immigration soared. 25 million immigrants entered the United States during this time period.
  • 13. 1924-1965: National Quotas • Because of the major influx of immigrants, Congress took a more aggressive approach. • Johnson Act: This act lowered the # of immigrants that would be allowed into the U.S. 165,000 per a year. It was also put into place to favor western and northern European immigrants. • During the next 40 years immigration dropped sharply.
  • 14. Other Immigration Acts • Immigration Act of 1965: Got rid of the quota system. It split the would into the categories, Eastern Hemisphere and Western Hemisphere. • EH has a ceiling of 120,000 immigrants. • WH had a ceiling of 170,000 immigrants. • Low preference was given to people from communist countries. WHY?
  • 15. Other Immigration Reforms • Control Act of 1986: Along with reforming immigration, this act provided a way for illegal immigrants to gain citizenship. • Immigration Act of 1990: This was an extension of the 1965 act that was designed to once again take the countries origin into account. • It also allowed higher educated and highly skilled immigrants into the country.
  • 17. II. The Basis of Citizenship • Certain citizens of the United States by birth were also made citizens by Congress. When Congress admitted Texas as a state in 1845, it also made all the people of Texas citizens of the U.S.
  • 18. A. National Citizenship 1. Citizens of the United States have rights, responsibilities, and duties. 2. The Founders assumed the states would decide who was a citizen. 3. Citizenship came to have both a national and a state dimension. 4. The Dred Scott (1857) ruling that African Americans were not U.S. citizens led to the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment, which defined citizenship at both the state and national levels.
  • 19. B. Citizenship by Birth 1. Citizens by the “law of the soil” are born in the U.S. or its territories. 2. Children born to a parent who is a U.S. citizen are also citizens by the “law of blood,” including children born in another country of American parents.
  • 20. • National Citizenship- • The 14th Amendment-It is clear and forceful about the basis of citizenship: It guaranteed that people of all races born in the U.S. and subject to its government are citizens, making state citizenship and automatic result of national citizenship. • Citizenship by the “Law of the Soil”(Jus Soli) a Latin phrase that means that citizenship is granted automatically to anyone born in the U.S. • Citizenship by Birth to an American Parent- Jus sanguinis which means law of blood. The rules governing this can be tricky-If an individual is born in a foreign country and both parents are U.S. citizens, the child is a citizen, provided one requirement is met. One of the parents must have been a legal resident of the U.S. or its possessions at some point in his or her life.
  • 21. C. Citizenship by Naturalization 1. Naturalized citizens have most of the rights and privileges of native-born citizens. 2. Congress has established qualifications for naturalization: a) Applicants must be of good moral character and have entered the U.S. legally. b) Applicants must read, write, and speak English. c) Applicants must show basic knowledge of American history and government and support the principles of American government.
  • 22. Collective Naturalization This form of naturalization is less common than individual naturalization. This has most often happened when the United States has acquired new territory and the inhabitants are given citizenship. Naturalization is the legal process by which a person becomes a citizen of another country at some time after birth.
  • 23. D. The Steps to Citizenship 1. An applicant must file a petition requesting citizenship, be at least 18 years old, have been a lawfully admitted resident alien for 30 months out of the previous 5 years, and have resided in the state for at least 3 months. 2. At a final hearing, a federal judge administers the oath of allegiance to the new citizens.
  • 24. • Children under 18 ▫ have a green card ▫ become citizens the day the parent is sworn in ▫ $460 fee • shortcut for members of the military.
  • 25. Who should take Citizenship classes? A student who has had their resident alien card (green card) for at least 4 years. Check their green card for the date on the front or the back of the card.
  • 26. What happened after October 1, 2008? All citizenship applicants who filed their N-400 on or after October 1, 2008 will take the new test.
  • 27. What Happens in the Interview? Current test The USCIS officer … 1. asks applicant about information on the application form (N- 400) 2. asks 10 questions about US history and government from the list of 96 questions 3. gives applicant a one sentence dictation Interview lasts about 15-20 minutes
  • 28. When do you become a Citizen? At the Swearing-in Ceremony Usually 2-3 months after the citizenship interview
  • 29. Early History Why did the Pilgrims come to America? For religious freedom. What was the name of the Pilgrim’s The Mayflower. ship? Who helped the Pilgrims in America? Native Americans. What holiday was celebrated for the Thanksgiving Day. first time by the American Colonists? Name the first 13 colonies. 1. New Hampshire 8. Pennsylvania 2. New York 9. Virginia 3. New Jersey 10. Georgia 4. Maryland 11. Connecticut 5. Massachusetts 12. Delaware 6. North Carolina 13. Rhode Island 7. South Carolina
  • 30. E. Losing Citizenship 1. Only the federal government can take away citizenship. 2. A person may lose citizenship voluntarily or involuntarily.
  • 31. Losing Citizenship Expatriation It is the legal process by which a loss of citizenship occurs. Expatriation is a voluntary act. The Supreme Court has held that the Constitution prohibits automatic expatriation, so an individual cannot have his or her citizenship taken away for breaking a law.
  • 32. Losing Citizenship Denaturalization • The process by which citizens can lose their citizenship involuntarily. • This process can only occur by court order and only after it has been shown that the person became a citizen by fraud or deception
  • 33. Punishment for a Crime A person may loose citizenship when convicted of certain federal crimes that involve extreme disloyalty. These crimes include treason, participation in rebellion, and attempts to overthrow the government by violent means. Complex legal problems? 3 misdemeanors = 1 felony And it’s retroactive! Go to an immigration lawyer to clarify problems. Red flags
  • 34. F. The Responsibilities of Citizens 1. Responsible citizens need to know about the laws that govern society. 2. Responsible citizens participate in political life.
  • 35. Why become a citizen? • People’s lives are more secure here if they are citizens. • You can’t be deported. • You can vote. • It’s easier and faster to bring family members to the U.S. • You can work for the federal government. • You can obtain a U.S. passport.
  • 36. Summarizer • Summarize the steps to becoming a citizen in the United States
  • 37. The Rights of the Accused Section 3
  • 38. III. The Rights of the Accused • Prior to the Court ruling on Mapp v. Ohio, which banned the use of illegally obtained evidence at criminal trials in state courts, the exclusionary rule had applied only to federal courts.
  • 39. A. Searches and Seizures 1. The Constitution and the Bill of Rights protect the rights of accused persons. 2. The Fourth Amendment offers protection from unreasonable searches and seizures, but the courts have dealt with this issue on a case- by-case basis. 3. Today most police searches are conducted with a court warrant.
  • 40. A. Searches and Seizures continued 4. The 1914 exclusionary rule restricts the use of illegally obtained evidence. 5. Supreme Court rulings in 1985 and 1987 limited the warrant requirement for legally stopped cars and for students and their property in school. 6. In 1967 the Supreme Court reversed an earlier ruling permitting wiretapping. In 1968 Congress passed a statute requiring a court order before using wiretapping to obtain evidence.
  • 41. B. Guarantee of Counsel 1. The Sixth Amendment guarantees a defendant the right to an attorney. 2. In federal cases, courts generally provide an attorney for defendants who cannot afford one. 3. State courts must also provide attorneys for defendants.
  • 42. C. Self-incrimination 1. The Fifth Amendment protects witnesses before grand juries and congressional investigating committees. 2. The Fifth Amendment also protects defendants against forced confessions. 3. The Escobedo (1964) and Miranda (1966) decisions expanded the protections of persons arrested as suspects in a criminal case.
  • 43. D. Double Jeopardy 1. The Fifth Amendment protects accused persons from double jeopardy, or being tried twice for the same crime; a person may be tried more than once for the same act, however, when a crime violates both a federal and a state law. 2. It is not double jeopardy if a single act involves more than one crime; a defendant may be tried for each offense. In case of a hung jury, a second trial is not double jeopardy.
  • 44. E. Cruel and Unusual Punishment 1. The Eighth Amendment forbids cruel and unusual punishment. 2. Use of the death penalty is an ongoing controversy under this amendment.
  • 45. Equal Protection of the Law Section 4
  • 46. Learning Goal • 13.12a.4 Analyze the reciprocity between rights and responsibilities. Examine how enjoyment of one’s rights entails respect for the rights of others
  • 47. IV. Equal Protection of the Law • In 1957, President Dwight Eisenhower sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, to enforce court-ordered desegregation of Central High School. He took this action even though he did not believe the Supreme Court’s ruling in Brown v. Board of Education could effectively end segregation. As he told an adviser, “I am convinced that the Supreme Court decision set back progress in the South at least fifteen years.”
  • 48. A. Meaning of Equal Protection 1. Both the Fourteenth Amendment and the Fifth Amendment require that all people are entitled to equal rights and equal protection of the law. 2. The Supreme Court has developed guidelines for deciding when state laws may violate the equal protection clause. 3. According to the rational basis test, the Court will uphold state laws that distinguish among different groups of people if the state shows good reason for those classifications.
  • 49. A. Meaning of Equal Protection continued 4. Classifications in state laws based on race or national origin are a suspect classification; the state must show some compelling public interest to justify them. 5. State laws that violate fundamental rights—the right to vote and First Amendment rights—are unconstitutional.
  • 50. B. Proving Intent to Discriminate 1. Discriminatory laws classify people solely because of their race, gender, ethnic group, age, physical disability, or religion. 2. To prove a state or local government guilty of discrimination, one must prove the state’s intent to discriminate.
  • 51. C. The Struggle for Equal Rights 1. For nearly a century after the Fourteenth Amendment was adopted, the courts upheld discrimination and segregation against African Americans. 2. In Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Supreme Court used the “separate but equal”doctrine to justify segregation in the United States. 3. In Brown v. Board of Education (1954), the Court overruled the “separate but equal” doctrine and touched off a long struggle to desegregate public schools.
  • 52. C. The Struggle for Equal Rights continued 4. Civil rights workers peacefully broke laws supporting racial segregation; protesters who were arrested and convicted then appealed, challenging the constitutionality of these laws in the courts. 5. Influenced by the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr., Congress passed major civil rights legislation to ensure voting rights and equal job opportunities such as the Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • 53. V. Challenges for Civil Liberties • In 1996 a majority of voters in California approved a proposition to end the state’s affirmative action program. When supporters of affirmative action asked the Supreme Court to prevent California from ending its program, the Court declined to hear the case.
  • 55. A. Affirmative Action 1. In the 1960s the government began programs that gave a preference to minorities, women, or the physically challenged in hiring and promotions, government contracts, admission to schools and training programs, and other areas. 2. Most affirmative-action programs are required by federal government regulations or court decisions; others are voluntary efforts.
  • 56. A. Affirmative Action continued 3. One of the most important applications of affirmative action is in higher education; in Bakke (1978) and other cases, the Supreme Court has held that although a strict quota system is unconstitutional, a state university can consider race along with other factors when admitting students. 4. Outside of higher education, the constitutional status of affirmative action is unclear; the Court has struck down as many programs as it has upheld.
  • 57. B. Discrimination Against Women 1. New challenges against discrimination toward women have been raised. 2. The Supreme Court held that past laws discriminating against women did not violate the equal protection clause. 3. In its ruling in Reed (1971), however, the Court held a state law was unconstitutional because it discriminated against women.
  • 58. B. Discrimination Against Women continued 4. Since the Reed case, the Court has allowed some laws based on gender classification but has declared others unconstitutional. 5. Congress has passed many laws protecting women from discrimination.
  • 59. C. Citizens’ Right to Know 1. The 1966 Freedom of Information Act requires federal agencies to grant people access to public records upon request, with some security exceptions. 2. The Sunshine Act of 1976 requires federal agencies, boards, and commissions to hold meetings open to the public or to provide a complete record of the meeting.
  • 60. D. Citizens’ Right to Privacy 1. The Constitution does not specifically mention privacy, but the Supreme Court ruled in Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) that personal privacy is one of the rights protected by the Constitution. 2. Widespread use of the Internet challenges the right to privacy because of such issues as online surveillance by the government and the availability of personal information on Web sites to hackers.
  • 61. D. Citizens’ Right to Privacy 3. War and other national emergencies create tension between the need to maintain individual rights and the need to protect the nation’s security. 4. The USA Patriot Act, passed in response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, greatly increased the federal government’s power to detain, investigate, and prosecute people suspected of terrorism; questions continue to arise over whether the Act poses a threat to civil liberties.
  • 62. Summarizer • Why do people criticize affirmative action programs for minorities and women as a form of reverse discrimination?
  • 63. Chapter 17 Elections and Voting Section 1 Election Campaigns
  • 64. Learning Goal • 13.12a.2 Describe the opportunities that citizens have to participate in the political process (e.g. voting, campaigning, lobbying, demonstrating, petitioning, picketing, running for political office)
  • 65. Electing the President • Serious candidates for president begin organizing over a year before the election to compete in spring primaries. • After the nominating convention, the candidate runs an intensive campaign from early September until the November election.
  • 66. Electing the President • To win presidential election, a candidate must receive a majority of the electoral votes so candidates compete hardest in high-population states. • The candidate must decide on the kind of strategy most likely to achieve victory.
  • 67. Electing the President • A strong organization, headed by an experienced campaign manager, is essential in running a presidential campaign.
  • 68. Electing the President • Television and the Internet are important tools for presidential candidates. Television conveys the candidate’s image, while Web Sites can be used to raise money and inform the public about the http://youtu.be/q_txrgE7pwY candidate.
  • 69. Discussion Question •Describe the image that Barack Obama portrays in the ad.
  • 70. Financing Campaigns • Running for office is very expensive. For example, presidential and concessional candidates spent a total of $3billion dollars in the 2002 elections. • In the 1970’s, a new campaign financing system was set up based on public disclosure of spending, public funding or presidential elections, and limiting or prohibiting the contributions of certain groups.
  • 71. Financing Campaigns • Created in 1974, the Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent agency that administers federal election laws and keeps records of campaign contributions.
  • 72. Financing Campaigns • The majority of campaign funding comes from private sources, including individual citizens, party organizations, corporations, and special- interest groups. • Political Action Committees, or PAC’s are established by interest groups to support candidates, but they are limited in the donations they can make.
  • 73. Financing Campaigns • Two methods are used to get around campaign spending limits: ▫ Soft-money donations – contributions given directly to the political party ▫ Issue-advocacy advertisements – support an issue rather than a particular candidate.
  • 74. Financing Campaigns • The Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act, passed in 2002 bands soft- money donations to Political Parties. • The FEC regulates campaigns online. All campaign Web sites that cost $250 or more must be registered with the FEC.
  • 75. Discussion Question •What reforms, or changes, of the campaign finance laws would you like to see enacted. Why?
  • 76. Chapter 17 Elections and Voting Section 2 Expanding Voting Rights
  • 77. Early Limitations on Voting • Before the American Revolution, women and African Americans, white males who did not own property and persons who were not members of dominant religious groups were excluded from voting. • During the early 1800s, states gradually abolished property and religious requirements for voting, and by the mid-1800s, the nation had achieved universal white male suffrage.
  • 78. Discussion Question •Analyze this statement: “Voting is not just a right, it is a responsibility.”
  • 79. Woman’s Suffrage • By 1914 woman had won the right to vote in 11 states. • The Nineteenth Amendment ratified after World War I, granted women in all states the right to vote.
  • 80. African American Suffrage • Enslaved African Americans were not allowed to vote, and free African Americans could vote in only a few states, until 1870. • The Fifteenth Amendment, passed after the Civil War, granted the vote to African Americas in both state and national elections.
  • 81. African American Suffrage • The Fifteenth Amendment did not result in full voting rights for African Americans. Southern states set up restrictive voting qualifications. • Some southern states used literacy tests to disqualify African Americans from voting. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 and 1970 outlawed these tests. • Poll taxes, or money payments required before voting, and grandfather clauses, excusing white voters from paying the tax, were devices used to discourage African Americans from voting
  • 82. African American Suffrage • The Twenty-fourth Amendment banned poll taxes. • The Voting Rights Act of 1965 and later voting rights laws brought the federal government directly into the electoral process in the states, ending official discrimination against African Americans and increasing their political strength and participation in the government.
  • 83. Discussion Question •If the Fifteenth Amendment was supposed to give African Americans the right to vote, why was the Voting Rights Act of 1965 necessary?
  • 84. Twenty-sixth Amendment • This amendment lowered the voting age to 18 throughout the nation. • The amendment helped satisfy those young people who could be drafted into the military but could not vote.
  • 85. Chapter 17 Elections and Voting Section 3 Influences on Voters
  • 86. Personal Background of Voters • Voters’ ages may affect their views and determine their voting decisions. • Education, religion, and racial or ethnic background affect voters’ attitudes, but voters do not always vote in keeping with their backgrounds. • Cross-pressured voters, those caught between conflicting elements in their lives, may vote based on the issues and candidates.
  • 87. Discussion Question •In your opinion, what has the largest influence on a voters decision? Explain.
  • 88. Loyalty to Political Parties • Because the majority of American voters consider themselves either Republicans or Democrats, most vote for their party’s candidates. • Not all party members vote for all their party’s candidates. Some are strong party voters and others are weak party voters.
  • 89. Loyalty to Political Parties • Independent voters, who have increased in numbers do not belong to either major party but are an important element in presidential elections.
  • 90. Issues in Election Campaigns • Many current voters are better informed than past voters because they are better educated, current issues have a greater impact on their personal lives, and television news imparts information on issues. Still most voters are not fully informed on campaign issues.
  • 91. Issues in Election Campaigns • The 1980 presidential election demonstrated the importance of issues. The high rate of inflation, the high cost of living, and the high rate of unemployment were issues debated by the candidates that clearly helped Reagan win the election.
  • 92. Discussion Question •What were some of the big topics that affected the Presidential Election?
  • 93. The Candidates Image • Americans want someone they can trust as a national leader. • Voters often select candidates for the image they project.
  • 94. Discussion Question •Do the campaigns focus too much on image in a positive or negative light?
  • 95. Propaganda • Political Parties and candidates use ideas, information, and rumors to influence voters with propaganda techniques. • Name calling, testimonials, bandwagon, transfer, plain folks, and card stacking help to win votes.
  • 97. Profile of Regular Voters • Regular voters have positive attitudes toward government and citizenship. • Generally, regular voters have more education and a higher than average income. Middle aged citizens have the highest voter turnout.
  • 98. Profile of Nonvoters • They may not meet citizenship, residency, and registration requirements. • The percentage of voters among those who are eligible has declined.
  • 99. Discussion Question •What steps do you think might be effective in increasing voter turnout?