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This is the 3rd in a series of 15 webinar modules reference material for Pedagogical Conten Knowledge (PCK) for Lao Teacher Training of the Ministry of Education and Sports, Lao PDR, with assistance from the Education for Employment Sector Development Project (EESDP) with the Asian Development Bank. This initiative is a convergence effort of the Department of General Education (DGE), Research Institute for Educational Sciences (RIES), the Dept. of Teacher Training (DTE) and the Institute For Education Administration Development (IFEAD). Packaged by Project Implementation Consultant (PIC) Intem Philippines.

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- 1. Learner centered approach EESDP LEARNING STRATEGIES: • Module 1.2 DISCOVERY LEARNING
- 4. ໃນການສາມະນາທາງອອນລາຍພວກເຮ ົ າຈະນາໃຊ ້ ຊ ່ ອງທາງ ເຫ ົ່ ານ ້ ຄາເຕ ື ອນ: ມອດ ໄມໃວ ້ (MUTE) "MIC" ແຕ ່ ເປດ "ກ ້ ອງ" FACEBOOK.COM / EESDP ທາງ ທາງເຟສບ ຸ ກ ອເມວທ ່ ໃຊ ້ ງານ ບວກກ ັ ບ Google Docs / ແບບຟອມ / ຈໂມນ ິ ເຕ monitor facebook.com/eesdp ສາລ ັ ບ LINKS ທ ່ ສາຄ ັ ນ 1 2 3
- 5. Webinar Mechanics • Webinar will run for 2 hours • Through a presentor and a reaction panel • With the aim to help you understand the learning strategy • Your learning must continue after this webinar • You will have home tasks to fulfill for you to get a certificate • Please use https://www.facebook.com/eesdp for your continuous learning. • You may submit your home task outputs or send feedback to Inbox of facebook.com/EESDP
- 6. PLEASE JOIN US EVERY WED/FRIDAY: • BELOW IS OUR LINK TO THE WEBINAR ON ZOOM. PLEASE MAKE SURE YOU REGISTERED FOR FREE TO BE GIVEN ACCESS • Topic: • EESDP Trainers' Webinar Pilot Series: MODULE 1: EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING • Time: 2-4PM WEDNESDAYS AND FRIDAYS • Join Zoom Meeting • https://us02web.zoom.us/j/4555659164... • Meeting ID: 455 565 9164 • Passcode: EESDP2021
- 7. CONTINUOUS LEARNING Please watch: https://www.facebook.com/eesdp/videos/1263758290694131 • Please download files for this module at: ___ Module 1 is also available here: https://www.slideshare.net/jugawayne/module-1experientiallearningj-une22021laoversionfinal3 Module 1.1 is here: https://www.slideshare.net/jugawayne/module-11experimentbasedteachinglaojune4final-prep
- 9. DISCOVERY BASED TEACHING/LEARNING: PRESENTOR Professor Somsathith Keophilavong TEACHER DEVELOPMENT SPECIALIST/CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT SPECIALIST FOR PHYSICS
- 10. WHAT
- 11. What is Discovery learning? Discovery learning is a method of Experiential learning. This popular theory encourages students to build on past experiences and knowledge, use their intentions, imagination and creativity, and search for information to discover facts. •Discovery teaching is a question-based approach, it is best for learners to discover the facts and relate to themselves. •Discovering learning can occur whenever a student does not get a definite answer but documents to find the answer on their own. •It emerges in problem solving situations requiring learners to be critical thinkers.
- 12. What is Discovery Learning • Discovery Learning was introduced by Jerome Bruner, and is a method of Inquiry-Based Instruction. • This popular theory encourages learners to build on past experiences and knowledge, use their intuition, imagination and creativity, and search for new information to discover facts, correlations and new truths. • The Discovery Learning Method is a constructivist theory, meaning it is based on the idea that students construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. ... • Teachers will give students a problem and some resources to solve it
- 13. WHY
- 14. Is discovery learning effective? • It has been proven time after time that discovery learning is an incredibly effective method of teaching special needs students, and is perfect for allowing students to have a productive learning environment that promotes questioning things, discussing ideas, and getting involved.
- 15. • Discovery learning promotes autonomy and independence. As your students actively engage in the math, and progress through the curriculum, they are doing so at their own pace. • The autonomy of discovery learning allows your students to progress only when ready. • This keeps them further engaged, as well as encouraged. • The theory of discovery learning assumes that children learn best through experimentation and discovery of facts and relationships on their own. Rather than being asked to memorize facts or learn by listening, children are ask to manipulate materials, experiment, make assumptions and discover by themselves.
- 16. Objectives for discovery learning 1. Helps learners to practice observation, thinking, analytical skills to achieve learning and able to summarize or discover principles, rules, important issues or facts by themselves. 2. To help students learn principles or rules and can be used to solve problems in a variety of situations. 3. Help Learners have the opportunity to develop the skills and attitudes necessary for self-directed learning. 4. Students have the opportunity to develop advanced cognitive skills such as analytical, synthesis, and intuitive thinking. 5. Cultivate research habits in learners to find out by themselves 6. It compels learners to face the real world challenges by bringing problems or questions to research or experiment through situations and dealing with objects in real life.
- 17. Benefits The guided discovery increases student participation during courses. It also fosters collaboration between learners. Learners who engage in guided discovery are more likely to feel empowered, autonomous, and self-reliant. All of these behaviors are related to increased retention (long term memory) of information.
- 18. HOW
- 19. How to use discovery learning? Discovery learning is an inquiry-based, constructivist learning theory that takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his or her own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths by : (i) exploring and manipulating objects, (ii) wrestling with questions and controversies (iii) or performing experiments.
- 20. What are the three phases of discovery teaching methods? • Phase 1: Formulating Questions and Initial Understandings. First, students are oriented to a problem, phenomena, or goal. • Phase 2: Exploration & Analysis. • Phase 3: Drawing Conclusions.
- 21. How to use discovery learning? •Discoverable learning-teaching models include (i) instructional, (ii) problem-based learning, (iii)model learning, (iv)case-based learning, (v) situational learning, and (vi)peer-to-peer learning;
- 22. Discovery learning loop Observe Reflect Abstract Experiment Physical Mental ORIENTATION GENERATING HYPOTHESIS TESTING HYPOTHESIS CONCLUSION Discovery learning steps
- 23. Wow this works with 3, 4 and 5 and they make up a right angle triangle. But not true with 13, 14 and 15 and they don’t make up a right angel triangle too. WOWWW it WORKS with many different numbers, My hypothesis is valid Does this mean something or am I over thinking?? Is this true in all situations? Or its just a coincidence What if I try other numbers and other directions?? ‘Ohh this makes a right angle triangle.. When I walk from my home and take 5 steps towards east and 12 steps towards north (17 steps in total), I reach the stationary shop, but if I move diagonally from my home towards northeast, I reach there by only taking 13 steps??? Discovery learning loop Observe Reflect Abstract Experiment Physical Mental I can also see some mathemativcal relationship, BUT It is not simple addition or multiplication …. what is it exactly?? Let me DISCOVER it further… Is there any relationship between these numbers?? I assume this should be true for all 3 numbers that can make up a right angle triangle.
- 24. Discovery learning steps Step 1: Teacher sets out objective for learning And ask questions based on observations, then divide students into practice groups to analyse different situations, perform experiments and discover with new facts and relationships Step 2: Hypothesis is the predicted answer to a problem or an event based on an individual's innate knowledge and experience. Teacher encourages students to generate their hypothesis… Step 3: Test assumptions and gather information that will serve as a basis for accepting or refusing estimates, if facts confirm our assumptions, the hypothesis is true/valid. Teacher encourages student to practice their creativity, analytical thinking, problem solving and logical reasoning skills to create procedures, experiments and thus test their hypotheses. Step 4 : Based on facts, experimental results and analysis, students confirm or reject their hypotheses. Students should be encouraged to use daily life examples to support their conclusions.
- 26. QUESTIONS: • HOW WILL DISCOVERY LEARNING ENHANCE INSTRUCTIONS? • WHAT SKILLS CAN BE DEVELOPED USING THIS STRATEGY? DISCUSSANT FOR 5 MINUTES: • AJAN Keth PHANHLAKOF DTE • AJAN Keomannivanh PHIMMAHASAY OF PMU REFLECTION 1
- 27. GUIDE
- 28. 5 Principles of Discovery Learning-Teaching Mode • Principle 1: Problem Solving Teachers should guide and motivate students to find solutions by gathering existing and acquired information that makes it easier to understand; As a result, students are motivated to learn, role-play and apply a wider range of skills through activities that promote risk-solving and proof-of-concept.
- 29. 5 Principles of Discovering Learning- Teaching Mode Principle 2: Learner Management • Instructors should allow participants to work either alone or with others, and learn at their own pace. • This flexibility makes learning the exact opposite of a static sequencing of lessons and activities, relieves learners from unnecessary stress, and makes them feel they own learning.
- 30. 5 Principles of Discovering Learning- Teaching Mode • Principle 3: Integration and connection • Teachers should teach students how to combine original knowledge with new things Aim for and motivate them to apply to the real world; • Familiar situations will be the basis for information, motivation will enable students to expand on what they know and invent.
- 31. 5 Principles of Discovering Learning-Teaching Mode • Principle 4: Data Analysis and Interpretation • Discovery learning is process-focused, not content-based, and based on learning assumptions, not just facts; • In fact, students learn to analyze and interpret the information received instead of answering questions for correct memory
- 32. Recognize patterns and relationships Combine with old knowledge Discover new connections Create new paths or strategies HOW LEARNERS CONSTRUCT NEW KNOWLEDGE VIA DISCOVERY
- 33. 5 Principles of Discovering Learning-Teaching Mode Principle 5: Failure and feedback • Learning not only happens when we find the right answers but also knowledge rises from failure; • Discovery-learning is not just about finding the right results but how we manage “discovery” by the process; how we arrive at “results” is just as important. • Teachers must be responsible for providing guidance to students on this process.
- 34. Discovering teaching-learning techniques • The discovery learning process should be well- designed, experienced and interactive; • Teachers should use games, visual methods and interesting techniques like HOOK questions to create curiosity, interest, lead students to new ideas that dare to express and reflect the truth;
- 35. • Discovering learning techniques may vary, but the goals are similar: for students to achieve or gain new knowledge on their own; • By researching and managing situations or experiments on their own, students remember more new ideas and knowledge.
- 36. REFLECTION 2 SHOULD DISCOVERY LEARNING BE USED IN LAO CLASSROOMS TO ENHANCE DEVELOPMENT OF SOFT SKILLS OF STUDENTS? WHY AND WHY NOT: • AJAN SENGKEO OF DTE • AJAN TAVANH OF DTE
- 37. LET’S TRY
- 38. The following 6 slides will prepare you for a home task on Discovery Learning Application ACTIVITY TIME !!!! 38 • THIS IS ACTIVITY 1. FOLLOW AS A “LEARNER”. • ACTIVITY 2 WILL BE HOME WORK (SHOULD BE DONE AND SUBMITTED AFTER THE WEBINAR) AND YOU WILL DO IT AS “TEACHER”
- 39. Please NOTE the ff. learning objective and criteria for the next steps. It is taken from the secondary education curriculum. Learning Objective: • Explain Newton’s second law of motion Performance Criteria: • Establish the relationship between Force, Acceleration and Mass and use it to solve problems. ORIENTATION GENERATING HYPOTHESIS TESTING HYPOTHESIS CONCLUSION
- 40. Think of the following situations from your daily life and answer following questions: 1. Do you ride a bicycle? What happens when you push the pedals of your bicycle? 2. What will you do if you want to move it faster? 3. Assume you have two identical bicycles that each have a basket. One bicycle has an empty basket another one has a basket full of bricks. If you try to ride each bicycle and you push on the pedals with the exact same strength, which one do you think will move/accelerate faster and why? Step 1: Orientation Please NOTE how the curriculum is presented by teacher to the learner using 4 steps: Teacher signals student this must be from real life/Student’s own context Teacher uses ordinary real life sample to draw from Teacher plants the HOOK question Teacher presents the hypothetical situation
- 41. Based on your answers in step 1 and your daily life experiences, develop a hypothesis to explain the relationship between: 1. Force and acceleration 2. Mass and acceleration 3. Force and mass Step 2: Generating Hypothesis Please NOTE the 2nd step: NOTE: require students to group for the activity to test their hypotheses later using the provided material and ask them to share in class FOR THIS WEBINAR: YOU will Do this task mentally, in your “role play” as student
- 42. IT IS IMPORTANT TO NOTE THAT... Your students must know and understand the following before they are asked to generate and test the hypothesis to discover new relationships in this activity: Force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object. Acceleration is rate of change of velocity Velocity is rate of change of displacement Displacement is the shortest distance in a particular direction Step 2: Generating Hypothesis NOTE the 2nd step: CHECK FIRST! TEACHER: “CLASS, REMEMBER WHAT WE KNOW ABOUT FORCE, ACCELERATION, VELOCITY AND DISPLACEMENT? WHO CAN REMIND US AGAIN? YES, MISS SOMPHONE? SHARE TO OUR CLASS…”
- 43. Go to an open area/ground and test your hypothesis using following material: • 2 Skateboards of different masses • 2 balls of exactly same masses • 1 ball with a different mass • Meter ruler/inch tape Step 3: Testing Hypothesis Please NOTE the 3rd step: Students should be allowed to use their own critical thinking and problem solving skills to come up with any procedure to test their hypothesis to discover the relationship between these three variables: Force and acceleration; Mass and acceleration; Force and mass
- 44. PROBLEM WITH MATERIALS? S Substitute place of another to have another person or thing act or serve in the place of another C Combine to bring together, to unite A Adapt to adjust for the purpose of suiting a condition M Modify to alter, to change the form or quality Magnify to enlarge, to make greater in form or quality Minify to make smaller, lighter, slower, less frequent P Put to other uses to be used for purposes other than originally intended E Eliminate to remove, omit or get rid of quality, part or whole R Reverse Rearrange to place opposite or contrary, to turn it around to change order or adjust, different plan, layout or scheme Of course not all materials suggested are available locally but TEACHERS should be able to ADAPT using SCAMPER The SCAMPER technique should be familiar to all TEACHERS
- 45. Record/collect data, use graphs and mathematical equations to analyse it and thus discover the relationship between (i) Force and acceleration, (ii) Mass and acceleration (iii) Force and mass Students should be able to figure out that while working on any of these 3 relationships, they must keep the third variable constant, choose one of the two variables for which relationship is being worked out as independent and vary it to observe the change in second variable to determine the relationship between them. Example (i) In order to determine the relationship between force and acceleration, mass must be kept constant, this can be done as by varying the amount of force applied to move the skateboard and observe how does it affect the acceleration. Acceleration can be measured by measuring the final velocity, which is the shortest distance (displacement) covered in unit time, as the initial velocity is zero. Thus the inch tape is provided, time can be measured by stop watch or cellular phones. If skateboards are not available, then simple tennis/football/basket balls can be used to determine this relationship. Step 3: Testing Hypothesis Process knowledge Content knowledge
- 46. Record/collect data, use graphs and mathematical equations to analyse it and thus discover the relationship between (i) Force and acceleration, (ii) Mass and acceleration (iii) Force and mass (ii) Similarly, in order to find how mass affects the acceleration, force should be kept constant, two different skateboards of different masses can be used or two balls of different masses can be kicked with same force Step 3: Testing Hypothesis Process knowledge Actual learner experience/observation
- 47. Record/collect data, use graphs and mathematical equations to analyse it and thus discover the relationship between (i) Force and acceleration, (ii) Mass and acceleration (iii) Force and mass (iii) For force and mass, acceleration should be kept constant, “more force is required to kick a heavier ball to move it with same acceleration as the lighter force” Step 3: Testing Hypothesis Actual learner experience/observation
- 48. Before drawing the conclusions, students should be asked to confirm their hypotheses and practical observations using daily life examples/experiences such as follows: Step 4: Conclusion
- 49. Before drawing the conclusions, students should be asked to confirm their hypotheses and practical observations using daily life examples/experiences such as follows: Step 4: Conclusion Oyyy! It’s so HARD to accelerate this car forward 555! It’s so EASY to accelerate this car forward
- 50. Students should be asked to conclude by confirming or rejecting their hypothesis , based on their experiment and daily life observations. They should be asked what did they discover during this activity?? Following are the examples of evidence based conclusions: • When I applied more force on the skateboard, I moved faster. I did not change mass, this means that for constant mass, force and acceleration are directly proportional. • When I put more weight on cart, it is difficult for me to move it, so more force is required to move heavier objects with same acceleration, thus force is directly proportional to mass at constant acceleration. • If I push a football (more mass) and tennis ball (less mass) with same force, tennis ball covers more distance/moves faster, thus when constant force is applied, mass and acceleration are inversely proportional. Step 4: Conclusion Which force is this?? Is it the force I applied?? Then what about friction and air resistance?? This must be NET FORCE!!! content knowledge
- 51. DO IT
- 52. Activity 2 Develop a lesson plan on any topic from your subject specific curriculum guide using Discovery Learning. Discuss how you will conduct all procedural steps of this teaching strategy. Home-task: For teachers/participants who want a certificate, submit your sample lesson plan using EXPERIMENT BASED LEARNING by messaging FACEBOOK.COM/EESDP or emailing with SUBJECT: Module 1.2 homework to eesdp.2020@gmail.com (HOME PERFORMANCE TASK) ORIENTATION GENERATING HYPOTHESIS TESTING HYPOTHESIS CONCLUSION
- 53. Activity 2: Performance Task DISPLAY ALL GROUP LESSON PLANS FOR SHARING (post in class FB Group/Google Classroom/share screens). In actual classrooms: One group shall be selected for presenting the lesson plan in 5 to 7 minutes. Feedback on the presentation will be discussed in 5 minutes. IN THIS WEBINAR: message FACEBOOK.COM/EESDP or email to eesdp.2020@gmail.com with SUBJECT: Module 1.2 homework 53 What do my students need to LEARN to survive 21st century Laos How can I prove learning happened? How can I facilitate that kind of deep learning? What do I know about my students? Teaching and Learning Activities Assessment tasks Intended Learning Outcomes
- 54. OUTCOME BASED EDUCATION (OBE)
- 55. FINAL INSIGHTS
- 56. REFLECTION 3 SUMMARY AND REACTION AJAN OUTHIT OF RIES AJAN VONGDUEANE OF DTE
- 57. Reflection (PARTICIPANTS) • What do you think about Discovery learning?? Share your reflections, participants will be asked randomly to share their reflections. Reflection time!!! PLEASE SHARE YOUR THOUGHTS: 1. Did you learn something new today? What did you learn? 2. Do you think that discovery is a learner centered approach and is useful? 3. In your opinion, what benefits can be achieved by adopting this teaching strategy in planning lessons. 4. Can you compare discovery learning with experiment based teaching and experiential learning?
- 58. ASK
- 59. EESDP LEARNING STRATEGIES EXPERIMENTAL LEARNING 59 We welcome your questions !!!!!! Please raise hands to be recognized/ Type your questions in ZOOM CHAT BOX (random selection of 3 questions to be answered by the resource person or the hosts)
- 60. 60 SPECIAL THANKS TO: The Department of Teacher Education (DTE) The Department of General Education (DGE) The Research Institute for Educational Sciences (RIES) The Institute for Education Administrators Development (IFEAD) The EESDP Project Management Unit (PMU) The Project Implementation Consultants of INTEM Philippines Hosted by: Dr. Bernadette V. Gonzales, Team Leader Presentors: Mr. Bounchanh (Curriculum Development Specialist) Reactors: Segment 1: Ajan Ket of DTE/Ajan Keo of EESDP/Ajan Outhit of RIES Segment 2: Ajan Tavanh of DTE/ Ajan Houmphanh of RIES/ Ajan Sengkeo of DTE Segment 3: Ajan Lamphoun of IFEAD, Ajan Vongduean of DTE, Ajan Somphone of DGE Technical Support: (ICT/Assessment) Joel Wayne A. Ganibe, Phoungkham Somsanith, Phonexay Soukkaseum, Jamil Lagunzad chat panelists: Ajan Bounheng, Ajan Phouangkham, Ajan Manichanh, Joel, Nadet
- 61. KOP CHAI LAI LAI!