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Orthographic- straight linesIsometric- one 3D sidePlanometric- shows all planes in the modelPerspective- shows multiply sides in one view, going back to a center point
Wireframe model- the object is made up using a series of connected linesSurface model- the model is built up by drawing surfaces of an objectSolid model- the model is built up using simple geometric forms such as cones, cylinders, prisms and cubes
How much money willing to spendArea to build onWhat the homeowner wants such as appliances, special featuresUse CAD to designPresent to homeownerMake changes based on homeowners decisionsBuild house
Design- what is it going to look like. (Shape size)Excavation- Removal or change of landscape to build onMaterials- the qualityLabor- costs for man power to build houseEquipment- extra supplies needed to create house
Size-When building a home, it's best to work with even numbers. Have your home size rounded up or down to increments of two feet. This reduces wasted materials. Also, it's most economical to build a home which is no deeper than 32 feet. If the depth exceeds 32 feet, then your roof trusses may need to be specially designed and will be more expensive. Shape- Homes that have a rectangular or box shape cost less to build. Having more angles and corners in the shape of your home can increase the amount of labor and materials needed to build a home. Dome shaped homes also make efficient use of materials and tend to cost less than other shapes. Site-Preparing a site for construction can have a big impact on the cost of a home. Building on a flat lot will usually cost less. If you have to haul in lots of dirt, do a lot of grading, clear trees, or blast through large rocks, then site preparations can become more expensive.Overruns- Usually the finished cost of a home is more then the original bid price. Cost overruns occur from overspending the allowances, making changes, and encountering unforeseen problems. Proper planning can greatly reduce cost overruns. In general, it is a good idea to allow an additional 10% to cover unexpected costs.Market- Usually the cost of building a home increases around 3% to 6% per year. If it will be several years before you begin construction, remember to include inflation into the cost estimate for your home. When using other homes to compare prices, try to use homes that have been built within the last six months.
Square-foot method - multiply the sq ft by the current estimating information. This is provided by Federal Housing Administration and varies on where you live. Usually ranges from $10-$20. rough estimateCubic-foot method - slightly more accurate. Multiply the cubic volume by $1.25. rough estimateBuildings material method- accounts for the quality of the materials. Then same size house can vary by thousands just because of the materials qualities
1- all documents, completion date, contractor’s bid2- adherence to plans, fulfillment of laws, purchase of materials, provide written guarantee of work3- method of payment, having fire insurance, paying utilities4- excavation, location of house, grading for water drainage, foundation prep5- foundation, porches, patios, terraces…6- wood grade, nail size7- type size and finish8- type amount color 9- flashing and sizing,10- size material type quantities frames11-type size amount 12- wall coverings13- types makes size model numbers14- outlets switches brackets15- plumbing lines fixtures color style and make16- equipment, fuels outlets exhausts registers17- location type size 18- model make color dimensions19- types size colors20- color and type number of coats
21- type make material color22- finishes instructions for each color 23- list and location of all blacktop areas
Exterior Elevations - show the front, rear and sides of the house, including exterior materials, details and measurements.Detailed Floor Plans - show the placement of interior walls and the dimensions for rooms, doors, windows, stairways, etc. of each level of the house.Cross Sections - show details of the house as though it were cut in slices from the roof to the foundation. The cross sections detail the construction of the home, insulation, flooring and roofing.Foundation Plans - include drawings for a full, partial or daylight basement and/or crawlspace.Interior Elevations - show the details of cabinets (kitchen, bathroom and utility room), fireplaces, built-in units and other special interior features.provide the layout of rafters, dormers, gables and other elements including clerestory windows and skylights. Schematic Electrical Layouts - show the suggested locations for switches, fixtures and outletsGeneral Specifications - provide instructions and information of structural specifications, excavating and grading, masonry and concrete work, carpentry and wood specifications, thermal and moisture protection and specifications about drywall, tile, flooring, glazing, caulking and sealants.
Complete steps 1 and 2 with 6H pencil.3) Do this by center line and depthComplete steps 4 and 5 with 2H pencil.
Footing -distributes weight of house over large areaFoundation walls- to support the load of the building above the groundPiers and columns- used to support floor systemsAnchor bolts- are embedded in the top of foundation wallsSills- provide the base for attaching the exterior walls to foundationPosts- support the weight of girders or beams and transmit the weight to the footings
Cripples- raise the floor level without the use of higher foundation wallsGirders- supported by posts and piers and are secured to the foundationJoists- span from girder to girder or girder to foundation wall
T- Forms an inverted T. it is most popular in structures with basements or when the bottom of the first floor must be accessible. consists of a trench footer upon which is placed a concrete wall. T-shaped foundations are used in areas where the ground freezes.First, the footing is placed.Second, the walls are constructed and poured.Lastly, the slab is placed.
fewer materials and labor are needed. Basements are not possible individual footers upon which columns are placed
poured directly into the ground with footers placed where extra support is needed. Requires way less laborSlab-on-ground slabs, called monolithic slabs due to their single-pour design, uses thick outer footings and filled with rebar reinforcement to form the slab. Holes dug for the footer and filled with rebar comprise the thick sides of the slab, and forms make a barrier for the pouring of the concrete. The slab is poured with one pour from the foundation holes to the top of the slab forms.
Conventional framing- super close intervals. Many beams and postsPost and beam construction- posts are vertical support while beams are horizontal support. Used in smaller buildings due to the lack of strength of wood. Little amount of posts and beams
Cross bracing is neededCan be designed to span long distances without intervening supportBecause of this there is a greater flexibility in the design
Water supply- Can run in any convenient direction because of the pressure after leaving main valve. Too many changes in direction causes friction reducing water pressure. Size ranges from ¾ “ to 1”. Placing insulation around hot water lines conserves hot water and makes savings on heating bills
Gravity drainage- all pipes slope down towards main disposal so own weight will cause it to flow towards main system and away from house. Need vents for circulation of air. Each fixture much have a seal to prevent back flow.
Dry pipes- examples are air ductsWaste lines-examples are sinks and tubsWet lines- examples pipes to appliancesSoil lines- example is toilet
Goes to a tank outside of the house. Lighter part of liquids flows to the drainage field. Size of pipes depends on codes in the community
Water closets- tank and bowl in one piece, separate, wall-hungShowers- prefabricated, built on the job, placed overBathtubs- recessed, square, free standing, sunkenLavatories- wall-hung, cabinet, built-in counter top, cornerSinks- single, double, sink and drain boardLaundry tubs- single, double, tripleDishwashers- built-in and free-standingHot water heater- electric, gasWashing Machine- top loading, front loading, wringer-type
Main source- should be controlled by wall switchElectrical outlets-1 for every 6’ of wall spaceIn kitchen- 1 for every 4’ of wall space(regardless of size)
1- toggle switches are available in different sizes: single and double pole, three and four-way
Form- can be either closed and solid or closed and volume-containingSpace- everythingLight and Shadow- areas around windows and doors appear darker since these parts are shadowed. Relationship of light to dark areas should be planned accordinglyTexture-a balance between textures should be aimed at within every buildingLine- makes different objects appear differentColor- if possible the natural color of building materials should be used. If color is used, designer must incorporate a color scheme
Unity- sense of wholeness in the design. Should appear for completeRepetition- curved lines, spaces, and texture createRhythm-repeated in regular sequenceVariety- change of rhythm throughout. Too much unity ruins appearanceEmphasis- achieved by color form texture or lineBalance- achievement of equilibrium in the design
What is CAD?<br />It is a computerized program that allows detailed designs to be built using a variety of different methods and models<br />used in art, architecture, engineering and manufacturing<br />wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn<br />
Personal Relevance<br />Have been in design and building for years<br />At one time wanted to be an architect<br />Loves to show my creativeness<br />
Relevance of Topic<br />Highly used programs<br />Can assist in the creation of many things<br />More and more businesses are using CAD programs on a daily basis<br />
Advantage of CAD over hand drawn models<br />Produced and modified more quickly<br />Allows designer to try out different colors and textures<br />Easily shared between locations<br />Less storage space needed<br />Better visualizations<br />It allows for more exact measurements of dimensions<br />http://www.articlesbase.com/software-articles/advantages-of-cad-services-368566.html<br />
Types of CAD<br />2D- Orthographic projection in which each view only shows two dimensions<br /><ul><li> 3D- Isometric, planometric, oblique and perspective views which show all three dimensions (l, b, h) on a pictorial drawing
Virtual- a computer generated model is a ‘virtual object’ which can be rotated on screen to be viewed at any angle</li></li></ul><li>Types of 3D Models<br />Wireframe model- the object is made up using a series of connected lines<br />Surface model- the model is built up by drawing surfaces of an object<br />Solid model- the model is built up using simple geometric forms such as cones, cylinders, prisms and cubes<br />www.turbosquid.com/<br />
Steps to creating a house<br />Set budget<br />Find land<br />Discuss what is to be included<br />Come up with multiply designs<br />Present different ideas<br />Tweak design and make final copy<br />Hire crew to build<br />Architecture: Drafting and Design<br />
Costs for a new home<br />Design<br />Excavation<br />Materials<br />Labor<br />Equipment<br />
Variations in Cost<br />Size of home<br />Shape of home<br />Site preparation<br />Cost overruns<br />Inflation and market conditions<br />About.com:Architecture<br />
Estimating Costs<br />Square-foot method<br />Cubic-foot method<br />Buildings material method<br />Architecture: Drafting and Design<br />
Specifications<br />General Info.<br />Legal Responsibilities (contractor)<br />Legal Responsibilities (homeowner)<br />Earthwork<br />Concrete and Cement work<br />Carpentry<br />Floors<br />Roofing<br />Sheet material<br />Doors and windows<br />11. Lath and plaster<br />12. Dry walls<br />13. Isulation<br />14. Electrical needs<br />15. Plumbing<br />16. Heating and air conditioning<br />17. Stone and brick work<br />18. Built-ins<br />19. Ceramic tile<br />20. Painting<br />http://www.ehouseplans.com/blueprints/buildingspecs.html<br />
Steps for Drawing Floor Plan<br />1) Block in overall dimensions and add thickness to outside walls.<br />2) Lay out position of interior partitions. <br />3) Locate position of doors and windows.<br />4) Darken objects.<br />5) Add door and window symbols.<br />6) Add symbols for stairwells.<br />
Foundation Members<br />Footing- Usually concrete<br />Foundation walls- concrete, brick, stone, or concrete block<br />Piers and Columns- concrete, brick, steel, or wood<br />Anchor bolts- spaced approx. 6’ intervals, starting 1’ from each corner<br />Sills- are fastened with anchor bolts to foundation wall<br />Posts- wood member <br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />
Foundation Members con’t<br />Cripples-often 4x4’s spaced at close intervals<br />Girders- major horizontal support members<br />Steel Beams- same as girders but can cover larger area<br />Joists- placed on girders<br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />
Foundation Types<br />T Foundations<br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />
Pier and Column Foundation<br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />
Wood Framing<br />Conventional framing- has many posts and beams that are spread at small intervals<br />Post and beam construction- increased by popularity of the indoor-outdoor living<br />House Framing by John D. Wagner<br />
Steel Framing<br />Similar to post and beam framing<br />Uses columns, beams, and slabs <br />Steel Columns provide vertical support<br />Steel beams support roof or floors<br />Used in extremely high multiple-story buildings<br />House Framing by John D. Wagner<br />
Common items with building codes<br />Roof construction<br />Ceiling Height<br />Lintels<br />Electric Equipment<br />Walls and partitions<br />Window/room areas<br />Wood Floors<br />Joists<br />Heating and air Conditioning<br />Concrete mix<br />Foundation<br />Steel reinforcements<br />Mortar mix<br />Brick size<br />Fireplace<br />Gas/water lines<br />Girders<br />Sanitation<br />
PA Construction Law<br />Pennsylvania's Home Improvement Consumer Protection Act requires that a long list of disclosures appear in the contract – such as start and finish dates, names and addresses of subs, insurance coverage and a phone number for the Pennsylvania Bureau of Consumer Protection. Any contract which omits these disclosures is void and unenforceable. The Act also makes unenforceable any contract that includes one of eleven clauses commonly found in some home improvement contracts. Failure to comply with the Act is an unfair trade practice and gives an owner the right to recover three times actual damages plus attorney fees. Failure to comply is also a misdemeanor if the contract is for $2,000 or less. If for more than $2,000, violation is a third degree felony. Penalties are higher for repeat violations and if the owner is 60 years old or more. Failure to get a change order in writing carries the same civil and criminal penalties. <br />www.buildingtradesdir.com/.../construction_law/law_pennsylvania/law_pennsylvania.html<br />
Fines for Illegal Construction Contracts<br />The Home Improvement Finance Act requires several disclosures, including disclosure of the right of rescission and a statement in 10-point bold type directly above the signature of the owner. A fine of up to $500 can be imposed for a first violation. Second and later violations earn the same fine plus a year in jail. In addition, the district attorney is authorized to seek an injunction against the contractor. Any violation of that injunction carries a penalty of up to $1,000. <br />Failure to make federal truth in lending disclosures requires restitution of the overcharge. <br />Failure to include the disclosures required by 12 Code of Federal Regulations § 226.15 extends the right of rescission to three years (rather than three days). <br />Omitting insulation disclosures required by 16 Code of Federal Regulation § 460 can result in an $11,000 fine.<br />www.buildingtradesdir.com/.../construction_law/law_pennsylvania/law_pennsylvania.html<br />
Water supply<br />Supplied from a public water supply or private well<br />Brought to all plumbing fixtures under pressure <br />Required to have shut off valve at property line and foundation<br />Hot water obtained by routing cold water through a water heater<br />Hot water valve is always on left side as you face fixture<br />home.howstuffworks.com › ... › Home Improvement › Plumbing<br />
Waste Lines<br />Discharged by gravity drainage<br />Lines are much larger due to lack of pressure<br />Vertical lines are called stacks, horizontal are branches<br />Fixture traps stop gases released from entering house<br />Fixture traps are exposed for easy maintenance <br />Waste stacks carry only water waste <br />Lines from bathroom are called soil lines<br />home.howstuffworks.com › ... › Home Improvement › Plumbing<br />
Differences<br />Dry pipes<br />Never have water in them<br />Part of venting system<br />Waste lines<br />Carries water with small waste<br />Only contain water when water is being disposed of<br />Wet Lines<br />Full of water under pressure at all times<br />Soil Lines<br />Carry water with larger wastes<br />Only contain water when water is being disposed of <br />
Septic System<br />When a city sewer is not available, a private sewer, called a septic system is used<br />Converts solid wastes into liquids using bacterial action<br />Drainage Field- porous pipes spread over an area to allow distribution of water<br />Tank size varies according to occupants of house<br />www.epa.gov/owm/septic/pubs/homeowner_guide_long.pdf<br />
Planning Rules<br />Main source should be controlled by wall switch<br />Electrical outlets<br />Outlets for kitchens<br />Walls between doors should have an outlet<br />Each room should have adequate lighting for all visual tasks<br />
Switch Location<br />Plan what switches are needed<br />Show location and height of switches<br />Select type of switch, cover, and finish<br />Only lamps in room: switch should control outlet<br />Lights for stairways- controlled from both ends<br />Bedroom lights- controlled by three-way switch at entrance and next to bedside<br />Outside lights- controlled with three-way switch from garage and house exit<br />
Switch Location con’t<br />Basement light- switch and pilot light at top of basement stairs<br />Pull string switches used in closets<br />Describe all special controls to be used<br />
6 Basic Elements<br />Form- mass and shape<br />Space- surrounds form and contained within<br />Light and Shadow- reflects from surface of form, and shadows where light doesn’t reach<br />Texture- varies with each material<br />Line- produce a sense of movement or greater sense of length or height<br />Color- either part of material or added using other techniques<br />http://www.dongardner.com/<br />
Application<br />I made the blue prints for a new home that includes:<br />The layout of rooms<br />Switch locations<br />Appliance locations<br />Dimensions of the layout<br />A material and finish schedule (chart)<br />I also sketched up the outside of a house<br />
Conclusion<br />While completing this project I learned all of the hardships that occur when designing a house. While designing a house there is lots of factors that must be taken into account. Also, making each room an appropriate size to fit everything that is needed to be included in the room makes laying out the house even more tidiest. <br />
Class Activity<br />To complete this proportional drawing you must hold your pen or pencil at a full arms length in front of you. Then close one eye. With the eye closed, use your other eye to line the top of the pen/pencil up with an end point of the object. Then use your thumb and place it at the very end of an adjacent point. Then draw the line on the paper the size from the tip to your finger. Then continue this process for all points and you will have yourself a proportional drawing.<br />*note: Each persons picture will look different due to angle and distance from object <br />
Works Cited<br />"Architecture." Encyclopedia.World News Digest. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 5 Nov. 2009. http://www.2facts.com/article/xar134300a<br />Blackburn, Carol "Exploring Career Options: Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Exhibit Design” Johns Hopkins University Press. March/April 1996 pp. 16-18<br />Hepler, Donald E., and Paul I. Wallach. Architecture: Drafting and Designing. Second ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. Print.<br />Home Planners. 650 Home Designs. Arizona: Home Planners, LLC, 2002. Print.<br />Municode. Municipal Code Corporation, 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2009.http://www.municode.com.<br />Compinfo. The Computer Information Center, 2002. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.http://www.compinfo-center.com/tpcad-t.htm.<br />
Works Cited Cont’d<br />Schwartz, Al. "Code Shack." Reeves (June 2009): 20. JSTOR. Web. 21 Nov. 2009.<br />“Basic Electric Wiring.” Findoha. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.findoha.com/Articles/Electricity/basic-electric-wiring.htm>.<br />“Foundations and Site Work.” PATH. N.p., 7 Aug. 2006. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.pathnet.org/sp.asp?id=16754>.<br />Heldmann, Carl. “Cost to Build a House.” Build Your Own House. N.p., 2010. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.byoh.com/>.<br />“Plumbing Basics.” How Stuff Works. Fix-It-Club, n.d. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://home.howstuffworks.com/home-improvement/plumbing/plumbing-basics-ga.htm>. <br />