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Sgp final slides

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Sgp final slides

  1. 1. CAD(Computer Aided Design)<br />By: Justin Dunn<br />
  2. 2. Thesis<br />CAD is a technological advanced program that allows for the easy completion of project designs in a complete and organized fashion.<br />
  3. 3. Overview<br />What is CAD?<br />Models/ drawings<br />Creating a house<br /><ul><li>Steps
  4. 4. Costs
  5. 5. Specifications</li></ul>Foundations<br />Framing<br />Construction<br />Plumbing<br />Electrical<br />Design Process<br />
  6. 6. What is CAD?<br />It is a computerized program that allows detailed designs to be built using a variety of different methods and models<br />used in art, architecture, engineering and manufacturing<br />wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn<br />
  7. 7. Personal Relevance<br />Have been in design and building for years<br />At one time wanted to be an architect<br />Loves to show my creativeness<br />
  8. 8. Relevance of Topic<br />Highly used programs<br />Can assist in the creation of many things<br />More and more businesses are using CAD programs on a daily basis<br />
  9. 9. Advantage of CAD over hand drawn models<br />Produced and modified more quickly<br />Allows designer to try out different colors and textures<br />Easily shared between locations<br />Less storage space needed<br />Better visualizations<br />It allows for more exact measurements of dimensions<br />http://www.articlesbase.com/software-articles/advantages-of-cad-services-368566.html<br />
  10. 10. Types of CAD<br />2D- Orthographic projection in which each view only shows two dimensions<br /><ul><li> 3D- Isometric, planometric, oblique and perspective views which show all three dimensions (l, b, h) on a pictorial drawing
  11. 11. Virtual- a computer generated model is a ‘virtual object’ which can be rotated on screen to be viewed at any angle</li></li></ul><li>Types of 3D Models<br />Wireframe model- the object is made up using a series of connected lines<br />Surface model- the model is built up by drawing surfaces of an object<br />Solid model- the model is built up using simple geometric forms such as cones, cylinders, prisms and cubes<br />www.turbosquid.com/<br />
  12. 12. Types of Pencils<br /><ul><li>Darkest
  13. 13. B pencils
  14. 14. Soft lead
  15. 15. Lightest
  16. 16. H pencils
  17. 17. Hard lead
  18. 18. Middle
  19. 19. HB</li></ul>chestofbooks.com/architecture/.../30-The-Value-Scale.html<br />
  20. 20. Creating a house<br />
  21. 21. Steps to creating a house<br />Set budget<br />Find land<br />Discuss what is to be included<br />Come up with multiply designs<br />Present different ideas<br />Tweak design and make final copy<br />Hire crew to build<br />Architecture: Drafting and Design<br />
  22. 22. Costs for a new home<br />Design<br />Excavation<br />Materials<br />Labor<br />Equipment<br />
  23. 23. Variations in Cost<br />Size of home<br />Shape of home<br />Site preparation<br />Cost overruns<br />Inflation and market conditions<br />About.com:Architecture<br />
  24. 24. Estimating Costs<br />Square-foot method<br />Cubic-foot method<br />Buildings material method<br />Architecture: Drafting and Design<br />
  25. 25. Specifications<br />General Info.<br />Legal Responsibilities (contractor)<br />Legal Responsibilities (homeowner)<br />Earthwork<br />Concrete and Cement work<br />Carpentry<br />Floors<br />Roofing<br />Sheet material<br />Doors and windows<br />11. Lath and plaster<br />12. Dry walls<br />13. Isulation<br />14. Electrical needs<br />15. Plumbing<br />16. Heating and air conditioning<br />17. Stone and brick work<br />18. Built-ins<br />19. Ceramic tile<br />20. Painting<br />http://www.ehouseplans.com/blueprints/buildingspecs.html<br />
  26. 26. Specifications con’t<br />21. Finish hardware<br />22. Exterior<br />23. Miscellaneous<br />http://www.ehouseplans.com/blueprints/buildingspecs.html<br />
  27. 27. Floor Plans<br />1.Exterior Elevations<br />2. Detailed Floor<br />3. Cross Sections<br />4. Foundation Plans<br />5. Interior Elevations<br />6. Roof Plans<br />7. Schematic Electrical Layouts<br />8. General Specifications<br />
  28. 28. Steps for Drawing Floor Plan<br />1) Block in overall dimensions and add thickness to outside walls.<br />2) Lay out position of interior partitions. <br />3) Locate position of doors and windows.<br />4) Darken objects.<br />5) Add door and window symbols.<br />6) Add symbols for stairwells.<br />
  29. 29. Foundations<br />
  30. 30. Foundation Members<br />Footing- Usually concrete<br />Foundation walls- concrete, brick, stone, or concrete block<br />Piers and Columns- concrete, brick, steel, or wood<br />Anchor bolts- spaced approx. 6’ intervals, starting 1’ from each corner<br />Sills- are fastened with anchor bolts to foundation wall<br />Posts- wood member <br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />
  31. 31. Foundation Members con’t<br />Cripples-often 4x4’s spaced at close intervals<br />Girders- major horizontal support members<br />Steel Beams- same as girders but can cover larger area<br />Joists- placed on girders<br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />
  32. 32. Foundation Types<br />T Foundations<br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />
  33. 33. Pier and Column Foundation<br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />
  34. 34. Slab Foundation<br />www.hometips.com › Design, Plan, Build › Building Materials<br />http://www.ehow.co.uk/about_5533555_types-concrete-slab-designs.html<br />
  35. 35. Framing<br />
  36. 36. Wood Framing<br />Conventional framing- has many posts and beams that are spread at small intervals<br />Post and beam construction- increased by popularity of the indoor-outdoor living<br />House Framing by John D. Wagner<br />
  37. 37. Steel Framing<br />Similar to post and beam framing<br />Uses columns, beams, and slabs <br />Steel Columns provide vertical support<br />Steel beams support roof or floors<br />Used in extremely high multiple-story buildings<br />House Framing by John D. Wagner<br />
  38. 38. Construction<br />
  39. 39. Common items with building codes<br />Roof construction<br />Ceiling Height<br />Lintels<br />Electric Equipment<br />Walls and partitions<br />Window/room areas<br />Wood Floors<br />Joists<br />Heating and air Conditioning<br />Concrete mix<br />Foundation<br />Steel reinforcements<br />Mortar mix<br />Brick size<br />Fireplace<br />Gas/water lines<br />Girders<br />Sanitation<br />
  40. 40. PA Construction Law<br />Pennsylvania's Home Improvement Consumer Protection Act requires that a long list of disclosures appear in the contract – such as start and finish dates, names and addresses of subs, insurance coverage and a phone number for the Pennsylvania Bureau of Consumer Protection. Any contract which omits these disclosures is void and unenforceable. The Act also makes unenforceable any contract that includes one of eleven clauses commonly found in some home improvement contracts. Failure to comply with the Act is an unfair trade practice and gives an owner the right to recover three times actual damages plus attorney fees. Failure to comply is also a misdemeanor if the contract is for $2,000 or less. If for more than $2,000, violation is a third degree felony. Penalties are higher for repeat violations and if the owner is 60 years old or more. Failure to get a change order in writing carries the same civil and criminal penalties. <br />www.buildingtradesdir.com/.../construction_law/law_pennsylvania/law_pennsylvania.html<br />
  41. 41. Fines for Illegal Construction Contracts<br />The Home Improvement Finance Act requires several disclosures, including disclosure of the right of rescission and a statement in 10-point bold type directly above the signature of the owner. A fine of up to $500 can be imposed for a first violation. Second and later violations earn the same fine plus a year in jail. In addition, the district attorney is authorized to seek an injunction against the contractor. Any violation of that injunction carries a penalty of up to $1,000. <br />Failure to make federal truth in lending disclosures requires restitution of the overcharge. <br />Failure to include the disclosures required by 12 Code of Federal Regulations § 226.15 extends the right of rescission to three years (rather than three days). <br />Omitting insulation disclosures required by 16 Code of Federal Regulation § 460 can result in an $11,000 fine.<br />www.buildingtradesdir.com/.../construction_law/law_pennsylvania/law_pennsylvania.html<br />
  42. 42. Plumbing<br />
  43. 43. Water supply<br />Supplied from a public water supply or private well<br />Brought to all plumbing fixtures under pressure <br />Required to have shut off valve at property line and foundation<br />Hot water obtained by routing cold water through a water heater<br />Hot water valve is always on left side as you face fixture<br />home.howstuffworks.com › ... › Home Improvement › Plumbing<br />
  44. 44. Waste Lines<br />Discharged by gravity drainage<br />Lines are much larger due to lack of pressure<br />Vertical lines are called stacks, horizontal are branches<br />Fixture traps stop gases released from entering house<br />Fixture traps are exposed for easy maintenance <br />Waste stacks carry only water waste <br />Lines from bathroom are called soil lines<br />home.howstuffworks.com › ... › Home Improvement › Plumbing<br />
  45. 45. Differences<br />Dry pipes<br />Never have water in them<br />Part of venting system<br />Waste lines<br />Carries water with small waste<br />Only contain water when water is being disposed of<br />Wet Lines<br />Full of water under pressure at all times<br />Soil Lines<br />Carry water with larger wastes<br />Only contain water when water is being disposed of <br />
  46. 46. Septic System<br />When a city sewer is not available, a private sewer, called a septic system is used<br />Converts solid wastes into liquids using bacterial action<br />Drainage Field- porous pipes spread over an area to allow distribution of water<br />Tank size varies according to occupants of house<br />www.epa.gov/owm/septic/pubs/homeowner_guide_long.pdf<br />
  47. 47. Plumbing Fixtures<br />Bathroom Fixtures<br />Water Closets<br />Showers<br />Bathtubs<br />Lavatories<br />Kitchen<br />Sinks<br />Laundry tubs<br />Dishwashers<br />Hot water heater<br />Washing machine<br />www.ebuild.com/plumbing-fixtures.hwx<br />
  48. 48. Electrical<br />
  49. 49. Planning Rules<br />Main source should be controlled by wall switch<br />Electrical outlets<br />Outlets for kitchens<br />Walls between doors should have an outlet<br />Each room should have adequate lighting for all visual tasks<br />
  50. 50. Switch Location<br />Plan what switches are needed<br />Show location and height of switches<br />Select type of switch, cover, and finish<br />Only lamps in room: switch should control outlet<br />Lights for stairways- controlled from both ends<br />Bedroom lights- controlled by three-way switch at entrance and next to bedside<br />Outside lights- controlled with three-way switch from garage and house exit<br />
  51. 51. Switch Location con’t<br />Basement light- switch and pilot light at top of basement stairs<br />Pull string switches used in closets<br />Describe all special controls to be used<br />
  52. 52. Design Process<br />
  53. 53. 6 Basic Elements<br />Form- mass and shape<br />Space- surrounds form and contained within<br />Light and Shadow- reflects from surface of form, and shadows where light doesn’t reach<br />Texture- varies with each material<br />Line- produce a sense of movement or greater sense of length or height<br />Color- either part of material or added using other techniques<br />http://www.dongardner.com/<br />
  54. 54. 6 Basic Principles<br />Unity<br />Repetition<br />Rhythm<br />Variety<br />Emphasis<br />Balance<br />http://www.dongardner.com/<br />
  55. 55. Application<br />I made the blue prints for a new home that includes:<br />The layout of rooms<br />Switch locations<br />Appliance locations<br />Dimensions of the layout<br />A material and finish schedule (chart)<br />
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
  59. 59. Conclusion<br />While completing this project I learned all of the hardships that occur when designing a house. While designing a house there is lots of factors that must be taken into account. Also, making each room an appropriate size to fit everything that is needed to be included in the room makes laying out the house even more tidiest. <br />
  60. 60. Class Activity<br />To complete this proportional drawing you must hold your pen or pencil at a full arms length in front of you. Then close one eye. With the eye closed, use your other eye to line the top of the pen/pencil up with an end point of the object. Then use your thumb and place it at the very end of an adjacent point. Then draw the line on the paper the size from the tip to your finger. Then continue this process for all points and you will have yourself a proportional drawing.<br />*note: Each persons picture will look different due to angle and distance from object <br />
  61. 61. Works Cited<br />"Architecture." Encyclopedia.World News Digest. Facts On File News Services, n.d. Web. 5 Nov. 2009. http://www.2facts.com/article/xar134300a<br />Blackburn, Carol "Exploring Career Options: Architecture, Landscape Architecture, and Exhibit Design” Johns Hopkins University Press. March/April 1996 pp. 16-18<br />Hepler, Donald E., and Paul I. Wallach. Architecture: Drafting and Designing. Second ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. Print.<br />Home Planners. 650 Home Designs. Arizona: Home Planners, LLC, 2002. Print.<br />Municode. Municipal Code Corporation, 2009. Web. 24 Nov. 2009.http://www.municode.com.<br />Compinfo. The Computer Information Center, 2002. Web. 22 Nov. 2009.http://www.compinfo-center.com/tpcad-t.htm.<br />
  62. 62. Works Cited Cont’d<br />Schwartz, Al. "Code Shack." Reeves (June 2009): 20. JSTOR. Web. 21 Nov. 2009.<br />“Basic Electric Wiring.” Findoha. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.findoha.com/‌Articles/‌Electricity/‌basic-electric-wiring.htm>.<br />“Foundations and Site Work.” PATH. N.p., 7 Aug. 2006. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.pathnet.org/‌sp.asp?id=16754>.<br />Heldmann, Carl. “Cost to Build a House.” Build Your Own House. N.p., 2010. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.byoh.com/>.<br />“Plumbing Basics.” How Stuff Works. Fix-It-Club, n.d. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://home.howstuffworks.com/‌home-improvement/‌plumbing/‌plumbing-basics-ga.htm>. <br />
  63. 63. Images used<br />http://www.southbank.net/blogs/subjects/westminster_tech/iso.gif<br />http://www.aversis.be/tutorials/rhinoceros/images/rhino_2d/start01small.jpg<br />http://www.postmixing.com/mixing%20forum/images/r300%20impeller-5.jpg<br />http://www.we-r-here.com/cad_07/tutorials/level_3/images/extra_3-002.gif<br />http://www.cadsoftsolutions.co.uk/store/software/shark/shark/files/page124_6.jpg<br />http://truetex.com/micad47.jpg<br />http://www.sherwinarnott.org/wp-content/gallery/illustration/pencilgradingchart.png<br />http://www.islecare.org/images/inver-foundations.jpg<br />http://www.foundationsupportworks.com/images/smart-jack-pdf.jpg<br />http://www.kyvietnammemorial.net/gallery/FoundationSlab.jpg<br />http://www.phys.ufl.edu/~liz/cadhouse.jpg<br />
  64. 64. Images used cont’d<br />http://samus.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/dollar-sign.jpg<br />http://www.zamorehomes.com/images/flowchart.png<br />http://www.huahinhorizon.com/images/ROOF-PLAN-AL.jpg<br />http://www.thegarageexpert.net/images/t-shaped_foundation.jpg<br />http://plumbers-directory.info/yabb/Attachments/Plumbing.gif<br />