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MEDIA & DESIGN
News Production Workflows in Data-
driven, Algorithmic Journalism
A Systematic Literature Review
Julian Aus...
MEDIA & DESIGN
*Tool evaluation partners
*
*
*
Supported by:
MEDIA & DESIGN
Research Interest
MEDIA & DESIGN
#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 4
"experimental use of algorithms, data ...
MEDIA & DESIGN
@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 5
(Cox, 2000)
http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-com...
MEDIA & DESIGN
@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 6
(Garrison, 1996)
#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
MEDIA & DESIGN
The datafication of journalism
@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 7
"datafication" of society
(Mayer...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Research literature on data journalism
@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 8
"internalist tendencies ...
MEDIA & DESIGN
@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 9
In what way have journalistic workflows and
routines changed du...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Method
MEDIA & DESIGN
#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 11
Systematic literature review
MEDIA & DESIGN
@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 12
"to develop insights, critical reflections, future
research pa...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Undertaking a systematic literature review
13
Adapted from Massaro et al. (forthcoming)
Own visualization
@...
MEDIA & DESIGN
14
Developing
insights and
critique
through
analyzing the
dataset
Developing
future research
paths and
ques...
MEDIA & DESIGN
15
Developing
insights and
critique
through
analyzing the
dataset
Developing
future research
paths and
ques...
MEDIA & DESIGN
16
Developing
insights and
critique
through
analyzing the
dataset
Developing
future research
paths and
ques...
MEDIA & DESIGN
17
Developing
insights and
critique
through
analyzing the
dataset
Developing
future research
paths and
ques...
MEDIA & DESIGN
18
Developing
insights and
critique
through
analyzing the
dataset
Developing
future research
paths and
ques...
MEDIA & DESIGN
19
Developing
insights and
critique
through
analyzing the
dataset
Developing
future research
paths and
ques...
MEDIA & DESIGN
20
Determining
the type of
studies and
carrying out a
comprehensive
literature
search
Defining the
question...
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Results
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Literature Corpus
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23
Research literature on workflows in DDJ
Development of literature over time
n=33
@julauss, @sextus_empir...
MEDIA & DESIGN
24@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
Research literature on workflows in DDJ...
MEDIA & DESIGN
25@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
Research literature on workflows in DDJ...
MEDIA & DESIGN
26@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
Research literature on workflows in DDJ...
MEDIA & DESIGN
27@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
Research literature on workflows in DDJ...
MEDIA & DESIGN
28@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
edges = 165
corpus publications, n=33
r...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Nr. of studies
Survey 3
In-depth interviews 22
(Particpant) observation 4
Method(s) of data collection
29@j...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Geographical scope
30@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
Nr. of studies Nr. o...
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Qualitative analysis -
News Production Workflow
MEDIA & DESIGN
News production workflow
Collecting
Collecting digitalized information from
● publicly available data sets
...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Type of data source
● government or public bureau
● private corporation
● other organizations like NGOs, re...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Access to information
in Norway and USA generally considered good (due to freedom of
information legislatio...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Selecting data
Because data journalists don’t have much time in the newsroom,
they prefer easy-accessible d...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Methods
● Journalists use statistical programs (e.g. MySQL, Excel, Access,
SPSS, Google Docs, Maps, Google ...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Results of DDJ research depend in increasing manner on
(graphical) display of (automated) data analysis sof...
MEDIA & DESIGN
DDJ is connected to a special way of representation which consists
of
● displaying key messages as graphics...
MEDIA & DESIGN
● Working alone at small and medium-sized newspapers, and
part of teams at larger news organizations
● New ...
MEDIA & DESIGN
● Rise of "annotative journalism"
● Regarding the collaboration between newsroom and ICT-
department in med...
MEDIA & DESIGN
● The goal of DDJ activities is by definition the [very accurate]
journalistic publication
● Publication of...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Backgrounds of data journalists
MEDIA & DESIGN
Backgrounds of data journalists
● Data journalists are appx. 5 years younger than the average
age of German...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Enabling and Hindering Factors
MEDIA & DESIGN
Enabling and indering factors
Critical factors
● Skills of the involved journalists
● Support networks (int...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Conclusion
MEDIA & DESIGN
@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 47#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
● New kind of people arriving in the n...
MEDIA & DESIGN
@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 48
Scope:
● Practices outside of Europe and North America
● The c...
MEDIA & DESIGN
49
Explore the (preliminary) corpus
online – it's a protoype:
http://tinyurl.com/valid-survey
http://validp...
MEDIA & DESIGN
Tools & Literature
50
MEDIA & DESIGN
51
NVIVO [Computer Software]. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.qsrinternational.com/
Bostock, M., Ogievets...
MEDIA & DESIGN
52
Anderson, C. W. (2013). Towards a Sociology of Computational and Algorithmic Journalism. New Media &
Soc...
MEDIA & DESIGN
53
Massaro, M., Dumay, J. C., & Guthrie, J. (forthcoming). On the Shoulders of Giants: Undertaking a Struct...
MEDIA & DESIGN
54
(34) Aitamurto, T., Sirkkunen, E., & Lehtonen, P. (2011). Trends in Data Journalism. Retrieved from http...
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55
(14) Fink, K., & Anderson, C. W. (2015). Data Journalism in the United States: Beyond the “Usual Suspect...
MEDIA & DESIGN
56
(10) Parasie, S. (2015). Data-driven Revelation? Epistemological Tensions in Investigative Journalism in...
MEDIA & DESIGN
57
Explore the (preliminary) corpus
online – it's a protoype:
http://tinyurl.com/valid-survey
http://validp...
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News Production Workflows in Data- driven, Algorithmic Journalism: A Systematic Literature Review

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Ausserhofer, J., Gutounig, R., & Oppermann, M. (2015, October). News Production Workflows in Data-driven, Algorithmic Journalism: A Systematic Literature Review. Presented at the Dubrovnik Media Days, Dubrovnik.

In the past decade, the “experimental use of algorithms, data and social science methods” (Gynnild, 2014, p. 715) in journalism has been growing rapidly. What was known as Computer-­assisted reporting and database journalism and what was mainly employed by election analysts, weather reporters, and investigative journalists in the United States (Cox, 2000), is today important for many more practitioners in all kinds of newsrooms and departments all over the world. Data­-driven journalism has become a key theme in journalism education, in the public discourse about journalism, and in journalism research. But in what way have journalistic workflows and routines actually changed due to the broad introduction of data in the newsroom? How has this impacted journalistic norms and ethics, and the skills requirements for journalists?
Based on a systematic review of scholarly papers and industry reports this paper develops a comprehensive conceptual model for newsroom processes in data­driven journalism. It discusses regional differences, the background and epistemology of data journalists, and enabling and hindering factors of data-­driven news projects. In the conclusion, the article identifies gaps in the research landscape that are fruitful for future investigations.

--
Cox, M. (2000). The Development of Computer­Assisted Reporting. Presented at the Newspaper Division,
Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Southeast Colloquium, Chapel Hill,
North Carolina.
Gynnild, A. (2014). Journalism Innovation Leads to Innovation Journalism: The Impact of Computational
Exploration on Changing Mindsets. J ournalism, 1 5( 6), 713–730. http://doi.org/10.1177/1464884913486393

Acknowledgements
The research for this paper is part of the project V isual Analytics in Data-driven Journalism (VALID) t hat is supported by a grant of the A ustrian Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (BMVIT). VALID is financed under the I CT of the Future funding programme of the A ustrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG). Project number: 845598.

Publié dans : Actualités & Politique
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News Production Workflows in Data- driven, Algorithmic Journalism: A Systematic Literature Review

  1. 1. MEDIA & DESIGN News Production Workflows in Data- driven, Algorithmic Journalism A Systematic Literature Review Julian Ausserhofer1,2 , @julauss Robert Gutounig1 & @sextus_empirico Michael Oppermann2 @oppermann_m 1: FH Joanneum University of Applied Sciences Graz 2: University of Vienna Dubrovnik Media Days, 31.10.15 #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  2. 2. MEDIA & DESIGN *Tool evaluation partners * * * Supported by:
  3. 3. MEDIA & DESIGN Research Interest
  4. 4. MEDIA & DESIGN #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 4 "experimental use of algorithms, data and social science methods" in journalism (Gynnild, 2014, p. 715)
  5. 5. MEDIA & DESIGN @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 5 (Cox, 2000) http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/early-computer-companies/5/102/445 (Meyer, 1973) 1952 #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Computational methods in journalism
  6. 6. MEDIA & DESIGN @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 6 (Garrison, 1996) #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  7. 7. MEDIA & DESIGN The datafication of journalism @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 7 "datafication" of society (Mayer-Schönberger & Cukier, 2013) "increased focus on measurement, outcomes assessment" (Anderson, 2015, p. 363) "journalism's quantitative turn" (Coddington, 2015) … has also affected the "infrastructures of journalism" (Russ-Mohl, 2006, p.199) #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  8. 8. MEDIA & DESIGN Research literature on data journalism @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 8 "internalist tendencies at [... the] early stage of academic research" (Anderson, 2013, p. 1007) ↓ "an explosion in data journalism-oriented scholarship" (Fink & Anderson, 2015, p. 476)* "rapidly growing body" of scientific studies (Lewis, 2015, p. 322)* *cited via (Loosen, Reimer & Schmidt, 2015, p. 2) #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  9. 9. MEDIA & DESIGN @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 9 In what way have journalistic workflows and routines changed due to the broad introduction of data in the newsroom? How has this impacted journalistic norms and ethics, and the skill requirements for journalists? #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Research questions
  10. 10. MEDIA & DESIGN Method
  11. 11. MEDIA & DESIGN #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 11 Systematic literature review
  12. 12. MEDIA & DESIGN @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 12 "to develop insights, critical reflections, future research paths and research questions" (Massaro, Dumay & Guthrie, forthcoming) It adopts "a replicable, scientific and transparent process [...] that aims to minimize bias [...]" (Tranfield, Denyer & Smart, 2003) #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Why a systematic literature review?
  13. 13. MEDIA & DESIGN Undertaking a systematic literature review 13 Adapted from Massaro et al. (forthcoming) Own visualization @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Writing a literature review protocol Developing insights and critique through analyzing the dataset Developing future research paths and questions Determining the type of studies and carrying out a comprehensive literature search Coding dataDefining the questions that the literature review should answer
  14. 14. MEDIA & DESIGN 14 Developing insights and critique through analyzing the dataset Developing future research paths and questions Coding data @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Determining the type of studies and carrying out a comprehensive literature search Defining the questions that the literature review should answer In what way have journalistic workflows and routines changed due to the broad introduction of data in the newsroom? How has this impacted journalistic norms and ethics, and the skill requirements for journalists?
  15. 15. MEDIA & DESIGN 15 Developing insights and critique through analyzing the dataset Developing future research paths and questions Coding data @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Defining the questions that the literature review should answer Determining the type of studies and carrying out a comprehensive literature search ● Empirical research on DDJ ● Social science focus, but open to other disciplines ● Published after 1995 Included Journal articles Book sections Conference papers Reports (from industry and research projects) PhD theses Not included Bachelor's and Master's theses Press reports Blog posts
  16. 16. MEDIA & DESIGN 16 Developing insights and critique through analyzing the dataset Developing future research paths and questions Coding data @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Defining the questions that the literature review should answer Determining the type of studies and carrying out a comprehensive literature search ● Preliminary search with “data-driven journalism” ● Extracting related terms from the keyword section of research papers
  17. 17. MEDIA & DESIGN 17 Developing insights and critique through analyzing the dataset Developing future research paths and questions Coding data @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Defining the questions that the literature review should answer Determining the type of studies and carrying out a comprehensive literature search Search terms algorithmic journalism computational journalism computer-assisted reporting data journalism data-driven journalism data-driven reporting database journalism datajournalism datenjournalismus quantitative journalism No search terms accountability journalism crowdsourced journalism dataviz datavis ddj drone journalism investigative journalism online journalism open journalism
  18. 18. MEDIA & DESIGN 18 Developing insights and critique through analyzing the dataset Developing future research paths and questions Coding data @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Defining the questions that the literature review should answer Determining the type of studies and carrying out a comprehensive literature search Scientific Databases ACM Digital Sowiport EBSCO Springer IEEE SpringerLink JSTOR Taylor & Francis Online ProQuest Web of Science Science Direct Wiley Scopus Google Scholar Sociological Abstracts
  19. 19. MEDIA & DESIGN 19 Developing insights and critique through analyzing the dataset Developing future research paths and questions Coding data @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Defining the questions that the literature review should answer Determining the type of studies and carrying out a comprehensive literature search 772 search results ↓ Assessment of title, abstract & keywords - by two independently working researchers (Thomas et al., 2004) ↓ 33 research publications
  20. 20. MEDIA & DESIGN 20 Determining the type of studies and carrying out a comprehensive literature search Defining the questions that the literature review should answer Developing future research paths and questions Developing insights and critique through analyzing the dataset Coding data @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays qualitative coding computational analysis
  21. 21. MEDIA & DESIGN Results
  22. 22. MEDIA & DESIGN Literature Corpus
  23. 23. MEDIA & DESIGN 23 Research literature on workflows in DDJ Development of literature over time n=33 @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  24. 24. MEDIA & DESIGN 24@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Research literature on workflows in DDJ Publication type Parasie & Dagiral, 2013 Lewis & Usher, 2013 Diakopolus, 2015 Karlsen & Stavelin, 2014 n=33 node size = number of citations in Google Scholar
  25. 25. MEDIA & DESIGN 25@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Research literature on workflows in DDJ Publication year of referenced papers 1787-2015 n=1151 Constitution of the United States
  26. 26. MEDIA & DESIGN 26@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Research literature on workflows in DDJ Publication year of referenced papers 1999-2015 n=1004 2013: 176 cited papers
  27. 27. MEDIA & DESIGN 27@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Research literature on workflows in DDJ Most-cited references
  28. 28. MEDIA & DESIGN 28@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays edges = 165 corpus publications, n=33 references, n = 70 size = nr. of citations from the corpus Research literature on workflows in DDJ Corpus and most-cited references The Journalist as Programmer Precision Journalism Accountability through Algorithm
  29. 29. MEDIA & DESIGN Nr. of studies Survey 3 In-depth interviews 22 (Particpant) observation 4 Method(s) of data collection 29@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  30. 30. MEDIA & DESIGN Geographical scope 30@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Nr. of studies Nr. of studies United States 9 Multinational (>4) 2 United Kingdom 9 Norway 1 Germany 4 Netherlands 1 Sweden 2 Argentina 1 Switzerland 2 Austria 1 Finland 2 Belgium 1
  31. 31. MEDIA & DESIGN Qualitative analysis - News Production Workflow
  32. 32. MEDIA & DESIGN News production workflow Collecting Collecting digitalized information from ● publicly available data sets ● requested data ● own research or data collected through crowdsourcing ● automated research (scraping) ● leaked data (17; Loosen, 2015) 32@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  33. 33. MEDIA & DESIGN Type of data source ● government or public bureau ● private corporation ● other organizations like NGOs, research institutes (28, Loosen, 2015) 33@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Collecting
  34. 34. MEDIA & DESIGN Access to information in Norway and USA generally considered good (due to freedom of information legislation) Barriers to easy data access ● fees ● lacking competencies for exporting data at public offices ● the form data is often delivered (e.g. as PDF) ● lack of legal legal resources to get access to data that is denied to journalists in the first place (6; 14) 34@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Collecting
  35. 35. MEDIA & DESIGN Selecting data Because data journalists don’t have much time in the newsroom, they prefer easy-accessible data, e.g. datasets from public bodies. They are very cautious when it comes to work with data from companies or private sources. (14) 35@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Collecting
  36. 36. MEDIA & DESIGN Methods ● Journalists use statistical programs (e.g. MySQL, Excel, Access, SPSS, Google Docs, Maps, Google Refine, Google Fusion Tables etc.) ● Statistical methods and packages including cluster, network & regression analysis --> Journalists are quite cautious with it, since they consider this outside of their field of expertise. (6, 14) 36@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Analyzing
  37. 37. MEDIA & DESIGN Results of DDJ research depend in increasing manner on (graphical) display of (automated) data analysis software Tools and programming languages ● Developers use Python, Ruby on Rails, JavaScript, HTML ● Used third-party software includes MySQL, Access, Excel, Caspio, Tableau, Arcview, TimelineSetter etc. (14, 17, 28) 37@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Building and visualizing
  38. 38. MEDIA & DESIGN DDJ is connected to a special way of representation which consists of ● displaying key messages as graphics and/or ● building interactive web applications Storytelling is done through (1) interactive web applications with continuous update of data (2) interactive application based on a stable data set (3) continuously updated info graphic or (4) static infographics (17) 38@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Building and visualizing
  39. 39. MEDIA & DESIGN ● Working alone at small and medium-sized newspapers, and part of teams at larger news organizations ● New connections between journalists and programmers ● Members of teams usually have complementary backgrounds (6, 9, 14, 18) 39@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Collaboration
  40. 40. MEDIA & DESIGN ● Rise of "annotative journalism" ● Regarding the collaboration between newsroom and ICT- department in media corporations data journalists perceive the relation as troublesome. Rather data journalists try to bypass ICT department when installing extra software or setting up databases or servers (6, 28) 40@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Collaboration
  41. 41. MEDIA & DESIGN ● The goal of DDJ activities is by definition the [very accurate] journalistic publication ● Publication of data sources and raw data following open data principles is mentioned too as an integral part of DDJ. (6, 17, Coddington, 2014) 41@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays News production workflow Publishing the product
  42. 42. MEDIA & DESIGN Backgrounds of data journalists
  43. 43. MEDIA & DESIGN Backgrounds of data journalists ● Data journalists are appx. 5 years younger than the average age of German journalists ● All of them have started a university program, 80% have also finished it ● There is no generalizable “data journalism” career path. Background is mostly either social science or informatics. ● Backgrounds include programming, design, typography, info graphics, usability, databases, Web and journalism ● USA: dominance of National Institute for Computer-Assisted Reporting (NICAR) (14, 17, 18; 6) 43@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  44. 44. MEDIA & DESIGN Enabling and Hindering Factors
  45. 45. MEDIA & DESIGN Enabling and indering factors Critical factors ● Skills of the involved journalists ● Support networks (internal and external) important for the development of skillsavailability of data ● Tools ● Legal resources ● Available resources (6, 14, 17) 45@julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  46. 46. MEDIA & DESIGN Conclusion
  47. 47. MEDIA & DESIGN @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 47#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays ● New kind of people arriving in the newsroom ● New skills needed in the newsroom ● Increase of collaborative newswork ● Shift to data-driven approaches (and epistemologies debates connected to that)
  48. 48. MEDIA & DESIGN @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m 48 Scope: ● Practices outside of Europe and North America ● The construction of "facts" ● Gender aspects Methods of data collection: ● Survey ● (Participant) observation ● Content analysis ● Digital methods #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays Research gaps
  49. 49. MEDIA & DESIGN 49 Explore the (preliminary) corpus online – it's a protoype: http://tinyurl.com/valid-survey http://validproject.at Julian Ausserhofer1,2 , @julauss julian.ausserhofer@fh-joanneum.at Robert Gutounig1 & @sextus_empirico robert.gutounig@fh-joanneum.at Michael Oppermann2 @oppermann_m michael.oppermann@univie.ac.at 1: FH Joanneum University of Applied Sciences Graz 2: University of Vienna Dubrovnik Media Days, 31.10.15 #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  50. 50. MEDIA & DESIGN Tools & Literature 50
  51. 51. MEDIA & DESIGN 51 NVIVO [Computer Software]. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.qsrinternational.com/ Bostock, M., Ogievetsky, V., & Heer, J. (2011). D³ data-driven documents.Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 17(12), 2301-2309. Lopez, P. (2009). GROBID: Combining automatic bibliographic data recognition and term extraction for scholarship publications. In Research and Advanced Technology for Digital Libraries (pp. 473-474). Berlin: Springer. Zotero [Computer Software]. (2015). Retrieved from http://zotero.org/ Tools & software libraries @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  52. 52. MEDIA & DESIGN 52 Anderson, C. W. (2013). Towards a Sociology of Computational and Algorithmic Journalism. New Media & Society, 15(7), 1005–1021. http://doi.org/10.1177/1461444812465137 Anderson, C. W. (2015). Between the Unique and the Pattern: Historical Tensions in Our Understanding of Quantitative Journalism. Digital Journalism, 3(3), 349–363. http://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2014.976407 Cox, M. (2000). The Development of Computer-assisted Reporting. Presented at the Newspaper Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Southeast Colloquium, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. Fink, K., & Anderson, C. W. (2015). Data Journalism in the United States: Beyond the "Usual Suspects". Journalism Studies, 16(4), 467–481. http://doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2014.939852 Garrison, B. (1996, September). Computer-Assisted Reporting: A National Use Update. Presented at the National Society of Professional Journalists Meeting, Washington, D.C. Lewis, S. C. (2015). Journalism In An Era Of Big Data. Digital Journalism, 3(3), 321–330. http://doi.org/10. 1080/21670811.2014.976399 Loosen, W., Reimer, J., & Schmidt, F. (2015). When Data Become News: A Content Analysis of Data Journalism Pieces. Presented at the The Future of Journalism 2015 Conference, Cardiff. Mayer-Schönberger, V., & Cukier, K. (2013). Big Data: A Revolution That Will Transform How We Live, Work, and Think. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Primary Sources @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
  53. 53. MEDIA & DESIGN 53 Massaro, M., Dumay, J. C., & Guthrie, J. (forthcoming). On the Shoulders of Giants: Undertaking a Structured Literature Review in Accounting. Accounting, Auditing & Accountability Journal. Meyer, P. (1973). Precision Journalism: A Reporter’s Introduction to Social Science Methods (2nd ed.). Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield. Russ-Mohl, S. (2006). The Economics of Journalism and the Challenge to Improve Journalism Quality: A Research Manifesto. Studies in Communication Sciences, 6(2), 189–208. Thomas, J., Harden, A., Oakley, A., Oliver, S., Sutcliffe, K., Rees, R., … Kavanagh, J. (2004). Integrating Qualitative Research with Trials in Systematic Reviews. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 328(7446), 1010–1012. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.328.7446.1010 Tranfield, D., Denyer, D., & Smart, P. (2003). Towards a Methodology for Developing Evidence-Informed Management Knowledge by Means of Systematic Review. British Journal of Management, 14(3), 207–222. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00375 Primary Sources @julauss, @sextus_empirico & @oppermann_m#DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays
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  57. 57. MEDIA & DESIGN 57 Explore the (preliminary) corpus online – it's a protoype: http://tinyurl.com/valid-survey http://validproject.at Julian Ausserhofer1,2 , @julauss julian.ausserhofer@fh-joanneum.at Robert Gutounig1 & @sextus_empirico robert.gutounig@fh-joanneum.at Michael Oppermann2 @oppermann_m michael.oppermann@univie.ac.at 1: FH Joanneum University of Applied Sciences Graz 2: University of Vienna Dubrovnik Media Days, 31.10.15 #DuMD2015 & #DUMediaDays

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