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Charissa Kristine B

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consist of graphs, tables and figures

Publié dans : Business, Technologie
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Charissa Kristine B

  2. 2. GRAPHS <ul><li>diagram that shows relationships between numbers. </li></ul><ul><li>arrange numerical information into a picture from which it is often possible to see overall patterns or trends in the information. </li></ul>
  3. 3. STRUCTURE <ul><li>any graph used to report findings should show: </li></ul><ul><li>significant features and findings of the investigation in an a fair and easily read way. </li></ul><ul><li>underlying structure of an investigation in terms of the relationships between variables. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>units of measurement </li></ul><ul><li>number of readings </li></ul><ul><li>range and interval of readings </li></ul>
  5. 5. RULES FOR GRAPHS <ul><li>If your reader is supposed to compare multiple plots, put them in the same graph. If the result is too cluttered use different graph, at least keep the scales consistent so they can be easily compared. </li></ul><ul><li>Use different shape and line types to distinguish multiple plots on the same graph. Color will be lost if IT is reproduce in black and white. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>don’t connect the dots. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw curves with the straight edge, spline, or french curve or fiet and equation to the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Use symbols, not dots for your data. </li></ul><ul><li>Include errors bars. </li></ul><ul><li>When using spread sheets for plots, select scatter or X-Y plots, not line plots.Make legend meaningful. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Label the axes with descriptive words and units. </li></ul><ul><li>Spread out data y appropriate axis scaling. axis need not start at 0 unless it is important . appropriate labels such as, multiple 1, 2, or 10. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor division of axis should be appropriate. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Use scientific notation with units when appropriate . Be careful about the sign on the exponent. use as few digits as possible. The precision of the reading depends on the graph division, not the number of trailing 0. </li></ul>
  9. 9. EXAMPLE <ul><li>Bar graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Line graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Pie graphs </li></ul><ul><li>Histograms </li></ul>
  10. 10. BAR GRAPHS <ul><li>way of displaying statistical data using horizontal or vertical bars. The heights or lengths of the bars are proportional to the quantities they represent. </li></ul><ul><li>should be used for categorical, ordered, and discrete variables. </li></ul>
  11. 11. EXAMPLE
  12. 12. LINE GRAPHS <ul><li>Line graphs compare two variables. Each variable is plotted along an axis . A line graph has a vertical axis and a horizontal axis. So, for example, if you wanted to graph the height of a ball after you have thrown it, you could put time along the horizontal, or x-axis, and height along the vertical, or y-axis. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>As I mentioned before, each type of graph has characteristics that make it useful in certain situations. </li></ul><ul><li>They are good at showing specific values of data, meaning that given one variable the other can easily be determined. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>They show trends in data clearly, meaning that they visibly show how one variable is affected by the other as it increases or decreases. </li></ul><ul><li>They enable the viewer to make predictions about the results of data not yet recorded. </li></ul>
  15. 15. EXAMPLE
  16. 16. PIE GRAPHS <ul><li>Circle or pie graphs are particularly good illustrations when considering how many parts of a whole are inception. The pie chart is then divided very much as a baker's pie would be into slices that represent the proportional amounts of time spent on each activity. </li></ul>
  17. 17. EXAMPLE
  18. 18. HISTOGRAMS <ul><li>A histogram can be constructed by segmenting the range of the data into equal sized bins (also called segments, groups or classes). For example, if your data ranges from 1.1 to 1.8, you could have equal bins of 0.1 consisting of 1 to 1.1, 1.2 to 1.3, 1.3 to 1.4, and so on. </li></ul>
  19. 19. EXAMPLE
  20. 20. LIMITATIONS <ul><li>Graphs can tell you a lot about the design of an investigation, but they don't tell you everything. For example, they don't usually tell you which variables were controlled, the sample size, or the method of measurement. So there are lots of questions to ask to find out about validity and reliability, and also about the actual context of the investigation. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>The scales on the axes can be stretched or shrunk to emphasise one side of a relationship or to make a point that may not be justified by the data. </li></ul><ul><li>A graph implies a relationship but not necessarily a cause </li></ul>
  22. 22. FIGURES&TABLES <ul><li>A table is sometimes called a char t . This is a correct use, but can confuse students. </li></ul>
  23. 23. PURPOSE <ul><li>Tables are </li></ul><ul><li>an organiser for an investigation </li></ul><ul><li>a way of presenting data in a report </li></ul><ul><li>an organiser to assist comprehension and thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>For investigations with no numerical data it is usually better to use a table to present the data. </li></ul>
  24. 24. LIMITATIONS <ul><li>It can be difficult to see numerical relationships and patterns. A graph may make these clearer. </li></ul><ul><li>When clumping information into bands, there is no indication of how many are in each category. </li></ul>
  25. 25. SUBMITTED BY: <ul><li>DINGAL, CHARISSA KRISTINE B. </li></ul><ul><li>BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING </li></ul>