Hands on with lightweight m2m and Eclipse Leshan

Julien Vermillard
Julien VermillardSenior Software Developer at Sierra Wireless, Member at Apache Software Foundation à Sierra Wireless
Hands-on with Lightweight
M2M
Run a smartwatch on the Internet-of-Things
Agenda
Intro
CoAP & Lightweight M2M
Demo
Eclipse Leshan
Hands-on!
Eclipse Wakaama
Going further
Your devoted presenters
Julien Vermillard
Manuel Sangoï
Simon Bernard
Lightweight M2M
Open Mobile Alliance
Lightweight M2M - What is it?
A reboot of OMA-DM targeting M2M
Built on top of CoAP (RFC 7252) and DTLS (RFC 6347)
A REST API for device management and applications
Device management?
Operate, monitor, configure, upgrade fleets of
communicating objects
Device management
Firmware/software upgrade
Configure “OTA” the device
Monitor connectivity (signal, statistics,..)
Reboot, reset to factory
Rotate security keys
In a consistent way for different hardware
Based on CoAP?
The Constrained Application Protocol
A new protocol for a new world
Class 1 devices
~100KiB Flash
~10KiB RAM
Low-power networks
<100Bytes packets
Where old solutions doesn’t fit
Target
of less than $1
for IoT SoC
TCP and HTTP
are not a good fit
CoAP - RFC 7252
RESTful protocol designed from scratch
URIs, Internet Media Types
GET, POST, PUT, DELETE
Transparent mapping to HTTP
Additional features for M2M scenarios
Observe
Compact and binary
Binary protocol
- Low parsing complexity
- Small message size
Options
- Binary HTTP-like headers
0 – 8 Bytes Token
Exchange handle for client
4-byte Base Header
Version | Type | T-len | Code | ID
Options
Location, Max-Age, ETag, …
Marker
0xFF
Payload
Representation
CoAP Security
Based on DTLS 1.2 (TLS for Datagrams)
Focus on AES and Elliptic Curve Crypto (ECC)
Pre-shared secrets, X.509, or raw public keys
Hardware acceleration in IoT oriented SoC
LwM2M
An API on top of CoAP
Lightweight M2M
REST API for:
Security, Device, Server
Connectivity monitoring, Connectivity statistics
Location, Firmware Upgrade, Software management,
Swipe & Lock
But objects have a numerical identifier
LwM2M URLs
/{object}/{instance}/{resource}
Examples:
● "/6/0" the whole location object (binary record)
● "/6/0/1" only the longitude (degree)
Standard objects
Example: Device
Manufacturer
Model number
Serial number
Firmware version
Reboot
Factory reset
Power sources
Power V/A
Battery level
Memory free
Error code
Current time
UTC offset
Timezone
Custom objects
You can define your own objects
Discoverable using CoAP Link Format
IPSO Alliance Smart Objects:
accelerometer, temperature, sensors,...
Showtime!
The smartwatch demo
Eclipse Leshan
Lightweight M2M for Java
Leshan
Java library for implementing servers & clients
Friendly for any Java developer
Simple (no framework, few dependencies)
But also a Web UI for discovering and testing
Build using “mvn install”
Based on Californium and Scandium
History
Started 22 Jul. 2013 @ Sierra Wireless
First external contribution 10 March 2014
Public sandbox Jul. 2014
Proposed as an Eclipse project Sep. 2014
Client contributed Oct. 2014
LwM2M playground: Public sandbox
http://leshan.eclipse.org
Bleeding edge: deployed on master commit
IPv4 and IPv6
Press “CoAP messages” for low-level traces
Commiters
Simon Bernard - Sierra Wireless
Kai Hudalla - Bosch Software Innovations
Manuel Sangoï - Sierra Wireless
J.F. Schloman - Zebra Technologies, Zatar
Julien Vermillard - Sierra Wireless
Leshan Features
Client initiated bootstrap
Registration/Deregistration
Read, Write, Create objects
TLV encoding/decoding
OSGi friendly:
https://github.com/eclipse/leshan.osgi
Leshan security
DTLS Pre-Shared-Key
DTLS Raw-Public-Key
DTLS X.509
Maven modules
leshan-core commons elements
leshan-server-core server lwm2m logic
leshan-server-cf californium server
leshan-client-core client lwm2m logic
leshan-client-cf californium client
leshan-all everything above in 1 jar
leshan-client-example
leshan-standalone application with web UI
leshan-bs-server standalone bootstrap
leshan-integration-tests
Server API
// Build LWM2M server
lwServer = new LeshanServerBuilder().build();
lwServer.getClientRegistry().addListener(new ClientRegistryListener() {
@Override
public void registered(Client client) {
System.out.println("New registered client with endpoint: " +
client.getEndpoint());
}
@Override
public void updated(Client clientUpdated) {
System.out.println("Registration updated”);
}
@Override
public void unregistered(Client client) {
System.out.println("Registration deleted”);
}
});
// Start
lwServer.start();
System.out.println("Demo server started");
Server API
// Prepare the new value
LwM2mResource currentTimeResource = new LwM2mResource(13,
Value.newDateValue(new
Date()));
// Send a write request to a client
WriteRequest writeCurrentTime = new WriteRequest(client, 3, 0, 13,
currentTimeResource, ContentFormat.TEXT, true);
ClientResponse response = lwServer.send(writeCurrentTime);
System.out.println("Response to write request from client " +
client.getEndpoint() + ": " +response.getCode());
Implements your own store
ClientRegistry:
Store currently registered clients
SecurityRegistry:
Store security informations
Default implementations are “in-memory”
for demo only!
Client API
// Initialize object tree with device(3) and location(6) objects
List<ObjectEnabler> enablers = new ObjectsInitializer().create(3, 6);
// Create a client
LeshanClient client = new LeshanClient(new InetSocketAddress("127.0.0.1", 5683),
new ArrayList<LwM2mObjectEnabler>(enablers));
// Start it
client.start();
// Register to the server
RegisterResponse response = client.send(new RegisterRequest("myDevice"));
System.out.println("Response to register request from server : " + response.getCode());
Implements your own LwM2m Objects
Lwm2m Object instance are mapped on Java
instance.
Default implementation are just stupid mock for
demo only.
Hands-on!
Getting started
● Tutorial projects
From the USB stick
or
https://github.com/msangoi/leshan-tuto
● Launch Eclipse and import the projects
File > Import... > Existing projects into workspace
Step 1
Register a LWM2M client with a server
1. Complete the code
Send a registration request to the server
2. Run a local server (leshan standalone)
java -jar leshan-standalone.jar
Web UI available: http://localhost:8080/#/clients
3. Run the client
Step 2
Define your own Device standard object
1. Complete the code
a. Handle Read requests for some resources
(Manufacturer model, Current timestamp…)
b. Handle Write requests for Current timestamp resource
c. Handle Exec requests for Reboot resource
2. Run the client (same server as Step 1)
Step 3
Run a server synchronizing the current time of
each new registered client
1. Complete the code
a. Build a leshan server
b. Listen for new client registrations
c. Send a write request to synchronize the current time
of the client (resource with path /3/0/13)
2. Run the server
3. Test with the client from Step 2
Step 4
Observe the current time of a registered client
1. Update the client (from step 2) to notify when
the current time value has changed
2. Complete the server code
a. Listen for new observations and log the new value
when a new notification is received
b. Listen for new registrations and send an observe
request (path /3/0/13) to the new clients
Going further
Eclipse Wakaama
A C client and server implementation of LwM2M
Not a shared library (.so/.dll)
Embedded friendly but using malloc/free
Plug your own IP stack and DTLS implementation
Wakaama: Features
Register, registration update, deregister
Read, write resources
Read, write, create, delete object instances
TLV or plain text
Observe
Wakaama: Structure
core :
internals.h liblwm2m.c liblwm2m.h
list.c management.c objects.c observe.c
packet.c registration.c tlv.c transaction.c
uri.c utils.c
core/er-coap-13 :
er-coap-13.c er-coap-13.h
lwm2m_object_t * get_object_device()
{
lwm2m_object_t * deviceObj;
deviceObj = (lwm2m_object_t *)lwm2m_malloc(sizeof(lwm2m_object_t));
if (NULL != deviceObj)
{
memset(deviceObj, 0, sizeof(lwm2m_object_t));
deviceObj->objID = 3;
deviceObj->readFunc = prv_device_read;
deviceObj->writeFunc = prv_device_write;
deviceObj->executeFunc = prv_device_execute;
deviceObj->userData = lwm2m_malloc(sizeof(device_data_t));
if (NULL != deviceObj->userData)
{
((device_data_t*)deviceObj->userData)->time = 1367491215;
strcpy(((device_data_t*)deviceObj->userData)->time_offset, "+01:00");
}
else
{
lwm2m_free(deviceObj);
deviceObj = NULL;
}
}
return deviceObj;
}
Create objects!
objArray[0] = get_object_device();
if (NULL == objArray[0])
{
fprintf(stderr, "Failed to create Device objectrn");
return -1;
}
objArray[1] = get_object_firmware();
if (NULL == objArray[1])
{
fprintf(stderr, "Failed to create Firmware objectrn");
return -1;
}
objArray[2] = get_test_object();
if (NULL == objArray[2])
{
fprintf(stderr, "Failed to create test objectrn");
return -1;
}
lwm2mH = lwm2m_init(prv_connect_server, prv_buffer_send, &data);
if (NULL == lwm2mH)
{
fprintf(stderr, "lwm2m_init() failedrn");
return -1;
}
result = lwm2m_configure(lwm2mH, "testlwm2mclient", BINDING_U, NULL, OBJ_COUNT, objArray);
...
result = lwm2m_start(lwm2mH);
Configure
Wakaama!
while (0 == g_quit)
{
struct timeval tv;
tv.tv_sec = 60;
tv.tv_usec = 0;
/*
* This function does two things:
* - first it does the work needed by liblwm2m (eg. (re)sending some packets).
* - Secondly it adjust the timeout value (default 60s) depending on the state of the transaction
* (eg. retransmission) and the time between the next operation
*/
result = lwm2m_step(lwm2mH, &tv);
if (result != 0)
{
fprintf(stderr, "lwm2m_step() failed: 0x%Xrn", result);
return -1;
}
Active Loop
TinyDTLS
Eclipse Proposal
“Support session multiplexing in single-threaded
applications and thus targets specifically on
embedded systems.”
Examples for Linux, or Contiki OS
TLS_PSK_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8
TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES128_CCM_8
In real hardware?
Spark Core:
Cortex-M3 STM32,
RAM/ROM 20/128k, 72MHz
WiFi
Arduino Mega
AVR, ATmega2560,
RAM/ROM 8/256k, 16MHz
Ethernet
Thank you!
Questions?
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Hands on with lightweight m2m and Eclipse Leshan

  • 1. Hands-on with Lightweight M2M Run a smartwatch on the Internet-of-Things
  • 2. Agenda Intro CoAP & Lightweight M2M Demo Eclipse Leshan Hands-on! Eclipse Wakaama Going further
  • 3. Your devoted presenters Julien Vermillard Manuel Sangoï Simon Bernard
  • 5. Lightweight M2M - What is it? A reboot of OMA-DM targeting M2M Built on top of CoAP (RFC 7252) and DTLS (RFC 6347) A REST API for device management and applications
  • 6. Device management? Operate, monitor, configure, upgrade fleets of communicating objects
  • 7. Device management Firmware/software upgrade Configure “OTA” the device Monitor connectivity (signal, statistics,..) Reboot, reset to factory Rotate security keys In a consistent way for different hardware
  • 8. Based on CoAP? The Constrained Application Protocol
  • 9. A new protocol for a new world Class 1 devices ~100KiB Flash ~10KiB RAM Low-power networks <100Bytes packets
  • 10. Where old solutions doesn’t fit Target of less than $1 for IoT SoC TCP and HTTP are not a good fit
  • 11. CoAP - RFC 7252 RESTful protocol designed from scratch URIs, Internet Media Types GET, POST, PUT, DELETE Transparent mapping to HTTP Additional features for M2M scenarios Observe
  • 12. Compact and binary Binary protocol - Low parsing complexity - Small message size Options - Binary HTTP-like headers 0 – 8 Bytes Token Exchange handle for client 4-byte Base Header Version | Type | T-len | Code | ID Options Location, Max-Age, ETag, … Marker 0xFF Payload Representation
  • 13. CoAP Security Based on DTLS 1.2 (TLS for Datagrams) Focus on AES and Elliptic Curve Crypto (ECC) Pre-shared secrets, X.509, or raw public keys Hardware acceleration in IoT oriented SoC
  • 14. LwM2M An API on top of CoAP
  • 15. Lightweight M2M REST API for: Security, Device, Server Connectivity monitoring, Connectivity statistics Location, Firmware Upgrade, Software management, Swipe & Lock But objects have a numerical identifier
  • 16. LwM2M URLs /{object}/{instance}/{resource} Examples: ● "/6/0" the whole location object (binary record) ● "/6/0/1" only the longitude (degree)
  • 17. Standard objects Example: Device Manufacturer Model number Serial number Firmware version Reboot Factory reset Power sources Power V/A Battery level Memory free Error code Current time UTC offset Timezone
  • 18. Custom objects You can define your own objects Discoverable using CoAP Link Format IPSO Alliance Smart Objects: accelerometer, temperature, sensors,...
  • 21. Leshan Java library for implementing servers & clients Friendly for any Java developer Simple (no framework, few dependencies) But also a Web UI for discovering and testing Build using “mvn install” Based on Californium and Scandium
  • 22. History Started 22 Jul. 2013 @ Sierra Wireless First external contribution 10 March 2014 Public sandbox Jul. 2014 Proposed as an Eclipse project Sep. 2014 Client contributed Oct. 2014
  • 23. LwM2M playground: Public sandbox http://leshan.eclipse.org Bleeding edge: deployed on master commit IPv4 and IPv6 Press “CoAP messages” for low-level traces
  • 24. Commiters Simon Bernard - Sierra Wireless Kai Hudalla - Bosch Software Innovations Manuel Sangoï - Sierra Wireless J.F. Schloman - Zebra Technologies, Zatar Julien Vermillard - Sierra Wireless
  • 25. Leshan Features Client initiated bootstrap Registration/Deregistration Read, Write, Create objects TLV encoding/decoding OSGi friendly: https://github.com/eclipse/leshan.osgi
  • 26. Leshan security DTLS Pre-Shared-Key DTLS Raw-Public-Key DTLS X.509
  • 27. Maven modules leshan-core commons elements leshan-server-core server lwm2m logic leshan-server-cf californium server leshan-client-core client lwm2m logic leshan-client-cf californium client leshan-all everything above in 1 jar leshan-client-example leshan-standalone application with web UI leshan-bs-server standalone bootstrap leshan-integration-tests
  • 28. Server API // Build LWM2M server lwServer = new LeshanServerBuilder().build(); lwServer.getClientRegistry().addListener(new ClientRegistryListener() { @Override public void registered(Client client) { System.out.println("New registered client with endpoint: " + client.getEndpoint()); } @Override public void updated(Client clientUpdated) { System.out.println("Registration updated”); } @Override public void unregistered(Client client) { System.out.println("Registration deleted”); } }); // Start lwServer.start(); System.out.println("Demo server started");
  • 29. Server API // Prepare the new value LwM2mResource currentTimeResource = new LwM2mResource(13, Value.newDateValue(new Date())); // Send a write request to a client WriteRequest writeCurrentTime = new WriteRequest(client, 3, 0, 13, currentTimeResource, ContentFormat.TEXT, true); ClientResponse response = lwServer.send(writeCurrentTime); System.out.println("Response to write request from client " + client.getEndpoint() + ": " +response.getCode());
  • 30. Implements your own store ClientRegistry: Store currently registered clients SecurityRegistry: Store security informations Default implementations are “in-memory” for demo only!
  • 31. Client API // Initialize object tree with device(3) and location(6) objects List<ObjectEnabler> enablers = new ObjectsInitializer().create(3, 6); // Create a client LeshanClient client = new LeshanClient(new InetSocketAddress("127.0.0.1", 5683), new ArrayList<LwM2mObjectEnabler>(enablers)); // Start it client.start(); // Register to the server RegisterResponse response = client.send(new RegisterRequest("myDevice")); System.out.println("Response to register request from server : " + response.getCode());
  • 32. Implements your own LwM2m Objects Lwm2m Object instance are mapped on Java instance. Default implementation are just stupid mock for demo only.
  • 34. Getting started ● Tutorial projects From the USB stick or https://github.com/msangoi/leshan-tuto ● Launch Eclipse and import the projects File > Import... > Existing projects into workspace
  • 35. Step 1 Register a LWM2M client with a server 1. Complete the code Send a registration request to the server 2. Run a local server (leshan standalone) java -jar leshan-standalone.jar Web UI available: http://localhost:8080/#/clients 3. Run the client
  • 36. Step 2 Define your own Device standard object 1. Complete the code a. Handle Read requests for some resources (Manufacturer model, Current timestamp…) b. Handle Write requests for Current timestamp resource c. Handle Exec requests for Reboot resource 2. Run the client (same server as Step 1)
  • 37. Step 3 Run a server synchronizing the current time of each new registered client 1. Complete the code a. Build a leshan server b. Listen for new client registrations c. Send a write request to synchronize the current time of the client (resource with path /3/0/13) 2. Run the server 3. Test with the client from Step 2
  • 38. Step 4 Observe the current time of a registered client 1. Update the client (from step 2) to notify when the current time value has changed 2. Complete the server code a. Listen for new observations and log the new value when a new notification is received b. Listen for new registrations and send an observe request (path /3/0/13) to the new clients
  • 40. Eclipse Wakaama A C client and server implementation of LwM2M Not a shared library (.so/.dll) Embedded friendly but using malloc/free Plug your own IP stack and DTLS implementation
  • 41. Wakaama: Features Register, registration update, deregister Read, write resources Read, write, create, delete object instances TLV or plain text Observe
  • 42. Wakaama: Structure core : internals.h liblwm2m.c liblwm2m.h list.c management.c objects.c observe.c packet.c registration.c tlv.c transaction.c uri.c utils.c core/er-coap-13 : er-coap-13.c er-coap-13.h
  • 43. lwm2m_object_t * get_object_device() { lwm2m_object_t * deviceObj; deviceObj = (lwm2m_object_t *)lwm2m_malloc(sizeof(lwm2m_object_t)); if (NULL != deviceObj) { memset(deviceObj, 0, sizeof(lwm2m_object_t)); deviceObj->objID = 3; deviceObj->readFunc = prv_device_read; deviceObj->writeFunc = prv_device_write; deviceObj->executeFunc = prv_device_execute; deviceObj->userData = lwm2m_malloc(sizeof(device_data_t)); if (NULL != deviceObj->userData) { ((device_data_t*)deviceObj->userData)->time = 1367491215; strcpy(((device_data_t*)deviceObj->userData)->time_offset, "+01:00"); } else { lwm2m_free(deviceObj); deviceObj = NULL; } } return deviceObj; } Create objects!
  • 44. objArray[0] = get_object_device(); if (NULL == objArray[0]) { fprintf(stderr, "Failed to create Device objectrn"); return -1; } objArray[1] = get_object_firmware(); if (NULL == objArray[1]) { fprintf(stderr, "Failed to create Firmware objectrn"); return -1; } objArray[2] = get_test_object(); if (NULL == objArray[2]) { fprintf(stderr, "Failed to create test objectrn"); return -1; } lwm2mH = lwm2m_init(prv_connect_server, prv_buffer_send, &data); if (NULL == lwm2mH) { fprintf(stderr, "lwm2m_init() failedrn"); return -1; } result = lwm2m_configure(lwm2mH, "testlwm2mclient", BINDING_U, NULL, OBJ_COUNT, objArray); ... result = lwm2m_start(lwm2mH); Configure Wakaama!
  • 45. while (0 == g_quit) { struct timeval tv; tv.tv_sec = 60; tv.tv_usec = 0; /* * This function does two things: * - first it does the work needed by liblwm2m (eg. (re)sending some packets). * - Secondly it adjust the timeout value (default 60s) depending on the state of the transaction * (eg. retransmission) and the time between the next operation */ result = lwm2m_step(lwm2mH, &tv); if (result != 0) { fprintf(stderr, "lwm2m_step() failed: 0x%Xrn", result); return -1; } Active Loop
  • 46. TinyDTLS Eclipse Proposal “Support session multiplexing in single-threaded applications and thus targets specifically on embedded systems.” Examples for Linux, or Contiki OS TLS_PSK_WITH_AES_128_CCM_8 TLS_ECDHE_ECDSA_WITH_AES128_CCM_8
  • 48. Spark Core: Cortex-M3 STM32, RAM/ROM 20/128k, 72MHz WiFi Arduino Mega AVR, ATmega2560, RAM/ROM 8/256k, 16MHz Ethernet